Basic Human Needs
Economist, Manfred Max-Neef, responding to the reality that economic growth oriented development strategies were leaving too many people in a range of "poverties," outlined an alternative view of development. His vision includes nine areas of "basic human needs" that are manifest in 36 measurable attributes of development. Max-Neef argued that failure to meet any of the needs could result in what he referred to as forms of "poverty" that could jeopardize social harmony and, therefore, real development and stability.
The nine areas are: subsistence, protection, affection, understanding, participation, leisure, creativity, identity, and freedom. Max-Neef then relates each of these nine areas to four conditions: qualities of being, having tangible and intangible things, actively doing, and settings/places of interaction. The needs and conditions produce 36 cells in a table that present a wide range of development attributes.