Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References



  • To search the entire database by keyword, enter a term or terms in the "keywords" box and leave the "category" tab at the default setting of blank, then click the "search" button.
  • To search by keyword within a category, select a "category" from the drop-down menu, then enter terms in the "keywords" box, then click "search."
  • To browse within a single category, select the desired category, but leave the "keywords" box blank, then click "search."

Reference Search Results You searched for vulnerability

Adams, Henry D., Maite Guardiola-Claramonte, Greg A. Barron-Gafford, Juan Camilo Villegas, David D. Breshears, Chris B. Zou, Peter A. Troch, and Travis E. Huxman. 2009. "Temperature Sensitivity of Drought-induced Tree Mortality Portends Increased Regional Die-off Under Global-change-type Drought." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(17):7063-7066.

Adger, W. Neil, P. Neil, M. Kelly, and N. Huu Ninh. 2001. Living with Environmental Change: Social Vulnerability, Adaptation, and Resilience in Vietnam. Rutledge, London.

Adger, W. Neil, Terry P. Hughes, Carl Folke, Stephen R. Carpenter, and Johan Rockström. 2005. "Social-Ecological Resilience to Coastal Disasters." Science 309(5737):1036-1039. [PDF]

Andersen, Ross. 2012. "We're Underestimating the Risk of Human Extinction." The Atlantic 6 March. 

Babin, Nicholas. 2015. "The Coffee Crisis, Fair Trade, and Agroecological Transformation: Impacts on Land-Use Change in Costa Rica." Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 39(1):99-129.

Barnett, Jon, and W. Neil Adger. 2007. "Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict." Political Geography 26:639-655. [PDF] [related video]

Barnett, Jon, and W. Neil Adger. 2010. "Environmental Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict." Pages 119-136 in R.A. Matthew, J. Barnett, B. McDonald, and K.L. O’Brien (eds.), Global Environmental Change and Human Security: Understanding Environmental Threats to Wellbeing and Livelihoods. MIT Press, Cambridge.

Beddoe, Rachael, Robert Costanza, Joshua Farley, Eric Garza, Jennifer Kent, Ida Kubiszewski, Luz Martinez, Tracy McCowen, Kathleen Murphy, Norman Myers, Zach Ogden, Kevin Stapleton, and John Woodward. 2009. "Overcoming Systemic Roadblocks to Sustainability: The Evolutionary Redesign of Worldviews, Institutions, and Technologies." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(8):2483-2489.

Birkbeck, Chris. 1978. "Self-employed Proletarians in an Informal Factory: The Case of Cali's Garbage Dump." World Development 6(9-10):1173-1185. [PDF]

Broder, John M. 2010. "Panel Says Firms Knew of Cement Flaws before Spill." New York Times 28 October.

Brown, Brene. 2010. "The Power of Vulnerability." TED Talk video.

Castello, Leandro, David G. McGrath, Laura L. Hess, Michael T. Coe, Paul A. Lefebvre, Paulo Petry, Marcia N. Macedo, Vivian F. Renó, and Caroline C. Arantes. 2013. "The vulnerability of Amazon freshwater ecosystems." Conservation Letters 6(4):217-229. [PDF]

Cavanagh, John and Robin Broad. 2010. "Local Dreams: Finding Rootedness in the Age of Vulnerability." Yes Magazine 6 December. [related video]

Clark, James S., David M. Bell, Matthew Kwit, Anne Stine, Ben Vierra, and Kai Zhu. 2012. "Individual-scale inference to anticipate climate-change vulnerability of biodiversity." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 367:236-246. [PDF]

Clark, James S., David M. Bell, Michelle H. Hersh, and Lauren Nichols. 2011. "Climate Change Vulnerability of Forest Biodiversity: Climate and Competition Tracking of Demographic Rates." Global Change Biology 17(5):1834-1849. [abstract] [PDF] [news story

Clark, William C., et al. 2010. "Ecosystem Stewardship: Sustainability Strategies for a Rapidly Changing Planet." [PDF] [related article (PDF)]

Clark, William C., Jill Jäger, Robert Corell, Roger Kasperson, James J. McCarthy, David Cash, Stewart J. Cohen, Paul Desanker, Nancy M. Dickson, Paul Epstein, David H. Guston, J. Michael Hall, Carlo Jaeger, Anthony Janetos, Neil Leary, Marc A. Levy, Amy Luers, Michael MacCracken, Jerry Melillo, Richard Moss, Joanne M. Nigg, Martin L. Parry, Edward A. Parson, Jesse C. Ribot, Hans-Joachim Schellnhuber, Daniel P. Schrag, George A. Seielstad, Eileen Shea, Coleen Vogel, and Thomas J. Wilbanks. 2000. "Assessing Vulnerability to Global Environmental Risks." Report of the Workshop on Vulnerability to Global Environmental Change: Challenges for Research, Assessment and Decision Making. May 22-25, 2000, Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (BCSIA) Discussion Paper 2000-12, Environment and Natural Resources Program, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge. [abstract] [related workshop findings (PDF)]

Climate Vulnerable Forum. 2010. Climate Vulnerability Monitor: The State of the Climate Crisis. DARA, Madrid. [PDF] [news story]

Coops, Nicholas C. and Richard H. Waring. 2011. "A Process-based Approach to Estimate Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) Distribution in the Pacific Northwest under Climate Change." Climate Change 105(1-2):313-328. [PDF]  [news story in Science Daily]

Corbett, Michael and Judy Corbett. 1999. Designing Sustainable Communities: Learning from Village Homes. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Cox, Peter M., Richard A. Betts, M. Collins, P.P. Harris, C. Huntingford, and Chris D. Jones. 2004. "Amazonian Forest Dieback Under Climate-carbon Cycle Projections for the 21st Century." Theoretical and Applied Climatology 78(1-3):137-156. [related slide presentation (PDF)]

Cutter, Susan L. 1996. "Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards." Progress in Human Geography 20(4):529-539. [PDF]

Cutter, Susan L., Bryan J. Boruff, and W. Lynn Shirley. 2003. "Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards." Social Science Quartlery 84(2):242-261. [PDF]

DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Jessica C. Smith. 2010. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Report P60-238, U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau, Wasjhington, D.C.  [PDF] [news report]

Dow, K. 1992. "Exploring Differences in Our Common Future(s): The Meaning of Vulnerability to Global Environmental Change." Geoforum 23(3):417-436. [abstract]

Eakin, Hallie C. and Amy Lynd Luers. 2006. "Assessing the Vulnerability of Social-Environmental Systems." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31(Nov):365-394.

Eakin, Hallie C. and Mónica B. Wehbe. 2009. "Linking Local Vulnerability to System Sustainability in a Resilience Framework: Two Cases from Latin America." Climatic Change 93(3-4):355-377. [PDF

Eckholm, Eric. 2010. "Recession Raises Poverty Rate to a 15-Year High." New York Times 16 September. [original report (PDF)]

Epstein, Paul R. and Dan Ferber. 2011. "Malaria on the Rise as East African Climate Heats Up. In East Africa, warming as a result of climate change is paving the way for the spread of malaria." Scientific American 1 April.

Epstein, Paul R. and Dan Ferber. 2011. Changing Planet, Changing Health: How the Climate Crisis Threatens Our Health and What We Can Do about It. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. [excerpts in Scientific American]

Feng, Shuaizhang, Alan B. Krueger, and Michael Oppenheimer. 2010. "Linkages Among Climate Change, Crop Yields and Mexico–US Cross-border Migration." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(32):14257-14262a.

Ford, James D. 2008. "Vulnerability of Inuit Food Systems to Food Insecurity as a Consequence of Climate Change: A Case Study from Igloolik, Nunavut." Regional Environmental Change 22 August. [abstract]

Forrest, Brett. 2010. "The Battle of Rio: With the 2016 Olympics looming, the city’s embattled police invade the favelas." The Atlantic December.

Gallagher, Kevin P. 2010. "China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization." Issues in Brief, #18, October 2010. Frederick S. Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer-Range Future, Boston University, Boston.  

Gallagher, Kevin P. and Roberto Porzecanski. 2010. The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto. [related paper by first author]

Goodhand, J. 2003. "Enduring Disorder and Persistent Poverty: A Review of Linkages between War and Chronic Poverty." World Development 31:629-646. [abstract]

Green, Duncan, Richard King, and May Miller-Dawkins. 2010. The Global Economic Crisis and Developing Countries. Oxfam GB, Oxfam Australia. [PDF]

Greenspan, Alan. 2010. The Crisis. Report April 15, Greenspan Associates LLC, New York. [PDF]

Gregory, P.J., J.S.I Ingram, and M. Brklacich. 2005. "Climate Change and Food Security." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 360(1463):2139-2148.

Haines, A., R.S. Kovats, D. Campbell-Lendrum, and C. Corvalan. 2006. "Climate Change and Human Health: Impacts, Vulnerability, and Mitigation." The Lancet 367(9528):2101-2109.

Haugard, Lisa and Kelly Nicholls. 2010. Breaking the Silence: In Search of Colombia’s Disappeared. Latin America Working Group Education Fund, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Homer-Dixon, Thomas F., Jeffrey H. Boutwell, and George W. Rathjens. 1993. "Environmental Change and Violent Conflict." Scientific American 268(2):38-45. [abstract]

Homer-Dixon, Thomas. 1995b. "The Ingenuity Gap: Can Poor Countries Adapt to Resource Scarcity?" Population and Development Review 21(3):1-26. [PDF]

Hutyra, L.R., J.W. Munger, C.A. Nobre, S.R. Saleska, S.A. Vieira, and S.C. Wofsy. 2005. "Climatic Variability and Vegetation Vulnerability in Amazônia." Geophysical Research Letters 32:L24712. [abstract]

IFAD. 2010. Rural Poverty Report 2011: New Realities, New Challenges: New Opportunities for Tomorrow’s Generation. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Rome. [PDF

Illich, Ivan. 1977. Toward a History of Needs. Heyday Books, Berkeley. [excerpt]

IPCC. 2007c. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Fourth Assessment Report, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Paris.

Janssen, Marco A, T.A. Kohler, and Marten Scheffer. 2003. "Sunk-cost Effects and Vulnerability to Collapse in Ancient Societies." Current Anthropology 44(5):722-728.

Jones, Ann. 2010. War Is Not Over When It's Over: Women Speak Out from the Ruins of War. Metropolitan Books, New York. [author interview]

Kaplan, Robert D. 1994. "The Coming Anarchy: How Scarcity, Crime, Overpopulation, Tribalism, and Disease Are Rapidly Destroying the Social Fabric of Our Planet." The Atlantic Monthly 273(2):44-76. [related academic article by Thomas Homer-Dixon]

Kasperson, Jeanne X. and Roger E. Kasperson. 2001. International Workshop on Vulnerability and Global Environmental Change. 17-19 May 2001, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm. [PDF]

Kasperson, Jeanne X., Roger E. Kasperson, and B.L. Turner II (eds.). 1995. Regions at Risk: Comparisons of Threatened Environments. United Nations University Press, New York.

Kasperson, Roger E. 2001. "Vulnerability and Global Environmental Change." Newsletter of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change 2(1):2. [PDF]

Kerr, Richard A. 2005. "Is Katrina a Harbinger of Still More Powerful Hurricanes?" Science 309(5742):1807.

Kerschner, Christian, Christina Prell, Kuishuang Feng, and Klaus Hubacek. 2013. "Economic vulnerability to Peak Oil." Global Environmental Change 23(6):1424-1433.

Klare, Michael T. 2010. "Four BP-style Extreme Energy Nightmares to Come." Grist Magazine 22 June.

Klein, Richard J.T. and Robert J. Nicholls. 1999. "Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change." Ambio 28(2):182-187. [abstract]

Laskawy, Tom. 2010. "HFCS, the Precautionary Principle, and the Myth of Absolute Certainty." Grist Magazine 12 April.

Lawler, Andrew. 2010. "Collapse? What Collapse? Societal Change Revisited." Science 330(6006)907-909. [abstract]

Leary, Neil, Cecelia Conde, Jyoti Kulkarni, Anthony Nyong, and Juan Pulhin (eds.). 2007. Climate Change and Vulnerability. Earthscan, London.

Leary, Neil, James Adejuwon, Vicente Barros, Ian Burton, Jyoti Kulkarni, and Rodel Lasco (eds.). 2007. Climate Change and Adaptation. Earthscan, London.

Lee, James R. 2009. "A Brief History of Climate Change and Conflict." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 14 August.

Lomborg, Bjørn (ed.). 2010. Smart Solutions to Climate Change: Comparing Costs and Benefits. Copenhagen Consensus Center, Copenhagen. [news article 1] [news article 2] [review 1] [review 2]

Lovelock, James. 2006. The Revenge of Gaia: Why the Earth Is Fighting Back - and How We Can Still Save Humanity. Allen Lane, Santa Barbara. [related news story in Grist] [author interview in Rolling Stone]

Lovelock, James. 2009. The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. Basic Books, New York. [related news story in Grist] [author interview in Rolling Stone]

Luers, Amy, David B. Lobell, Leonard S. Sklar, C. Lee Addams, Pamela A. Matson. 2003. "A Method for Quantifying Vulnerability, Applied to the Agricultural System of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico." Global Environmental Change 13:255-267. [PDF]

Marten, Gerald, Steve Brooks, and Amanda Suutari. 2005. "Environmental Tipping Points: A New Slant on Strategic Environmentalism." World Watch 18(6):10‐14.

Martuzzi, Marco and Joel A. Tickner (eds.). 2004. The Precautionary Principle: Protecting Public Health, the Environment and the Future of Our Children. World Health Organization, Copenhagen. [PDF]

Matthew, R.A., J. Barnett, B. McDonald, and K.L. O’Brien (eds.). 2010. Global Environmental Change and Human Security: Understanding Environmental Threats to Wellbeing and Livelihoods. MIT Press, Cambridge.

Matthews, Jessica T. 1989. "Redefining Security." Foreign Affairs 68(2):162-177. [summary]

Mattson, Sean. 2010. "Rising Sea Drives Panama Islanders to Mainland." Reuters 12 Jul.  

McAnany, P.A. and N. Yoffee. 2009. Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire. Cambridge University Press, New York. 

Miles, Edward L. 2009. "On the Increasing Vulnerability of the World Ocean to Multiple Stresses." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34:17-41. [abstract]

Morrison, Jason, Mari Morikawa, Michael Murphy, and Peter Schulte. 2009. Water Scarcity and Climate Change: Growing Risks for Businesses and Investors. Ceres, Boston. [PDF]

Moser, Caroline. 1998. "The Asset Vulnerability Framework: Reassessing Urban Poverty Reduction Strategies." World Development 26(1):1-19. [abstract]

Moser, Susanne C. 2010. "Communicating climate change: history, challenges, process and future directions." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 1.1: 31-53. [PDF] [related short video]

Mumby, Peter J., Alan Hastings, and Helen J. Edwards. 2007. "Thresholds and the Resilience of Caribbean Coral Reefs." Nature 450(1 November):98-101. [PDF]

Munang, Richard, Ibrahim Thiaw, Keith Alverson, Mounkaila Goumandakoye, Desta Mebratu, and Jian Liu. 2013. "Using Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Actions to Tackle Food Insecurity." Environment 55(1):29-35. [PDF] [related article (PDF)

Munang, Richard, Ibrahim Thiaw, Keith Alverson, Musonda Mumba, Jian Liu, and Mike Rivington. 2013. "Climate change and Ecosystem-based Adaptation: a new pragmatic approach to buffering climate change impacts." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5:1-5. [PDF] [related article (PDF)

Myers, Nancy. 2002. "The Precautionary Principle Puts Values First." Bulletin of Science Technology Society 22:210-219. [PDF]

Myers, Samuel S. and Jonathan A. Patz. 2009. "Emerging Threats to Human Health from Global Environmental Change." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34:223-252. [abstract]

North, Douglass C., John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [PDF]

NRC. 2008. Understanding and Responding to Climate Change. Highlights of National Academies Reports, 2008 Edition. National Research Council. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

O'Brien, Karen, Linda Sygna, and Jan E. Haugen. 2004. "Vulnerable or Resilient? A Multi-scale Assessment of Climate Impacts and Vulnerability in Norway." Climatic Change 64:193-225. [abstract] [PDF]

O'Riordan, Timothy and Andrew Jordon. 1995. "The Precautionary Principle, Science, Politics, and Ethics." CSERGE Working Paper PA 95-02, Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia. [PDF]

Patz, Jonathan A. and Sarah H. Olson. 2006. "Malaria Risk and Temperature: Influences from Global Climate Change and Local Land Use Practices." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(15):5635-5636.

Ravallion, Martin. 2009. "The Developing World’s Bulging (but Vulnerable) Middle Class." Policy Research Working Paper #4816. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Rees, William E. 2012. "Cities as Dissipative Structures: Global Change and the Increasing Vulnerability of Urban Civilization." Pages 244-268 in M. Weinstein and R. Turner (eds.), Sustainability Science: The Emerging Paradigm and the Urban Environment. Springer, New York. [related presentation (PDF)]

Reich, Robert B. 2010. Aftershock: The Next Economy and America's Future. Knopf, New York. [review]

Reidsma, Pytrik and Frank Ewert. 2008. "Regional Farm Diversity Can Reduce Vulnerability of Food Production to Climate Change." Ecology and Society 13(1):38.

Reisner, Marc. 1993. Cadillac Desert: The American West and its Disappearing Water. Penguin Books, New York. [related research news from Arizona State University]

Rignot, E., I. Velicogna, M.R. van den Broeke, A. Monaghan, and J. Lenaerts. 2011. "Acceleration of the Contribution of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to Sea Level Rise." Geophysical Research Letters 38:L05503. [abstract]  [news story]  [video story]

Rockström, Johan, Will Steffen, Kevin Noone, Åsa Persson, F. Stuart Chapin, III, Eric F. Lambin, Timothy M. Lenton, Marten Scheffer, Carl Folke, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Björn Nykvist, Cynthia A. de Wit, Terry Hughes, Sander van der Leeuw, Henning Rodhe, Sverker Sörlin, Peter K. Snyder, Robert Costanza, Uno Svedin, Malin Falkenmark, Louise Karlberg, Robert W. Corell, Victoria J. Fabry, James Hansen, Brian Walker, Diana Liverman, Katherine Richardson, Paul Crutzen, and Jonathan A. Foley. 2009. "A Safe Operating Space for Humanity." Nature 461(24 September):472-475. [PDF] [related article in Scientific American] [related article in Ecology and Society] [news article] [related website] [Rockström video on Ted Talks]

Rockström, Johan, Will Steffen, Kevin Noone, Åsa Persson, F. Stuart Chapin, III, Eric F. Lambin, Timothy M. Lenton, Marten Scheffer, Carl Folke, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Björn Nykvist, Cynthia A. de Wit, Terry Hughes, Sander van der Leeuw, Henning Rodhe, Sverker Sörlin, Peter K. Snyder, Robert Costanza, Uno Svedin, Malin Falkenmark, Louise Karlberg, Robert W. Corell, Victoria J. Fabry, James Hansen, Brian Walker, Diana Liverman, Katherine Richardson, Paul Crutzen, And Jonathan A. Foley. 2009b. "Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity." Ecology and Society 14(2):Article 32. [supplementary information] [related article in Scientific American] [related article in Nature] [related website] [Rockström video from Ted Talks

Schröter, Dagmar, Wolfgang Cramer, Rik Leemans, I. Colin Prentice, Miguel B. Araújo, Nigel W. Arnell, Alberte Bondeau, Harald Bugmann, Timothy R. Carter, Carlos A. Gracia, Anne C. de la Vega-Leinert, Markus Erhard, Frank Ewert, Margaret Glendining, Joanna I. House, Susanna Kankaanpää, Richard J.T. Klein, Sandra Lavorel, Marcus Lindner, Marc J. Metzger, Jeannette Meyer, Timothy D. Mitchell, Isabelle Reginster, Mark Rounsevell, Santi Sabaté, Stephen Sitch, Ben Smith, Jo Smith, Pete Smith, Martin T. Sykes, Kirsten Thonicke, Wilfried Thuiller, Gill Tuck, Sönke Zaehle, and Bärbel Zierl. 2005. "Ecosystem Service Supply and Vulnerability to Global Change in Europe." Science 310(5752):1333-1337. [abstract]

Sherbinin, Alex de, Andrew Schiller, and Alexander Pulsipher. 2007. "The Vulnerability of Global Cities to Climate Hazards." Environment and Urbanization 19(1):39-64. [abstract]

Strand, Linn B., Shilu Tong, Rosemary Aird, and David McRae. 2010. "Vulnerability of Eco-environmental Health to Climate Change: The Views of Government Stakeholders and Other Specialists in Queensland, Australia." BMC Public Health 10:441.

Tainter, Joseph A. 1988b. "Global Change, History, and Sustainability." Pages 331-356 in Roderick J. McIntosh, Joseph A. Tainter, and Susan K. McIntosh (eds.), The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History, and Human Action. Columbia University Press, New York.

Tickner, Joel, Carolyn Raffensperger, and Nancy Myers. n.d. The Precautionary Principle in Action: A Handbook. [PDF]

Trainor, Sarah F., Monika Calef, David Natcher, F. Stuart Chapin, A. David McGuire, Orville Huntington, Paul Duffy, T. Scott Rupp, La'Ona DeWilde, Mary Kwart, Nancy Fresco, and Amy Lauren Lovecraft. 2009. "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate-related Fire Impacts in Rural and Urban Interior Alaska." Polar Research 28(1):100-118. [abstract]

Turner, B.L., Pamela A. Matson, James J. McCarthy, Robert W. Corell, Lindsey Christensen, Noelle Eckley, Grete K. Hovelsrud-Broda, Jeanne X. Kasperson, Roger E. Kasperson, Amy Luers, Marybeth L. Martello, Svein Mathiesen, Rosamond L. Naylor, Colin Polsky, Alexander Pulsipher, Andrew Schiller, Henrik Selin, and Nicholas Tyler. 2003. "Illustrating the Coupled Human-Environment System for Vulnerability Analysis: Three Case Studies." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:8080-8085.

Turner, B.L., Roger E. Kasperson, Pamela A. Matson, James J. McCarthy, Robert W. Corell, Lindsey Christensen, Noelle Eckley, Jeanne X. Kasperson, Amy Luers, Marybeth L. Martello, Colin Polsky, Alexander Pulsipher, and Andrew Schiller. 2003. "A Framework for Vulnerability Analysis in Sustainability Science." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100(14):8074-8079.

UNEP. 2002. "Human Vulnerability to Environmental Change." Pages 301-317 in UNEP, Global Environmental Outlook 3. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), London. [PDF

Vörösmarty, Charles J., Pamela Green, Joseph Salisbury, and Richard B. Lammers. 2000. "Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth." Science 289(5477):284-288. 

van Mantgem, Phillip J., Nathan L. Stephenson, John C. Byrne, Lori D. Daniels, Jerry F. Franklin, Peter Z. Fulé, Mark E. Harmon, Andrew J. Larson, Jeremy M. Smith, Alan H. Taylor, and Thomas T. Veblen. 2009. "Widespread Increase of Tree Mortality Rates in the Western United States." Science 323(23 January):521-524.  [abstract]   [PDF]   [USGS report]

Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, R.H. Moss (eds.). 1998. The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Watts, M.J. and H.G. Bohle. 1993. "The Space of Vulnerability: The Causal-Structure of Hunger and Famine." Progress in Human Geography 17(1):43-67.

White, Gilbert F. 1942. Human Adjustment to Floods. Research Paper #29, Department of Geography, University of Chicago, Chicago. [PDF]

Wilkinson, Richard and Kate Pickett. 2009. The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger. Bloomsbury, New York. [excerpt][review] [presentation by Wilkinson on TedTalks]

Wisner, Ben. 2003. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability and Disasters. Routledge, London.

Zelman, Joanna. 2011. "50 Million Environmental Refugees by 2020, Experts Predict." Huffington Post 22 February.

Log In