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Thomas G. Lammers Ph.D.

Hello, everyone, and thank you for visiting my webpage. I am a plant biologist with an emphasis on the organismal level. Though I am now retired, I still pursue scholarly research in my area of expertise, curate the University Herbarium, and try to make myself useful to the community at large.

HS Room 9
Professor Emeritus and Plant Taxonomist


Member of:






Other Scholarly Interest


Background Information

As an undergraduate botany major at Iowa State University, I was an active member of Botany Club (elected president my senior year) and a student employee in the greenhouse and herbarium. I received my  B.S. in July 1977. I also got an early introduction to research, beginning field studies that would eventually develop into my Master’s thesis.

After two years in the workforce, I returned to school to undertake post-graduate studies. In July 1981, I earned an M.A. in Biology from the University of Northern Iowa. My thesis was entitled “The Vascular Flora of Des Moines County, Iowa” [Proc. Iowa Acad. Science 90: 55‑71 (1983)] and was directed by the late Dr. Lawrence J. Eilers. While at Northern Iowa, I was employed as an herbarium assistant one year and held a teaching assistantship in the general biology labs the next.

In January 1982, I began doctoral studies under Dr. Tod F. Stuessy in his lab at The Ohio State University. During my time there, I held a variety of teaching and research assistantships, made three research trips to the Hawaiian Islands and one to herbaria in Europe, and accompanied Dr. Stuessy on an expedition to the Juan Fernandez Islands. I received my Ph.D. in botany in September 1988; my dissertation was “Systematics and Evolution of the Endemic Hawaiian Genus Clermontia Gaudichaud” (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) [Syst. Bot. Monogr. 32: 1-94 (1991)].

My first professional position after graduation was a two-year term appointment as a visiting assistant professor in the department of botany at Miami University in Ohio. Here, I taught a variety of botanical courses. From there, I accepted a position as an assistant curator in the department of botany at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Though this was a research position, I also taught courses on six occasions at the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois-Chicago, and College of DuPage. During these years, I made research trips to Chile, Taiwan, and the Hawaiian Islands, and accompanied educational tours to the Amazon and France. In July 1999, I came to Oshkosh, where I taught various classes until my retirement in August 2017.




My area of expertise within biology is systematics, which deals with classification, naming, evolution and biogeography. For the past three decades, a single family of flowering plants has been the focus of my interest. The Campanulaceae includes 84 genera (including Campanula and Lobelia) and over 2300 species, with representatives on six continents and many of the world’s islands. Since 1986, I have published over 70 peer‑reviewed articles on this family in a wide variety of scholarly journals and books. A list of them all will be found here.

Two publications from 2007 are particularly noteworthy. The first was my treatment of Campanulaceae for The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, edited by Klaus Kubitzki. The goal of this encyclopedic multi-volume work is to provide a comprehensive taxonomic treatment to the level of genus for all of the world’s ferns, fern allies, and seed plants. The Campanulaceae treatment provides keys and descriptions for all 84 genera, as well detailed information on the morphology, anatomy, embryology, palynology, reproductive biology, phytochemistry, ecology, biogeography, paleobotany, classification and economic value of the family.

Shortly after this volume appeared, the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, England, published my book, World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. This monograph is a complete accounting of all 2300+ species of the family, with full data on classification, nomenclature, geographic distribution, life form, and synonymy, together with an exhaustive bibliography. These two works, taken together, represent the closest approach to a complete monograph of the family to have been published since 1839.

After these works appeared, I was invited to participate in writing the treatment of Campanulaceae for the Flora of China. An undergraduate biology major, Laura Klein took part in this research. Together, we spent two months working on the manuscript at project headquarters. This research experience proved invaluable to the student, who is now pursuing a graduate degree in botany at Miami University.

Recently, I was humbled to learn that a new species of plant from New Guinea had been named in my honor: Ardisia Lammersiana.


Other Scholarly Interest

Recently, I have begun to try my hand at a very different sort of writing. I am experimenting with writing historical fiction that draws heavily on my knowledge of botany, science, and nature. See here for more information.


Dr. Lammers’ Publications


  • Lammers, T. G. & C. E. Freeman. 1986.  Ornithophily among the Hawaiian Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae): evidence from floral nectar sugar compositions.  American Journal of Botany 73: 1613-1619.
  • Lammers, T. G., S. G. Weller & A. Sakai. 1987.  Japanese White eye, an introduced passerine, visits the flowers of Clermontia arborescens, an endemic Hawaiian lobelioid.  Pacific Science 41: 74- 79.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1988.  Chromosome numbers and their systematic implications in Hawaiian Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae).  American Journal of Botany 75: 1130-1134.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1988.  New taxa, new names, and new combinations in the Hawaiian Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae).  Systematic Botany 13: 496- 508.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1989.  Revision of Brighamia (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae), a caudiciform succulent endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.  Systematic Botany 14: 133-138.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1990.  Campanulaceae.  Pp. 420-489 in: Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i, by W.L. Wagner, D. R. Herbst, and S. H. Sohmer.  University of Hawai‘i Press, Honolulu.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1990.  Sequential paedomorphosis among the endemic Hawaiian Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae).  Taxon 39: 206- 211.
  • Crawford, D. J., T. F. Stuessy, T. G. Lammers, M. Silva O. & P. Pacheco. 1990.  Allozyme variation and evolutionary relationships among three species of Wahlenbergia (Campanulaceae) in the Juan Fernández Islands.  Botanical Gazette 151: 119- 124.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1991.  Systematics of Clermontia (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Systematic Botany Monographs 32.  American Society of Plant Taxonomists, Ann Arbor.  94 pp.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1992.  Circumscription and phylogeny of the Campanulales.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79: 388-413.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1992.  Two new combinations in the endemic Hawaiian genus Cyanea (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Novon 2: 129-131.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1992.  New combinations for Asian Campanulaceae.  Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 33: 285-287.
  • Lammers, T. G. & N. Hensold. 1992.  Chromosome numbers of Campanulaceae.  II. The Lobelia tupa complex of Chile.  American Journal of Botany 79: 585-588.
  • Pandey, A. K., T. G. Lammers & A. Jha. 1992.  Sporogenesis and gametogenesis in Pacific island Lobelia(Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae).  Phytomorphology 42: 63-69.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1992.  Systematics and biogeography of the Campanulaceae of Taiwan.  Pp. 43-61 in: Phytogeography and Botanical Inventory of Taiwan, ed. C.-I  Peng.  Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica, Taipei.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1993.  A new species of Siphocampylus (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) from northern Peru.  Brittonia 45: 28-31.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1993.  Chromosome numbers of Campanulaceae.  III. Review and integration of data for subfamily Lobelioideae.  American Journal of Botany 80: 660-675.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1993.  The correct name for Taiwanese Campanula (Campanulaceae).  Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 34: 287-288.
  • Lammers, T. G. & D. H. Lorence. 1993.  A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) from Kaua‘i, and the resurrection of C. remyi.  Novon 3: 431-436.
  • Lammers, T. G., T. J. Givnish & K. J. Sytsma. 1993.  Merger of the endemic Hawaiian genera Cyanea and Rollandia(Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Novon 3: 437-441.
  • Lammers, T. G., D. Kama & N. Morin. 1993.  Campanulaceae.  Pp. 310-326 in: Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru, by L. Brako & J. L. Zarruchi.  Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1993.  Lobelia bridgesii, Campanulaceae.  Kew Magazine 10: 70-75 + pl. 220.
  • Cosner, M. E., R. K. Jansen & T. G. Lammers. 1994.  Phylogenetic relationships in the Campanulales based on rbcL sequences.  Plant Systematics and Evolution 190: 79-95.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1994.  Typification of the names of Hawaiian Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae) published by Wilhelm Hillebrand or based upon his specimens.  Taxon 43: 545-572.
  • Lammers, T. G. & G. R. Proctor. 1994.  Lobelia vivaldii (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae), a remarkable new species of sect. Tylomium from Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico.  Brittonia 46: 273-278.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1995.  Patterns of speciation and biogeography in the endemic Hawaiian genus Clermontia(Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Pp. 338-362 in: Hawaiian Biogeography: Evolution on a Hot Spot Archipelago, ed. W. L. Wagner & V. A. Funk.  Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1995.  Native plant feature: cardinal flower.  Iowa Native Plant Society Newsletter 1(2): 3.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1995.  Transfer of the southern African species of Lightfootia, nom. illeg., to Wahlenbergia(Campanulaceae, Campanuloideae).  Taxon 44: 333-339.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1996.  A new linear-leaved Cyanea (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) from Kaua‘i, and the “rediscovery” of Cyanea linearifolia.  Brittonia 48: 237-240.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1996.  Proposal to conserve the name Edraianthus against Pilorea (Campanulaceae). Taxon 45: 563-564.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1996.  Phylogeny, biogeography, and systematics of the Wahlenbergia fernandeziana complex (Campanulaceae: Campanuloideae).  Systematic Botany 21: 397 415.
  • Lammers, T. G. & N. Hensold. 1996.  Documented chromosome numbers 1996: 4. Chromosome numbers of Campanulaceae.  IV. Miscellaneous counts.  Sida 17: 519-522.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1997.  Proposal to conserve the name Laurentia (Campanulaceae) with a conserved type. Taxon 46: 795-799.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1997.  Heterotheca latifolia (Asteraceae), new to the flora of Iowa.  Sida 17: 833-834.
  • Morris, K. E. & T. G. Lammers. 1997.  Circumscription of Codonopsis and the allied genera Campanumoea and Leptocodon (Campanulaceae: Campanuloideae). I. Palynological data.   Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 38: 277-284.
  • Barnesky, A. L. & T. G. Lammers. 1997.  Revision of the endemic Asian genus Peracarpa (Campanulaceae: Campanuloideae) via numerical phenetics.  Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 38: 49-56.
  • Thompson, S. W. & T. G. Lammers. 1997.  Phenetic analysis of morphological variation in the Lobelia cardinaliscomplex (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Systematic Botany 22: 315 331.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1998.  Review of the Neotropical endemics Burmeistera, Centropogon, and Siphocampylus(Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae), with description of 18 new species and a new section.  Brittonia 50: 233-262.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1998.  Campanulaceae.  Pp. 775-802 in: Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, vol. 4, ed. T. C. Huang. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Taipei.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1998.  New names and new combinations in Campanulaceae.  Novon 8: 31-35.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1998.  A new subfamily of Campanulaceae.  Novon 8: 36-37.
  • Lammers, T. G. & P. J. M. Maas. 1998.  First report of the genus Burmeistera (Campanulaceae) from Honduras.  Sida 18: 363-364.
  • Peng, C.-I & T. G. Lammers. 1998.  Triodanis Raf. (Campanulaceae: Campanuloideae), a new generic record for the flora of Taiwan.  Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 39: 213 216.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1999.  Nomenclatural consequences of the synonymization of Hypsela reniformis (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Novon 9: 73-76.
  • Lammers, T. G. 1999.  A new Lobelia from Mexico, with additional new combinations in world Campanulaceae.  Novon 9: 381-389.
  • Serra, L., M. B. Crespo & T. G. Lammers. 1999.  Wimmerella, a new South African genus of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae).  Novon 9: 414-418.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2000.  Revision of Lobelia sect. Tupa (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Sida 19: 87-110.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2001.  Further nomenclatural innovations in World Campanulaceae.  Novon 11: 67-68.
  • Buss, C. C., T. G. Lammers & R. R. Wise. 2001.  Seed coat morphology and its systematic implications in Cyanea and other genera of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae.  American Journal of Botany 88: 1301-1308.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2002.  Seventeen new species of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae) from South America. Novon 12: 206-233.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2004.  Five new species of the endemic Hawaiian genus Cyanea (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Novon 14: 84-101.
  • Batterman, M. R. W. & T. G. Lammers. 2004.  Branched foliar trichomes of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae) and the infrageneric classification of Centropogon.  Systematic Botany 29: 448-458.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2004.  Revision of Lobelia sect. Homochilus (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Sida 21: 591-623.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2004.  Campanulaceae.  Pp. 78-80 in: Flowering Plants of the Neotropics, ed. N. Smith, S.A. Mori, A. Henderson, D. W. Stevenson & S. V. Heald.  Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2005.  Revision of Delissea (Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae).   Systematic Botany Monographs 73.  American Society of Plant Taxonomists, Ann Arbor.  75 pp.
  • Muchhala, N. & T. G. Lammers. 2005.  A new species of Burmeistera (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) from Ecuador.  Novon 15: 176-179.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2005.  Campanulaceae.  Pp. 216-218 in: A Tropical Garden Flora, by G. Staples & D. Herbst.  Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2006.  Validation of names at subspecific rank in North American Campanulaceae.  Novon 16: 69-73.
  • León, B. & T. G. Lammers. 2006.  Campanulaceae endémicas del Perú.  Revista Peruana     Biología 13 (2, Especial): 237-241.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2007.  Revision of Lobelia sect. Galeatella (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1: 789-810.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2007. World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 675 pp.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2007. Campanulaceae. Pp. 26-56 in: The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, ed. K. Kubitzki, vol. 8, Asteridae, ed. J. W. Kadereit & C. Jeffrey. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Hong D. Y., S. Ge, T. G. Lammers & L. L. Klein. 2011. Campanulaceae. Pp. 505-563 in: Flora of China, vol. 19, ed. N. Turland. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2008.  Campanulaceae.  Pp. 1853-1865 in: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sure de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay), vol. 2, ed. F. O. Zuloaga, O. Morrone & M. J. Belgrano.  Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2009.  Revision of the Endemic Hawaiian Genus Trematolobelia (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Brittonia 61: 126-143.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2010.  Revision of Lobelia sect. Speirema (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 4: 159-168.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2010.  Revision of Lobelia sect. Plagiobotrys (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 4: 169-180.
  • Lammers, T. G. & L. L. Klein. 2010.  A synopsis of Codonopsis subg. Pseudocodonopsis (Campanulaceae: Campanuloideae), with description of a new species of uncertain provenance.  Botanical Studies 51: 553-561.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2011.  Revision of the infrageneric classification of Lobelia L. (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 98: 37-62.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2011.  Revision of the Malesian species of Lobelia sect. Rhynchopetalum (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Blumea 56: 218-224.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2013. The forgotten first checklist of the Iowa flora: John Henry Rauch’s 1851 “Report” to the State Medical and Chirurgical Society. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 7: 405–433.
  • Batterman, M. R. W. & T. G. Lammers.  2015.  Campanulaceae.  Pp. 476-481 in: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia, ed. P. M. Jørgenson.  Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2015. Botany of the 1841 Frémont–Geyer expedition to the Des Moines River. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 100: 407–422.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2016. Michaux in Iowa? The conundrum of Platanus densicoma (Platanaceae). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 163–168.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2016. Significant distributional records for the Upper Midwest. Michigan Botanist 55: 63–68.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2016.  Nathan Coleman, Michigan’s mystery botanist.  Michigan Botanist 55: 74–88.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2016. Edwin James: Iowa’s first botanist. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 475–500.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2017. An overlooked 1853 list of Iowa plants by a pseudonymous botanist: Who was “Flores”? Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 102: 125-140.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2017. Plants seen at Prairie du Chien in 1824–1826: Notes from the diary of Dr. Edwin James. The Great Lakes Botanist 56: 28-37.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2017. Dr. Moses Cousins Jr.: The mysterious Iowa contributor to Alphonso Wood’s Class–book of Botany. Brittonia 69: 253-264.