Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References

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Reference Search Results You searched for resiliency

Abel, Nick, David Cumming, and John M. Anderies. 2006. "Collapse and Reorganization in Social-Ecological Systems: Questions, some Ideas, and Policy Implications." Ecology and Society 11(1):17.

  • "Although we found the adaptive cycle, and complex system theory in general, to be useful integrating frameworks, disciplinary theories are required to explain causes and effects in specific cases." (p. 1) [Note: speaks to the importance of trans-disciplinary research.]
  • "When a system is in the backloop and the aim is to recover without a regime change, the focus should obviously be on conserving or investing in the elements of capital critical for this recovery. If the aim is to shift regimes or to transform, then there will be a need to invest in the elements of capital that support those changes. It will also be necessary to disinvest in the capitals that maintained the previous regime. The political difficulty of doing this is why SESs so often remain maladapted to current conditions and opportunities, to the point of collapse." (p. 21)

Abel, Nick, M. Gachugu, A. Langston, D. Freudenberger, M. Howden, and S. Marsden. 2002. "Policies, Planning and Institutions for Sustainable Resource Use: A Participatory Approach." Pages 221-234 in A.C. Grice and K.C. Hodgkinson (eds.), Global Rangelands: Progress and Prospects, CAB International, Wallingford, U.K.

Adger, W. Neil, Suraje Dessai, Marisa Goulden, Mike Hulme, Irene Lorenzoni, Donald R. Nelson, Lars Otto Naess, Johanna Wolf, and Anita Wreford. 2009. "Are there Social Limits to Adaptation to Climate Change?" Climatic Change 93(3-4):335-354. [PDF] [related video]

Adger, W. Neil, Terry P. Hughes, Carl Folke, Stephen R. Carpenter, and Johan Rockström. 2005. "Social-Ecological Resilience to Coastal Disasters." Science 309(5737):1036-1039. [PDF]

Adger, W. Neil. 2000. "Social and Ecological Resilience: Are they Related?" Progress in Human Geography 24(3):347-364. [PDF]

Ahmed, Nafeez Mossadeq. 2010c. The Crisis of Civilization: A Documentary about Global Crises. [related companion book: A User’s Guide to the Crisis of Civilization: And How to Save It. Pluto Press, London.] (Dean Puckett Producer) 

Altieri, Miguel A., Clara Nicholls, and Fernando Funes. 2012. "The scaling up of agroecology: spreading the hope for food sovereignty and resiliency." SOCLA’s Rio+ 20 position paper. [PDF]

Asselin, Oliver. Possible.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. [videos].

Bartelsa, Wendy-Lin, Simone Athaydeb, Ricardo Mello, and Robert Buschbacher. 2016. "Who counts resilience and whose resilience counts? Reflections on applying the Resilience Assessment Workbook along a contested Amazonian frontier." Sustentabilidade em Debate 7(2):135-151. [PDF]

Birkbeck, Chris. 1978. "Self-employed Proletarians in an Informal Factory: The Case of Cali's Garbage Dump." World Development 6(9-10):1173-1185. [PDF]

Burton, Ian, Robert W. Kates, and Gilbert F. White. 1978. The Environment as Hazard. Oxford University Press, New York.

Cavanagh, John and Robin Broad. 2010. "Local Dreams: Finding Rootedness in the Age of Vulnerability." Yes Magazine 6 December. [related video]

Climate Vulnerable Forum. 2010. Climate Vulnerability Monitor: The State of the Climate Crisis. DARA, Madrid. [PDF] [news story]

Corbett, Michael and Judy Corbett. 1999. Designing Sustainable Communities: Learning from Village Homes. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Crépin, Anne-Sophie and Carl Folke. 2015. "The Economy, the Biosphere and Planetary Boundaries: Towards Biosphere Economics." International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics 8(1):57-100.

Cutter, Susan L. 1996. "Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards." Progress in Human Geography 20(4):529-539. [PDF]

Daily, Gretchen C., Susan Alexander, Paul R. Ehrlich, Larry Goulder, Jane Lubchenco, Pamela A. Matson, Harold A. Mooney, Sandra Postel, Stephen H. Schneider, David Tilman, and George M. Woodwell. 1997. "Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems." Issues in Ecology 2. [PDF] [alternative PDF] [related video]

Davoudi, Simin, Davoudi, Keith Shaw, L. Jamila Haider, Allyson E. Quinlan, Garry D. Peterson, Cathy Wilkinson, Hartmut Fünfgeld, Darryn McEvoy, and Libby Porter. 2012. "Resilience: A Bridging Concept of a Dead End?" Planning Theory and Practice 13(2):299-333. [PDF]

Eakin, Hallie C. and Mónica B. Wehbe. 2009. "Linking Local Vulnerability to System Sustainability in a Resilience Framework: Two Cases from Latin America." Climatic Change 93(3-4):355-377. [PDF

Ecological Society of America. 2011. Coupled Biogeochemical Cycles. Special issue of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Vol 9, #1. Ecological Society of America. [Editorial introduction by F. Stuart Chapin, Mary E. Power, and Jonathan J. Cole.]  [news summary in ScienceDaily]

Edwards, Andrés R. 2010. Thriving beyond Sustainability: Pathways to a Resilient Society. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia. [Annotated Bibliography]

Elmqvist, Thomas, Carl Folke, Magnus Nyström, Garry Peterson, Jan Bengtsson, Brian Walker, and Jon Norberg. 2003. "Response Diversity, Ecosystem Change, and Resilience." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(9):488-494. [PDF] [discussion]

Fiksel, Joseph. 2003. "Designing Resilient, Sustainable Systems." Environmental Science & Technology 37(23):5330-5339. [PDF] [related article by author]

  • Fiksel defines the sustainable enterprise as "one that continues to grow and adapt in order to meet the needs and expectations of its shareholders and stakeholders." (p. 5331)
  • My comment: If this is true, and if all enterprises “continue to grow,” then the larger system will eventually collapse due to resource limitations.

Fiksel, Joseph. 2006. "Sustainability and Resilience: Toward a Systems Approach." Sustainability: Science, Practice, and Policy 2(2). [related article by author (PDF)]

Florida, Richard. 2009. "How the Crash Will Reshape America." The Atlantic March.

Folke, Carl, J. Colding, and F. Berkes. 2003. "Synthesis: Building Resilience and Adaptive Capacity in Social-Ecological Systems." Pages 352-387 in F. Berkes, J. Colding, and C. Folke (eds.), Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Garmestani, Ahjond S., Craig R. Allen, and Lance Gunderson. 2009. "Panarchy: Discontinuities Reveal Similarities in the Dynamic System Structure of Ecological and Social Systems." Ecology and Society 14(1):15.

Goldsmith, Edward. 1978. The Stable Society: Its Structure and Control: Towards a Social Cybernetics. Wadebridge Press, Cornwall, England. 

Goldstein, James. 2006. Sustainable Communities and the Great Transition. GTI Paper Series, Frontiers of a Great Transition #12. Tellus Institute, Boston. [PDF]

Green, Duncan, Richard King, and May Miller-Dawkins. 2010. The Global Economic Crisis and Developing Countries. Oxfam GB, Oxfam Australia. [PDF]

Gunderson, Lance H., Craig Reece Allen, and C.S. Holling (eds.). 2009. Foundations of Ecological Resilience. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Holling, Crawford S. 1973. "Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4:1-23. [PDF]

Holmgren, David. 2002. Permaculture: Principles and Pathways beyond Sustainability. Holmgren Design Services, Hepburn, Victoria, Australia. [excerpt "Essence of Permaculture" (2007) (PDF)] [related article] [related Lecture]

Homer-Dixon, Thomas, Brian Walker, Reinette Biggs, Anne-Sophie Crépin, Carl Folke, Eric F. Lambin, Garry D. Peterson, Johan Rockström, Marten Scheffer, Will Steffen, and Max Troell. 2015. "Synchronous failure: the emerging causal architecture of global crisis." Ecology and Society 20(3):6.

"We argue that compared to past crises, future crises will increasingly arise from the conjunction of three underlying, long-term, and causally linked global trends. The first is the dramatic increase in the scale of human economic activity in relation to Earth’s natural resources and systems. Human-induced changes in natural systems now often rival or exceed changes arising from nonhuman processes (Steffen et al. 2007). The second trend is the rapidly rising density, capacity, and transmission speed of the connections carrying material, energy, and information among the components of human technological, economic, and social systems (Helbing 2013). This increased connectivity reduces the isolation of these systems’ components from each other and thereby increases the functional size of the overall systems of which they are a part. The third trend is the increasing homogeneity, or declining diversity, of human cultures, institutions, practices, and technologies (Boli and Thomas 1997, Meyer 2000, Young et al. 2006), including technologies that exploit ecosystem services, such as agriculture and aquaculture. Although market competition in the global economy can promote diversity, positive network externalities, winner-take-all dynamics, and efforts by firms to achieve efficiencies and economies of scale across enormous markets encourage process homogeneity and a concomitant pruning of redundancy and system slack (Levitt 1983, Arthur 1994, Frank and Cook 1996).

The second and third of these trends are reciprocally related, that is, they are both causes and consequences of each other, although not exclusively so. Greater connectivity facilitates homogenization, while homogenization encourages greater connectivity.

The three global trends contribute both separately and in combination to conditions favoring synchronous failure in three major ways. First, they generate multiple simultaneous stresses affecting human societies. These stresses build their force slowly yet are potentially very powerful over time. For instance, the first of the three above trends, the sharply rising scale of human economic activity in relation to natural resources and systems, is causing greater scarcity of some critical resources such as conventional oil (Sorrell et al. 2012, IEA 2013, Höök et al. 2014), where this scarcity is gauged by the amount of energy needed to extract and process an additional increment of final output (Davidson et al. 2014). It is also contributing to higher atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, which are boosting the incidence of extreme climate events such as heat waves (Hansen et al. 2012, IPCC 2012). Additionally, it is producing severe disruption of many natural systems that are vital to human well-being, including the majority of Earth’s fisheries and large tracts of its grasslands and forests. For some of these systems, such as coral reefs, disruption is approaching or even exceeding the systems’ homeostatic capacity to maintain their integrity and identity (Bellwood et al. 2004, Hughes et al. 2010)."

Homer-Dixon, Thomas. 2006. The Upside of Down: Catastrophe, Creativity, and the Renewal of Civilization. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [review 1 by Jennifer Rohleder(PDF)] [review 2]

Hopkins, Rob. 2008. The Transition Handbook: From Oil Dependency to Local Resilience. Chelsea Green, White River Junction, Vermont. [related video on TED Talks]

Huntingford, Chris, Przemyslaw Zelazowski, David Galbraith, Lina M. Mercado, Stephen Sitch, Rosie Fisher, Mark Lomas, Anthony P. Walker, Chris D. Jones, Ben B. B. Booth, Yadvinder Malhi, Debbie Hemming, Gillian Kay, Peter Good, Simon L. Lewis, Oliver L. Phillips, Owen K. Atkin, Jon Lloyd, Emanuel Gloor, Joana Zaragoza-Castells, Patrick Meir, Richard Betts, Phil P. Harris, Carlos Nobre, Jose Marengo, and Peter M. Cox. 2013. "Simulated resilience of tropical rainforests to CO2-induced climate change." Nature Geoscience 6:268-273. [related slide presentation (PDF)]

Hurst, David K. 1995. Crisis and Renewal: Meeting the Challenge of Organizational Change. Harvard Business School Press, Cambridge.

ICSU. 2005. "Harnessing Science, Technology, and Innovation for Sustainable Development." A report from the ICSU-ISTS-TWAS Consortium ad hoc Advisory Group, International Council for Science (ICSU).

Ikerd, John E. 2012. The Essentials of Economic Sustainability. Kumarian Press, West Hartford. [excerpt 1: “The Three Ecological Principles of Economic Sustainability” in CSR Wire] [excerpt 2: “Ethics & The Challenge of Economic Sustainability” in CSR Wire] [excerpt 3: “The Hierarchy of Economic Sustainability: Getting The Principles Right” in CSR Wire]

Ikerd, John. 2013. "The Three Ecological Principles of Economic Sustainability." Mother Pelican: A Journal of Solidarity and Sustainability 9(3).

Illich, Ivan. 1977. Toward a History of Needs. Heyday Books, Berkeley. [excerpt]

Kemp, René and Derk Loorbach. 2006. "Transition Management: A Reflexive Governance Approach." Pages 103-130 in J. Voss, D. Bauknecht, and R. Kemp, (eds.), Reflexive Governance for Sustainable Development, Edward Elgar, Northhampton, Massachusetts. [PDF]

Knight, Lewis. 2013. "Designing Resiliency in an Unstainable World." Focus: Journal of the City and Regional Planning Department 10, no. 1: 10. [PDF]

Kopnina, Helen. 2017. "Teaching Sustainable Development Goals in The Netherlands: a critical approach." Environmental Education Research 13 March.

  • "Increasingly 'resilient' policies of neoliberalism (Wilk 2002) and democratic governance (Lidskog and Elander 2010) delegate responsibility for sustainable choices to consumers. Yet, the clever marketing leading to the 'rebound eect' easily appeases consumers (Isenhour 2010), making consumption itself more resilient (e.g. Kopnina 2016d)."

Kunstler, James Howard. 2005. The Long Emergency: Surviving the Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-First Century. Atlantic Monthly Press, New York. [author interview in Grist] [related interview "Our Years of Magical Thinking" in Resilience] [related video from The Nation] [PDF]

Lawler, Andrew. 2010. "Collapse? What Collapse? Societal Change Revisited." Science 330(6006)907-909. [abstract]

Lawton, Geoff. 2011. "Permaculture: Your Way to Sustainable Living." Pages 127-132 in Marcin Gerwin (ed.), Food and Democracy: Introduction to Food Sovereignty. Polish Green Network, Kraków. [PDF] [related article] [related lecture (video)]

Ludwig, Donald, Brian Walker, and Crawford S. Holling. 1997. "Sustainability, Stability, and Resilience." Conservation Ecology 1(1):1-27.

Magdoff, Fred. 2011. "Ecological civilization." Monthly Review 62(8):1-25. [related video

Maguire, Brigit and Patrick Hagan. 2007. "Disasters and Communities: Understanding Social Resilience." The Australian Journal of Emergency Management 22(2):16-18. [abstract] [PDF]

  • "An optimal recovery involves not just returning to an initial equilibrium point. Rather, by adapting to new circumstances and learning from the disaster experience, higher levels of functioning (and thereby resilience) can be attained (Kimhi & Shamai, 2004; Pooley, Cohen, & O’Connor, 2006; Sonn & Fisher, 1998). This is the property of creativity (Kimhi & Shamai, 2004) and is represented by a gain in resilience achieved as part of the recovery process (Figure 1)." (p. 17)

Maguire, Brigit and Sophie Cartwright. 2008. "Assessing a Community’s Capacity to Manage Change: A Resilience Approach to Social Assessment." Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. [PDF]

Marten, Gerald, Steve Brooks, and Amanda Suutari. 2005. "Environmental Tipping Points: A New Slant on Strategic Environmentalism." World Watch 18(6):10‐14.

Mbow, Cheikh, et al. 2014. "Agroforestry solutions to address food security and climate change challenges in Africa." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6: 61-67. [PDF] [related video] [related short video]

McIntosh, Roderick J., Joseph A. Tainter, and Susan K. McIntosh (eds.). 2000. The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History, and Human Action. Columbia University Press, New York.

Motesharrei, Safa, Jorge Rivas, and Eugenia Kalnay. 2014. "Human and nature dynamics (HANDY): Modeling inequality and use of resources in the collapse or sustainability of societies." Ecological Economics 101:90-102. [PDF] [news story]

Nelson, Gerald C., E. Bennett, A.A. Berhe, K. Cassman, R. DeFries, T. Dietz, A. Dobermann, A. Dobson, A. Janetos, M. Levy, D. Marco, N. Nakicenovic, B. O'Neill, R. Norgaard, G. Petschel-Held, D. Ojima, P. Pingali, R. Watson, and M. Zurek. 2006. "Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: An Overview." Ecology and Society 11(2):29.

NRC. 2008. Understanding and Responding to Climate Change. Highlights of National Academies Reports, 2008 Edition. National Research Council. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

O'Brien, Karen, and Linda Sygna. 2013. "Responding to climate change: The three spheres of transformation." Proceedings of Transformation in a Changing Climate. [PDF] [related video]

O'Brien, Karen, Linda Sygna, and Jan E. Haugen. 2004. "Vulnerable or Resilient? A Multi-scale Assessment of Climate Impacts and Vulnerability in Norway." Climatic Change 64:193-225. [abstract] [PDF]

Ostrom, Elinor. 2009. "A General Framework for Analyzing Sustainability of Social-Ecological Systems." Science 325(5939):419-422.  [PDF]

Perrings, Charles. 2006. "Resilience and Sustainable Development." Environment and Development Economics 11(4):417-427. [PDF]

Peterson, Garry D. 2000. "Political Ecology and Ecological Resilience: An Integration of Human and Ecological Dynamics." Ecological Economics 35:323-336.

Peterson, Garry D., Craig R. Allen, and C.S. Holling. 1998. "Ecological Resilience, Biodiversity, and Scale." Ecosystems 1:6-18. [PDF]

Peterson, Garry D., G.S. Cumming, and S.R. Carpenter. 2003. "Scenario Planning: A Tool for Conservation in an Uncertain World." Conservation Biology 17(2):358-366. [PDF]

Rappaport, Roy A. 1977. "Maladaptation in Social Systems." Pages 49-71 in J. Friedman (ed.), Evolution of Social Systems. Duckworth, London.

Read, Dwight. 2005. "Some observations on resilience and robustness in human systems." Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal 36:773-802.

Rees, William E. 2010. "Thinking 'Resilience'." Chapter 3 in Richard Heinberg and Daniel Lerch (eds.), The Post Carbon Reader: Managing the 21st Century's Sustainability Crisis. Watershed Media, Healdsburg, California. [PDF]

Rees, William E. 2012. "The Way Forward: Survival 2100." Solutions 3(3). [related article] [related video]

Rockström, Johan, Will Steffen, Kevin Noone, Åsa Persson, F. Stuart Chapin, III, Eric F. Lambin, Timothy M. Lenton, Marten Scheffer, Carl Folke, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Björn Nykvist, Cynthia A. de Wit, Terry Hughes, Sander van der Leeuw, Henning Rodhe, Sverker Sörlin, Peter K. Snyder, Robert Costanza, Uno Svedin, Malin Falkenmark, Louise Karlberg, Robert W. Corell, Victoria J. Fabry, James Hansen, Brian Walker, Diana Liverman, Katherine Richardson, Paul Crutzen, and Jonathan A. Foley. 2009. "A Safe Operating Space for Humanity." Nature 461(24 September):472-475. [PDF] [related article in Scientific American] [related article in Ecology and Society] [news article] [related website] [Rockström video on Ted Talks]

Rockström, Johan, Will Steffen, Kevin Noone, Åsa Persson, F. Stuart Chapin, III, Eric F. Lambin, Timothy M. Lenton, Marten Scheffer, Carl Folke, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Björn Nykvist, Cynthia A. de Wit, Terry Hughes, Sander van der Leeuw, Henning Rodhe, Sverker Sörlin, Peter K. Snyder, Robert Costanza, Uno Svedin, Malin Falkenmark, Louise Karlberg, Robert W. Corell, Victoria J. Fabry, James Hansen, Brian Walker, Diana Liverman, Katherine Richardson, Paul Crutzen, And Jonathan A. Foley. 2009b. "Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity." Ecology and Society 14(2):Article 32. [supplementary information] [related article in Scientific American] [related article in Nature] [related website] [Rockström video from Ted Talks

Scheffer, Marten, F. Westley, and W. Brock. 2003. "Slow Response of Society to New Problems: Causes and Costs." Ecosystems 6:493-502. [PDF]

Smith, Nigel J.H., Emanuel Adilson S. Serrão, Paulo T. Alvim, and Italo C. Falesi. 1995. Amazonia - Resiliency and Dynamism of the Land and its People. United Nations University Press, New York.

Steffen, W., K. Richardson, J. Rockström, S. Cornell, I. Fetzer, E.M. Bennett., R. Biggs, S.R. Carpenter, W. de Vries, C.A. de Wit, C. Folke, D. Gerten, J. Heinke, G.M. Mace, L.M. Persson, V. Ramanathan, B. Reyers, and S. Sörlin. 2015. "Planetary Boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet." Science 347(6223):10.1126/science.1259855.

Tainter, Joseph A. 1988b. "Global Change, History, and Sustainability." Pages 331-356 in Roderick J. McIntosh, Joseph A. Tainter, and Susan K. McIntosh (eds.), The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History, and Human Action. Columbia University Press, New York.

Tainter, Joseph A. 2003. "The Development of Social Complexity: Models of Collapse, Resiliency, and Sustainability." Presented at "The Stockholm Seminars: Frontiers in Sustainability Science and Policy," The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, 24 September 2003. [PDF]

Tainter, Joseph A. 2006. "Social Complexity and Sustainability." Ecological Complexity 3(2):91-103. [PDF] [abstract

UNEP. 2002. "Human Vulnerability to Environmental Change." Pages 301-317 in UNEP, Global Environmental Outlook 3. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), London. [PDF

United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Global Sustainability. 2012. Resilient People, Resilient Planet: A future worth choosing. United Nations, New York. [related article

van der Leeuw, Sander and C. Aschan-Leygonie. 2001. "A Long-term Perspective on Resilience in Socio-natural Systems." Working Paper #01-08-042, Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico. [PDF]

Walker, Brian H. and David Salt. 2006. Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Walker, Brian H. and David Salt. 2012. Resilience Practice: Building Capacity to Absorb Disturbance and Maintain Function. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Walker, Brian H., Stephen R. Carpenter, J.M. Anderies, N. Abel, G.S. Cumming, M. Janssen, L. Lebel, J. Norberg, G.D. Peterson, and R. Pritchard. 2002. "Resilience Management in Social-ecological Systems: A Working Hypothesis for a Participatory Approach." Conservation Ecology 6(1):14.

Walters, Carl J. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. MacMillan, New York.

Walters, Carl J. 1997. "Challenges in Adaptive Management of Riparian and Coastal Ecosystems." Conservation Ecology 1(2):1.

Weinstein, Michael P., R. Eugene Turner, and Carles Ibáñez. 2013. "The Global Sustainability Transition: It Is more than Changing Light Bulbs." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 9(1):4-15.

  • "Abstract: Current policies and norms to reconcile human demands for resources with the Earth’s ability to supply them have resulted in practices that mainly treat the symptoms of unsustainability rather than their underlying causes. Moreover, the increase in our knowledge about humankind’s role in ecosystems is not keeping pace with our understanding of the consequences of our actions, resulting in a deepening inability to address sustainability issues. The extreme complexity and intricate workings of the world require the expansion of our mental models in a systems-thinking framework if we are to realize a sustainable place for humans in it. The challenge of the emerging transdiscipline of sustainability science lies in developing specific tools and processes, including curriculum development and a new generation of systems models, to help us better understand complexity — uncertainty and surprise, scale, hierarchy, and feedback loops — and to educate a new generation of sustainability scientists to design better policies, to facilitate social learning, and to catalyze the technical, economic, social, political, and personal changes needed to create a sustainable world."

  • Summary: The paper employs the dual-pillar sustainability model based on human and natural systems, stated as "coupled human-environment systems" (CH-ESs). From an education perspective, the authors frame six challenges all related to the principal challenge of finding a way for humans to meet their needs without compromising future options while also maintaining ecological integrity. Included in the six are: reconciling that the worldview articulated in the Bretton Woods agreement in 1944, that economic growth must reach all persons and must continue indefinitely, must change; that our economy must reduce energy consumption and the throughput of resources; we must fundamentally change the way our cities are built and operate; and that we must learn how to create resiliency in human systems. The authors also discuss six sustainability dimensions five—technical, economic, social, political, and personal—embedded in nature.

Westley, Frances. 2013. "Social Innovation and Resilience: How One Enhances the Other Social innovations must take into account the complexity of social problems and foster solutions resilient enough to adapt and survive." Stanford Social Innovation Review Summer.

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