UW-Oshkosh students explore caves and island hydrology:




The group swimming in Grotto Bay cave. The water is fresh and cold at the surface, but warm and salty below. The cold water is a fresh water lens supplied by rain that floats on seawater fed by passages to the ocean.

Our water tests showed high phosphorus and nitrogen levels in this cave.






Jodi bravely stepping into the cave water; she found that it was cooler (about 60 degrees F) than the seawater outside.






Joe following Jodi into the cave water. He found that the water was warmer--perhaps due to mixing of the fresh water and seawater--or does it have something to do with that high nitrogen concentration that we found later?





The group swimming in a large room within Walsingham Cave. We had a tour of Walsingham Park and swam in a large sinkhole nearby.




Stalactites and red iron-oxide-stained terra rossa paleo-soil in Fantasy Cave. You can see stalagmites under the seawater here where they represent a "fossil" vadose zone. The tidal range in the cave is about 1.0 meters!





Massive stalagmites in Fantasy Cave. These are on their way to joining up with the overlying stalactites and will form pillars eventually.

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