Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References



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Reference Search Results You searched for sequestration

Becker, K., V. Wulfmeyer, T. Berger, J. Gebel, and W. Munch. 2013. "Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation." Earth System Dynamics 4:237-251. [PDF] [news story in ScienceDaily] [news story with good graphic] [releted discussions]

Berenguer, Erika, Joice Ferreira, Toby Alan Gardner, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Cruz Aragão, Plínio Barbosa de Camargo, Carlos Eduardo Cerri, Mariana Durigan, Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira Junior, Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira, and Jos Barlow. 2014. "A Large-Scale Field Assessment of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests." Global Change Biology 27 May. [story in ScienceDaily]  

Bruce, J.P., M. Frome, E. Haites, H. Janzen, R. Lal, and K.H. Paustiain. 1999. "Carbon Sequestration in Soils." Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 54(1):382-389.

Clark, David C., Deborah A. Clark, and Steven F. Oberbauer. 2009. "Annual Wood Production in a Tropical Rain Forest in NE Costa Rica Linked to Climatic Variation but not to Increasing CO2." Global Change Biology online 22 June. [PDF] [abstract]

Conard, Bruce R. 2013. "Some Challenges to Sustainability." Sustainability 5(8):3368-3381.

Attending to the threats discussed above, as well as to other ecological and social concerns, requires an immense effort along multiple avenues. An agenda for action would certainly include some of the following:

  • (a) There must be an international commitment very soon to stabilize CO2 in the atmosphere at 450–550 ppm. This would include a reduction of carbon emissions through international frameworks and funding strategies. Since fossil fuels as energy sources are likely to be used by humanity for a long time, there must be increased research on efficient capture and sequestration of CO2 from burning fossil fuels. Research should be increased on storage options for spent fission reactor fuels and on using fusion reactors. There should be increased attention on how to harvest energies present in ocean currents, in atmospheric winds, and in solar energy.
  • (b) Research on climate change and other planetary boundaries must be funded to better define where thresholds exist for irreversible ecological changes. This work would increase the understanding of mechanisms and kinetics of the world’s natural CO2 sinks. It would also improve models for predicting the way human parameters adversely affect ecological systems. In the issue of fresh water, more research is needed on how to effectively interact with the global weather system to provide precipitation events where they are most needed.
  • (c) There must be an international plan to reduce population growth. This should include research on and implementation of the most effective approaches for educating people on family planning worldwide.
  • (d) There must be international actions to address the widening economic inequality across the world. As these inequalities are often the seeds of civil unrest, violence, and further ecological destruction, improving the lives of people in developing regions in areas of education, health, and social welfare is an alternative to solving these issues eventually by wasteful and destructive military means.

Fearnside, Philip M. 1996. "Amazonian Deforestation and Global Warming: Carbon Stocks in Vegetation Replacing Brazil's Amazon Forest." Forest Ecology and Management 80(1-3):21-34. [abstract]

Fearnside, Philip M. 1997. "The Main Resources of Amazonia." Paper presented at the Latin American Studies Association (LASA), 20th International Congress, Guadalajara, Mexico, 17-19 April 1997. [PDF]

Fearnside, Philip M. 2003. A Floresta Amazônica nas Mudanças Globais. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus. [PDF]

Fearnside, Philip M. 2008. "Amazon Forest Maintenance as a Source of Environmental Services." Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 80(1):101-114. [PDF] [related presentation by author (PDF)]

Fearnside, Philip M. and R.I. Barbosa. 2003. "Avoided Deforestation in Amazonia as a Global Warming Mitigation Measure: The Case of Mato Grosso." World Resource Review 15(3):352-361. [PDF]

Fearnside, Philip M. and William F. Laurance. 2004. "Tropical Deforestation and Greenhouse-gas Emissions." Ecological Applications 14:982-986. [abstract] [PDF]

Fernandez, Ivan J. 2008. "Carbon and Nutrients in Maine Forest Soils." Technical Bulletin #200, Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station. University of Maine, Orono. [PDF]

Friend, Andrew D., Wolfgang Lucht, Tim T. Rademacher, Rozenn Keribin, Richard Betts, Patricia Cadule, Philippe Ciais, Douglas B. Clark, Rutger Dankers, Pete D. Falloon, Akihiko Ito, Ron Kahana, Axel Kleidon, Mark R. Lomas, Kazuya Nishina, Sebastian Ostberg, Ryan Pavlick, Philippe Peylin, Sibyll Schaphoff, Nicolas Vuichard, Lila Warszawski, Andy Wiltshire, and F. Ian Woodward. 2013. "Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 16 December. [news story in Grist]

Garten, C.T. 2002. "Soil Carbon Storage beneath Recently Established Tree Plantations in Tennesee and South Carolina, USA." Biomass and Bioenergy 23:93-102.

Green, Michael. 2013. "Why We Should Build Wooden Skyscrapers." TED Talk video. 

Hall, Jaclyn M., Tracy Van Holt, Amy E. Daniels, Vincent Balthazar, and Eric F. Lambin. 2012. "Trade-offs between tree cover, carbon storage and floristic biodiversity in reforesting landscapes." Landscape Ecology 27:1135-1147. [PDF]

Hansen, James E., Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha, Karina von Schuckmann, David J. Beerling, Junji Cao, Shaun Marcott, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Michael J. Prather, Eelco J. Rohling, Jeremy Shakun, Pete Smith, Andrew Lacis, Gary Russell, and Reto Ruedy. 2017. "Young people’s burden: requirement of negative CO2 emissions." Earth System Dynamics 8:577-616. [PDF] [coverage in ScienceDaily] [short video] [summary from Columbia University]

Conclusions include (from Columbia summary):

  • 1.       Global warming in the past 50 years has raised global temperature (Fig. 1) well above the prior range in the Holocene (the current interglacial period, approximately the past 11,700 years) to the level of the Eemian period (130,000 to 115,000 years ago), when sea level was 6-9 meters (20-30 feet) higher than today.
  • 2.       Global warming can be held below 1.5°C (the aspirational goal of the Paris Agreement) if rapid reductions of global CO2 emission (at least 3%/year) begin by 2021 and if there is no net growth of other climate forcings (Fig. 2). However, 1.5°C global warming exceeds estimated Eemian temperature and is not an appropriate goal.
  • 3.       The growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has accelerated markedly in the past several years (Fig. 3), a conclusion starkly at odds with the common narrative that the world has recently turned the corner toward a solution of the global warming problem.
  • 4.       An appropriate goal is to return global temperature to the Holocene range within a century. Such a goal was still achievable in 2013 if rapid emission reductions had begun at that time and if there were a global program for reforestation and improved agricultural and forestry practices.  Now climate restoration this century would also require substantial technological extraction of CO2 from the air.  If rapid emission reductions do not begin soon, the burden placed on young people to extract CO2 emitted by prior generations may become implausibly difficult and costly.
  • Co-author Michael Prather (re point #3 above): "What is particularly worrying about the recent uptick in greenhouse gas climate forcing, is that it is driven in part by the recent surge in methane abundance, while reduced methane is one of the requirements in most pathways to reduced greenhouse gas forcing."

Houghton, R.A., R.D. Boone, J.M. Melillo, C.A. Palm, G.M. Woodwell, and N. Myers. 1985. "Net Flux of Carbon Dioxide from Tropical Forests in 1980." Nature 316(15 August):617-620. [abstract]

Jacobson, Mark Z. 2009. "Review of Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security." Energy & Environmental Science 2:148-173. [PDF] [news article]

Keith, Heather, Brendan G. Mackey, and David B. Lindenmayer. 2009. "Re-evaluation of Forest Biomass Carbon Stocks and Lessons from the World's most Carbon-dense Forests." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(28):11635-11640.

Kennedy, Donald and the Editors of Science (eds.). 2008. Science Magazine's State of the Planet 2008-2009: with a Special Section on Energy and Sustainability. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 

Kintisch, Eli, 2010. Hack the Planet: Science's Best Hope - or Worst Nightmare - for Averting Climate Catastrophe. Wiley, New York.  [excerpt]   [review]

Knorr, Wolfgang. 2009. "Is the Airborne Fraction of Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions Increasing?" Geophysical Research Letters 36:L21710. [abstract]  [PDF]  [news summary]

Krevor, S.C., C.R. Graves, B.S. Van Gosen, and A.E. McCafferty. 2009. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States. U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 414, USGS, Washington, D.C. [PDF] [PDF map]

Lafleur, Paul. 2010. Geochemical Soil Gas Survey: A Site Investigation of SW30-5-13-W2M, Weyburn Field, Saskatchewan. Report, 27 August, Petro-Find Geochem Limited, Saskatoon. [PDF]  [news story

León, Cuauhtémoc, Paola Bauche, Sergio Graf, Sofía Cortina, and Juan Manuel Frausto. 2012. "Replicating Policy that Works: Payment for Environmental Services in Mexico." Solutions 3(5).

Lemus, R. and R. Lal. 2005. "Bioenergy Crops and Carbon Sequestration." Critical Review of Plant Sciences 24:1-21. [abstract]

Lichter, J., S.A. Billings, S. Ziegler, D. Gaindh, R. Ryals, A.C. Finzi, R.B. Jackson, E.A. Stemmler, and W.S. Schlesinger. 2008. "Soil Carbon Sequestration in a Pine Forest after 9 Years of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment." Global Change Biology 14:1-13. [PDF]

Lindenmayer, David B., William F. Laurance, and Jerry F. Franklin. 2012. “Global Decline in Large Old Trees.” Science 338(6112):1305-1306 [news article]

Lohmann, Larry (ed.). 2006. Carbon Trading: a critical conversation on climate change, privatisation and power. Development Dialogue 48(Sept, complete issue). [PDF

Luo, Y. and J.F. Reynolds. 1999. "Validity of Extrapolating Field CO2 Experiments to Predict Carbon Sequestration in Natural Ecosystems." Ecology 80:1568-1583.

Matthews, Robert and Kimberly Roberts. 2005. "Answers to Ten Frequently Asked Questions about Bioenergy, Carbon Sinks and their Role in Global Climate Change, 2nd Edition." Prepared by IEA Bioenergy Task 38, Greenhouse Gas Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems, International Energy Agency, Graz, Austria. [PDF]

McPherson, E. Gregory. 1998b. "Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Reduction by Sacramento’s Urban Forest." Journal of Arboriculture 24(4):215-223. [PDF]

Mitchard, Edward T.A., Ted R. Feldpausch, Roel J.W. Brienen, Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez, Abel Monteagudo, Timothy R. Baker, Simon L. Lewis, Jon Lloyd, Carlos A. Quesada, Manuel Gloor, Hans ter Steege, Patrick Meir, Esteban Alvarez, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, Luzmila Arroyo, Gerardo Aymard, Olaf Banki, Damien Bonal, Sandra Brown, Foster I. Brown, Carlos E. Cerón, Victor Chama Moscoso, Jerome Chave, James A. Comiskey, Fernando Cornejo, Massiel Corrales Medina, Lola Da Costa, Flavia R.C. Costa, Anthony Di Fiore, Tomas F. Domingues, Terry L. Erwin, Todd Frederickson, Niro Higuchi, Euridice N. Honorio Coronado, Tim J. Killeen, William F. Laurance, Carolina Levis, William E. Magnusson, Beatriz S. Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon Junior, Irina Mendoza Polo, Piyush Mishra, Marcelo T. Nascimento, David Neill, Mario P. Núñez Vargas, Walter A. Palacios, Alexander Parada, Guido Pardo Molina, Marielos Peña-Claros, Nigel Pitman, Carlos A. Peres, Lourens Poorter, Adriana Prieto, Hirma Ramirez-Angulo46, Zorayda Restrepo Correa11, Anand Roopsind, Katherine H. Roucoux, Agustin Rudas, Rafael P. Salomão, Juliana Schietti, Marcos Silveira, Priscila F. de Souza, Marc K. Steininger, Juliana Stropp, John Terborgh, Raquel Thomas, Marisol Toledo, Armando Torres-Lezama, Tinde R. van Andel, Geertje M.F. van der Heijden, Ima C.G. Vieira, Simone Vieira, Emilio Vilanova-Torre, Vincent A. Vos, Ophelia Wang, Charles E. Zartman, Yadvinder Malhi, and Oliver L. Phillips. 2014. "Markedly divergent estimates of Amazon forest carbon density from ground plots and satellites." Global Ecology and Biogeography 23(8):935-946. [summary in ScienceDaily]

Molina, Mario J., Durwood Zaelke, K. Madhava Sarma, Stephen O. Andersen, Veerabhadran Ramanathan, and Donald Kaniaru. 2009. "Reducing Abrupt Climate Change Risk Using the Montreal Protocol and other Regulatory Actions to Complement Cuts in CO2 Emissions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(49):20616-20621.

Müller, Benito and Harald Winkler. 2008. "One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? The Governance of the World Bank Climate Investment Funds." Oxford Energy and Environment Comment (Oxford Institute for Energy Studies) February. [PDF]

Negra, Christine, Caroline Cremer Sweedo, Kent Cavender-Bares, and Robin O'Malley. 2008. "Indicators of Carbon Storage in U.S. Ecosystems: Baseline for Terrestrial Carbon Accounting." Journal of Environmental Quality 37:1376-1382. [PDF]

Onaindia, Miren, Beatriz Fernandez de Manuel, Iosu Madariaga, and Gloria Rodríguez-Loinaz. 2013. "Co-benefits and trade-offs between biodiversity, carbon storage and water flow regulation." Forest Ecology and Management 289:1-9. [PDF]

Osborne, Tracey and Clyde Kiker. 2005. "Carbon Offsets as an Economic Alternative to Large-scale Logging: A Case Study in Guyana." Ecological Economics 52:481-496. [abstract]

Pearse, Rebecca and Steffen Böhm. 2014. "Ten reasons why carbon markets will not bring about radical emissions reduction." Carbon Management 17 February. [abstract

Potter, C., S. Klooster, and V. Genovese. 2009. "Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region Predicted from Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling." Biogeosciences Discussions 6:3031-3061. [PDF]

Pretty, Jules N. 2008. "Agricultural Sustainability: Concepts, Principles and Evidence." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363:447-465. [PDF

Rhemtulla, Jeanine M., David J. Mladenoff, and Murray K. Clayton. 2009. "Historical Forest Baselines Reveal Potential for Continued Carbon Sequestration." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(OnlineApril 6). [news article]

Roberts, Kelli G., Brent A. Gloy, Stephen Joseph, Norman R. Scott, and Johannes Lehmann. 2010. "Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar Systems: Estimating the Energetic, Economic, and Climate Change Potential." Environmental Science and Technology 44(2):827-833. [news story]

Robinson, David. 2007. "Implications of a Large Global Root Biomass for Carbon Sink Estimates and for Soil Carbon Dynamics." Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274(1626):2753-2759.

Rombold, John. 1996. "A Bibliography on Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Estimation." Forest Carbon Monitoring Program Working Paper 96/03, Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim. 2011. "Geoengineering: The good, the MAD, and the sensible." Proceeedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(51):20277-20278. [PDF

Smith, P. 2004. "Soils as Carbon Sinks – The Global Context." Soil Use and Management 20:212-218.  [abstract]

Subramaniam, A., P.L. Yager, E.J. Carpenter, C. Mahaffey, K. Björkman, S. Cooley, A.B. Kustka, J.P. Montoya, S.A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy, R. Shipe, and D.G. Capone. 2008. "Amazon River Enhances Diazotrophy and Carbon Sequestration in the Tropical North Atlantic Ocean." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(30):10460-10465.

Sundermeier, Alan, Randall Reeder, and Rattan Lal. "Soil Carbon Sequestration—Fundamentals." Extension Factsheet, AEX-510-05. Ohio State University. [PDF]

Thomas, R. Quinn, Charles D. Canham, Kathleen C. Weathers, and Christine L. Goodale. 2010. "Increased Tree Carbon Storage in Response to Nitrogen Deposition in the US." Nature Geoscience 3:13-17. [abstract]

Tolbert,V.R., F.C. Thornton, J.D. Joslin, B.R. Bock, W. Bandaranayake, A.E. Huston, D.D. Tyler, D.A. Mays, T.H. Green, and I. Petry. 2000. "Increasing Below-ground Carbon Sequestration with Conversion of Agricultural Lands to Production of Bioenergy Crops." New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 30(1/2):138-149.

Tritton, Louise M. and James W. Hornbeck. 1982. "Biomass Equations for Major Tree Species of the Northeast." General Technical Report, #NE-69, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, Broomall, Pennsylvania. [PDF]

Waage, Sissel, Sara Scherr, Michael Jenkins, and Mira Inbar. 2006. A Scoping Assessment of Current Work on Payments for Ecosystem Services in Asia, Latin America, and East & Southern Africa, Research Summary. Forest Trends, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Xiao, Jingfeng, Qianlai Zhuang, Beverly E. Law, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Jiquan Chen, Andrew D. Richardson, Jerry M. Melillo, Kenneth J. Davis, David Y. Hollinger, Sonia Wharton, Ram Oren, Asko Noormets, Marc L. Fischer, Shashi B. Verma, David R. Cook, Ge Sun, Steve McNulty, Steven C. Wofsy, Paul V. Bolstad, Sean P. Burns, Peter S. Curtis, Bert G. Drake, Matthias Falk, David R. Foster, Lianhong Gu, Julian L. Hadley, Gabriel G. Katul, Marcy Litvak, Siyan Ma, Timothy A. Martin, Roser Matamala, Tilden P. Meyers, Russell K. Monson, J. William Munger, Walter C. Oechel, U. Kyaw Tha Paw, Hans Peter Schmid, Russell L. Scott, Gregory Starr, Andrew E. Suyker, and Margaret S. Torn. 2011. "Assessing Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange of U.S. Terrestrial Ecosystems by Integrating Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements and Satellite Observations." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151(1):60-69a.  [abstract]  [PDF]  [news story]

Yanai, Aurora Miho, Philip Martin Fearnside, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro Graça, Euler Melo Nogueira. 2012. "Avoided deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: Simulating the effect of the Juma Sustainable Development Reserve." Forest Ecology and Management 282:78-91.

Zhou, G., S. Liu, Z. Li, D. Zhang, X. Tang, C. Zhou, J. Yan, and J. Mo. 2006. "Old-Growth Forests Can Accumulate Carbon in Soils." Science 314(5804):1417. [PDF]

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