Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References

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Reference Search Results You searched for neoliberalism

Ackerman, Frank and Alejandro Nadal. 2004. The Flawed Foundations of General Equilibrium: Critical Essays on Economic Theory. Routledge, London. [PDF]

Adam, Barbara. 1998. Timescapes of Modernity: The Environment and Invisible Hazards. Routledge, London.

  • Corporations interested in maximizing profits favor established crops, monocultures, and simplicity over diversity.

Ahmed, Nafeez Mossadeq. 2010c. The Crisis of Civilization: A Documentary about Global Crises. [related companion book: A User’s Guide to the Crisis of Civilization: And How to Save It. Pluto Press, London.] (Dean Puckett Producer) 

Alfaro, Laura, Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan, and Vadym Volosovych. 2005. "Why Doesn't Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries? An Empirical Investigation." Published online, Harvard Business School, Cambridge.   [PDF

Allen, Patricia and Julie Guthman. 2006. "From Old School to Farm-to-School: Neoliberalization from the Ground Up." Agriculture and Human Values 23(4):401-415. [PDF]

Altieri, Miguel A. and Alejandro Rojas. 1999. "Ecological Impacts of Chile's Neoliberal Policies, with Special Emphasis on Agroecosystems." Environment, Development and Sustainability 1:55-72. [PDF]

Anderson, Terry L. and D.R. Leal. 2001. Free Market Environmentalism. Palgrave, New York. [review from the Cato Institute (PDF)]

  • "In general, free market environmentalism emphasizes the positive incentives associated with prices, profits and entrepreneurship, as opposed to political environmentalism, which emphasizes negative incentives associated with regulation and taxes." (p. 4)

Angus, Ian. 2017. "Is Capitalism Killing Our Climate?" Radio Interview on Planet Haliburton from Climate Capitalism. 18 August.

Angus, Ian. 2017. Facing the Anthropocene: Fossil Capitalism and the Crisis of the Earth System. Monthly Review Press, New York. [summary] [related podcast "Is Capitalism Killing Our Climate?" on Climate Capitalism] [related video presentation by author] [related (text) interview with author]

Applbaum, Kalman. 1998. "The Sweetness of Salvation: Consumer Marketing and the LiberalBourgeois Theory of Needs." Current Anthropology 39(3):323-350.

Arimatéia da Cruz, José de. 2008. "Africa in the Neo-Liberal World (Dis)Order." (Review Essay). Journal of Third World Studies Fall. Review of: Bond, Patrick, 2006, Looting Africa: The Economics of Exploitation, Zed Books, New York; Chang, Ha-Joon, 2002, Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective, Anthem, London; Ferguson, James, 2006, Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order, Duke University Press, Durham; Madley, John, 2000, Hungry for Trade: How the Poor Pay for Free Trade, Zed Books, New York; and Torres, Raymond, 2001, Towards a Socially Sustainable World Economy: An Analysis of the Social Pillars of Globalization, ILO, Geneva.

Arrighi, Giovanni and Kevin Harris. 2012. "Special Contribution: Interview with Giovanni Arrighi: 'At Some Point Something Has To Give' – Declining U.S. Power, the Rise of China, and an Adam Smith for the Contemporary Left." Journal of World-Systems Research 18(2):157-166. [PDF

Ashcroft, Ross (Director/Writer). 2012. The Four Horsemen Documentary. (With Noam Chomsky, Joseph Stiglitz, John Perkins, and Herman Daly). 

  • "When plunder becomes a way of life for a group of men in a society, over the course of time they create for themselves a legal system that authorizes it and a moral code that glorifies it." – Frédéric Bastiat, 1845 (17:01-17:11)
  • "When the taxpayer is footing the bill for the misplaced speculation of bankers, then suddenly instead of the economy serving the human being, the human being is now in perpetual service to amoral financial organizations." (32:09-32:23)

Ashcroft, Ross and Mark Braund. 2012. Four Horsemen: A Survival Manuel. Understand how the World Really Works. Motherlode, London. (With Joseph Stiglitz, Noam Chomsky, Lawrence Wilkerson, Simon Johnson, John Perkins, Max Keiser, Herman Daly, Michael Hudson, Gillian Tett, Ha-Joon Chang, Richard Wilkinson and David Morgan.) [PDF] [related documentary movie]

  • “When plunder becomes a way of life for a group of men in a society, over the course of time they create for themselves a legal system that authorizes it and a moral code that glorifies it.” – Frédéric Bastiat, 1845 (p. 67)

Ayres, Jeffrey M. 2004. "Framing Collective Action Against Neoliberalism: The Case of the 'Anti-Globalization' Movement." Journal of World-Systems Research 10(1):11-34.

Babin, Nicholas. 2015. "The Coffee Crisis, Fair Trade, and Agroecological Transformation: Impacts on Land-Use Change in Costa Rica." Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 39(1):99-129.

Bacon, Christopher M. 2013. "Quality revolutions, solidarity networks, and sustainability innovations: Following Fair Trade coffee from Nicaragua to California." Journal of Political Ecology 20:98-115. [PDF]

Ball, Jennifer A. 2004. "The Effects of Neoliberal Structural Adjustment on Women's Relative Employment in Latin America." International Journal of Social Economics 31(10):974-987. [abstract]

Barker, Michael. 2017. Under the Mask of Philanthropy. Hextall, Evington. [related review essay by author of Issa Shivji's Silences on NGO Discourse] [related essay by author on environmental foundations] [related monograph, Silences in NGO discourse: The role and future of NGOs in Africa by Issa Shivji, 2007 (PDF)]. 

Barron, Elizabeth. 2005. "Beyond Green Capitalism: Providing an Alternative Discourse for the Environmental Movement and Natural Resource Management." Middle States Geographer 38:69-76. [PDF]

Barry, John. 2012. The Politics of Actually Existing Unsustainability. Human Flourishing in a Climate-Changed, Carbon Constrained World. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [review]

Bartelsa, Wendy-Lin, Simone Athaydeb, Ricardo Mello, and Robert Buschbacher. 2016. "Who counts resilience and whose resilience counts? Reflections on applying the Resilience Assessment Workbook along a contested Amazonian frontier." Sustentabilidade em Debate 7(2):135-151. [PDF]

Bartelsa, Wendy-Lin, Simone Athaydeb, Ricardo Mello, and Robert Buschbacher. 2016. "Who counts resilience and whose resilience counts? Reflections on applying the Resilience Assessment Workbook along a contested Amazonian frontier." Sustentabilidade em Debate 7(2):135-151. [PDF]

Basu, S., M. Carney, and N.J. Kenworthy. 2017. "Ten years after the financial crisis: The long reach of austerity and its global impacts on health." Social Science and Medicine 22 June.

  • "Walker’s evidence prompts us to reconsider experiences of austerity not as short-term periods of hardship, but as lifetimes of sacrifice. Ironically, this lived reality was disregarded by socialist politicians and World Bank representatives alike, as Guyanese citizens were repeatedly told that sacrifice and short-term struggle were necessary in order to realize a future prosperity that never materialized. In the U.S. as well, scarcity and precarity are entrenched and hard to overcome, reinforced by decades of neoliberalism and assaults on the social safety net. Lauren Berliner and Nora Kenworthy track the rise of medical crowdfunding in the U.S. as a “living archive of Americans’ struggles to cope with illness in a neoliberal health system and in the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis.” Despite relatively progressive spending under the Obama administration and the introduction of the Affordable Care Act, Americans routinely struggle with unaffordable medical costs and underinsurance."

Becker, Bertha K. 2005. "Geopolítica da Amazônia." Estudos Avançados 19(53):71-86.

Beder, Sharon. 1994. "The Hidden Messages within Sustainable Development." Social Alternatives 13(2):8-12.

  • "Sustainable development represents a cooption of the term sustainability which once represented ideas of stability and equilibrium and harmony with nature. In the late 1960s and early 1970s the term was used in the context of the limits to growth debate as part of the argument against economic and population growth."
  • "In 1982 the British government began using the term sustainability to refer to sustainable economic expansion rather than the sustainable use of resources."

Berliner, L.S. and N.J. Kenworthy. 2017. "Producing a worthy illness: Personal crowdfunding amidst financial crisis." Social Science & Medicine doi: 10.1016/ j.socscimed.2017.02.008.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1995. "Trade Liberalisation and 'Fair Trade' Demands: Addressing the Environmental and Labour Standards Issues." World Economy 18(6):745-759. [PDF

Blackwater, Bill. 2012. "The Denialism of Progressive Environmentalists." Monthly Review 64(2).

Boardman, William. 2014. "Does an honorary degree relate to free speech? Not much." Reader Supported News 20 May.

  • "The destruction of the once great University of California by the forces of commerce and authoritarian politics (led for a while by Ronald Reagan) is a sad illustration of how the democratic ethos (educate everyone to their capacity, for free) has given way to exploitation (turning students into a profit center that has the serendipitous benefit of feeding inequality)."

Boucher, Jean Léon. 2017. "The logics of frugality: Reproducing tastes of necessity among auent climate change activists." Energy Research & Social Science 31:223-232.

  • "Though frugality may be a practice of some affluent climate change activists, its capacity to reduce human impacts on the environment is questionable and deserves more attention." (p. 223)
  • "Finally, when returning to my interest in how the affluent might make sense of the potential contradictions between their climate change beliefs and their lifestyles—an interest which was not the specific focus of this paper, there is the possibility of an absolving frugality: one, like an exchange, that releases or frees an individual from the potential guilt of a high consuming lifestyle. This is only speculative, but in earlier research [70], I did find precursory evidence for a carbon conscience—a practice where individuals seemed to adopt lower carbon behaviors in one area of their lives in exchange for higher carbon behaviors in another." (p. 231)

    "Frugality, then, in accord with individuals and conditions, can be distributed into a taxonomy of logics; it can be constrained or habitual or nostalgic—and even people of affluence can preserve behaviors that seem to contradict their economic status. Frugality may even reduce one’s carbon footprint, but I would question such a finding, especially among the affluent: I question the environmental relief that would follow from such a seemingly individualized and internal project." (p. 231)

Brenner, N. and N. Theodore. 2002. "Preface: From the 'New Localism' to the Spaces of Neoliberalism." Antipode 34(3):341-347. [PDF]

Brown, Wendy. 2015. Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution. Zone Books, Brooklyn. [Preface and Chapter One (PDF)] [author interview by Timothy Shenk, "Booked #3: What Exactly Is Neoliberalism?"]

  • From interview:

"Today, market actors—from individuals to firms, universities to states, restaurants to magazines—are more often concerned with their speculatively determined value, their ratings and rankings that shape future value, than with immediate profit. All are tasked with enhancing present and future value through self-investments that in turn attract investors. Financialized market conduct entails increasing or maintaining one’s ratings, whether through blog hits, retweets, Yelp stars, college rankings, or Moody’s bond ratings."

"Equality as a matter of legal standing and of participation in shared rule is replaced with the idea of an equal right to compete in a world where there are always winners and losers."

Büscher, Bram. 2008. "Conservation, Neoliberalism, and Social Science: A Critical Reflection on the SCB 2007 Annual Meeting in South Africa." Conservation Biology 22:229-231. [review letter]

Cardoso, Fernando Henrique and Enzo Faletto. 1969 [and 1979]. Dependency and Development in Latin America. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. 2009. "New paths: Globalization in historical perspective." Studies in Comparative International Development 44(4):296-317. [PDF]

Cayley, Malcolm. n.d. "The Brundtland Report: A Short Critique." Unpublished essay, The Australian National University, Department of International Relations.

  • Claims that neoliberal thinking directed sustainable development in the 1980s. Cayley states: states that "Rather than propose limits on growth as seen in 'The Limits to Growth' and 'Population Bomb' did, the [Brundtland] Report proclaimed growth could be infinite, but such growth would be dependent on the efficacious use of resources through technological advancement and the reorganisation of society in order to ensure such advancements were distributed equally, which would allow growth and lifestyles to be based on the biosphere’s capacity to absorb humanity’s presence." 

Cernea, Michael M. (ed.). 1985. Putting People First: Sociological Variables in Rural Development, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [PDF]

Chang, Ha-Joon. 2002. Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective. Anthem Press, London. [related essay by author] [related article by author in Foreign Policy in Focus (PDF)] [summary (PDF)] [review 1] [review by Arne Ruckert (PDF)

Chetty, Raj, David Grusky, Maximilian Hell, Nathaniel Hendren, Robert Manduca, and Jimmy Narang. 2017. "The fading American dream: Trends in absolute income mobility since 1940." Science 24 April:eaal4617. [related website "The Equality of Opportunity Project" with lots of data, graphs, and maps]

Chomsky, Noam. 1997. Neoliberalism and the Global Order. Presentation, Yale University, 25 February. [video presentation]

Chomsky, Noam. 1999. Profit Over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order. Seven Stories Press, New York. [PDF] [video interview]

Chomsky, Noam. 2017. "The Future of Humanity." Video interview before the Association of American Geographers, 6 April. [Full Interview] [related article with excerpts]

  • "Take a look at the cabinet. The cabinet was designed that way. Every cabinet official was chosen to destroy anything of human significance in that part of the government. It’s so systematic that it can’t be unplanned. I doubt that Trump planned it. My impression is that his only ideology is 'me'. But whoever is working on it is doing a pretty effective job, and the Democrats are cooperating – cooperating in a very striking way."
  • "Basically letting the Bannon-Trump group control what’s presented to the public, crazy things about wiretapping, ‘Did Susan Rice commit a crime?’, whatever tomorrow’s will be, meanwhile the parts of the governmental structure that are beneficial to human beings and to future generations are being systematically destroyed, and with very little attention."

  • "Take, say climate change. I think that a pretty good argument can be made that the fundamental principles of capitalist society and market societies are simply inconsistent with human survival. So in that respect, there is a need to make radical changes, but you can’t just say let’s make radical changes. I mean radical changes in the structure of society can come about when the large mass of the population is convinced that what exists is not going to be responsive to its just needs and demands, so therefore we’ll change what exists." (1:37:29)

Chomsky, Noam. 2017. Requiem for the American Dream: The 10 Principles of Concentration of Wealth & Power. Seven Stories Press, New York. [review of related video]

Clapp, Jennifer and Peter Dauvergne. 2011. Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. 

Clark, Duncan. 2006. The Rough Guide to Ethical Living: Energy, Food, Clothes, Money, Transport. Penguin, London.

Cleaver, Harry. 1997. "Nature, Neoliberalism and Sustainable Development: Between Charybdis & Scylla." Paper, 4th Ecology Meeting on Economy and Ecology, Instituto Piaget, Viseu, Portugal, 17-19 April.

Clifford, Veronica R. 1993. "Implementing Privatization Policy in Developing Countries: A Selected Literature Review." Working Paper #3 (August), USAID Implementing Policy Change Project, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Collins, Chuck and Josh Hoxie. 2017. Billionaire Bonanza: The Forbes 400 and the Rest of Us. Institute for Policy Studies, Washington, D.C. [PDF] [story in Forbes]

Confino, Jo. 2013a. “Wake up call for businesses: sustainability progress remains slow. A survey of United Nations Global Compact members finds companies have a long way to go to meet their goals.” The Guardian 5 September.

Confino, Jo. 2013b. "Report shows companies still don't take climate change seriously. CDP analysis reveals lack of action on emissions by top FTSE Global 500 corporations." The Guardian 12 September.

Confino, Jo. 2013c. "CEO survey is gloomy reading for the corporate sustainability movement. The world's largest CEO sustainability study shows most companies are not integrating social, environmental and governance issues into their core strategies." The Guardian 20 September. [the study (PDF)]

  • "The report clearly shows that for CEOs to act decisively, they believe they need government at global, national and local levels to step in and force the pace of change.

    The study shows that 85% of CEOs demand clearer policy and market signals to support green growth while only a slightly smaller percentage emphasise the need for governments to set a policy framework for economic development within the boundaries of environmental and resource constraints.

    Business is known for its general dislike of tougher regulations, but the frustration of CEOs is evident from the fact that more than half are clear in their call for "hard" measures of intervention, including regulation and standards; 43% call for governments to adjust subsidies and incentives; and 31% seek intervention through taxation.

    It's interesting to note their frustration with the lack of progress of voluntary approaches, which are supported by a mere fifth of respondents. Only 15% see "trading schemes and markets" as an effective policy tool, the lowest of any option presented."

Confino, Jo. 2014a. "Ceres Report: US Corporate progress on sustainability remains incremental. Most of America's largest companies aren't taking the action needed to tackle climate change, according to a new report." The Guardian 30 April.

Correia, David. 2010. "The certified Maine North Woods, where money grows from trees." Geoforum 41(1):66-73.

Correia, David. 2012. "Degrowth, American Style: No Impact Man and Bourgeois Primitivism." Capitalism Nature Socialism 23(1):105-118. 

Costanza, Robert , Rudolf de Groot, Leon Braat, Ida Kubiszewski, Lorenzo Fioramonti, Paul Sutton, Steve Farber, and Monica Grasso. 2017. "Twenty years of ecosystem services: How far have we come and how far do we still need to go?" Ecosystem Services September.

  • "It concludes that the substantial contributions of ecosystem services to the sustainable wellbeing of humans and the rest of nature should be at the core of the fundamental change needed in economic theory and practice if we are to achieve a societal transformation to a sustainable and desirable future."

Costanza, Robert and Herman E. Daly. 1992. "Natural Capital and Sustainable Development." Conservation Biology 6:37-46. [PDF]

  • "Improvement in human welfare can come about by pushing more matter-energy through the economy or by squeezing more human want satisfaction out of each unit of matter-energy that passes through. These two processes are so different in their effect on the environment that we must stop conflating them. It is better to refer to throughput increase as growth, and efficiency increase as development. Growth is destructive of natural capital and beyond some point will cost us more than it is worth-that is, sacrificed natural capital will be worth more than the extra man-made capital whose production necessitated the sacrifice. At this point growth has become anti-economic, impoverishing rather than enriching. Development that is qualitative improvement does not occur at the expense of natural capital. There are clear economic limits to growth, but not to development. This is not to assert that there are no limits to development, only that they are not so clear as the limits to growth, and consequently there is room for a wide range of opinion on how far we can go in increasing human welfare without increasing resource throughput. How far can development substitute for growth? This is the relevant question, not how far can human-made capital substitute for natural capital, the answer to which, as we have seen, is 'hardly at all'." (p. 43)
  • "Technological progress for sustainable development should be efficiency-increasing rather than throughput-increasing. Limiting the scale of resource throughput by high resource taxes would induce this technological shift, as discussed further below." (p. 44)

Cotula, Lorenzo. 2011. Land Deals in Africa: What is in the Contracts? International Institute for Environment and Development, London. [news story in The Guardian]

Crouch, Colin. 2011. The Strange Non-Death of Neoliberalism. Polity Press, Cambridge.

  • Why didn't the financial crisis of 2008 result in the death of neoliberalism? The answer it seems is that the large corporations did not let that happen. This would support the thesis that we are now politically an inverted totalitarian nation.
  • Several factors have brought us to this situation:

    -Most obviously, the lobbying power of firms whose donations are of growing importance to cash-hungry politicians and parties;

    -The weakening of competitive forces by firms large enough to shape and dominate their markets;

    -The power over public policy exercised by corporations enjoying special relationships with government as they contract to deliver public services;

    -The moral initiative that is grasped by enterprises that devise their own agendas of corporate social responsibility.

Dauvergne, Peter and Jane Lister. 2012. "Big brand sustainability: Governance prospects and environmental limits." Global Environmental Change 22:36-45.

  • "...the article highlights the importance of a co-regulatory governance approach that includes stronger state regulations, sustained advocacy, more responsible individual consumerism, and tougher international legal constraints to go beyond the business gains from big brand sustainability to achieve more transformational, ‘absolute’ global environmental progress."

Dauvergne, Peter and Jane Lister. 2013a. "The Corporatization of Sustainability." E-International Relations 17 January. 

  • "Sustainability for companies like Walmart, Tesco and Target is about maintaining high-quality and low-cost inputs to increase the supply of and demand for branded goods. The strategy is to leverage environmental management tools like life-cycle assessment and eco-certification to reduce supply chain risks and protect brand reputations with the goal to keep selling more. Companies see opportunity to legitimize the on-going production of rapidly obsolete, disposable items like diapers, household cleaners, and bottled water through a discourse that emphasizes product improvements, such as smaller packages and more recycled content to reduce per unit energy and material usage."
  • "Sustainability here is meant to encourage demand, not reduce total consumption; it will therefore mean more rather than less pressure on the planet’s climate, forests and oceans."
  • "The end result is a far cry from the 1987 Brundtland Commission’s original conception of 'sustainable development'…"

Dauvergne, Peter. 2008. The Shadows of Consumption: Consequences for the Global Environment. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge. [review]

Dauvergne, Peter and Genevieve LeBaron. 2014. Protest Inc.: The Corporatization of Activism. Polity, Press, Malden, Massachusetts.

Deere, Carmen Diana and Magdalena León. 2001b. "Institutional Reform of Agriculture under Neo-liberalism: The Impact of the Women's and Indigenous Movements." Latin American Research Review 36(2):31-64. [PDF]

Desai, Vandana and Rob Imrie. 1998. "The New Managerialism in Local Governance: North-South Dimensions." Third World Quarterly 19(4):635-650. 

Dietz, Rob. 2012. "Negative Externalities Are the Norm." Mother Pelican: A Journal of Solidarity and Sustainability 8(7).

Doane, Deborah. 2005. "The Myth of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)." Stanford Social Innovation Review Fall.

"The problem with assuming that companies can do well while also doing good is that  markets don't really work that way."

Note: Perhaps more accurate to say that neoliberal markets don't work that way.

Domingues, José Maurício. 2011. "Revisiting Dependency and Development in Latin America." Ciência & Trópico 65(2):753-780. 

Donovan, Sarah A., Marc Labonte, and Joseph Dalaker. 2016. The U.S. Income Distribution: Trends and Issues. Report #7-5700, 8 December, Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Dowie, Mark. 1995. "The Fourth Wave. Twenty-five years after the first Earth Day, Dowie argues, mainstream environmental groups have failed in most of their goals. But a fourth wave, at the grassroots, is newly energized." Mother Jones March/April.

  • "I divide the history of American environmentalism into three waves. The first and longest began with the natural conservation impulse of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The second wave ushered in the era of protective legislation in the early 1970s and was abruptly ended by Ronald Reagan in the 1980s. During these years, mainstream environmental organizations dropped their outsider status and became players in the Beltway game, employing lawyers and lobbyists to legislate environmental protection.
  • Perhaps inevitably, the result has been political compromise and failure. In the third wave, which is still upon us, Beltway environmentalists became indistinguishable from other political players. Their attempts to dovetail their concerns with those of corporate scofflaws are typified by such solutions as marketable pollution credits and the media-ballyhooed accord between the Environmental Defense Fund and McDonald’s. In that 1990 agreement, the fast-food giant, after several months of talks with EDF representatives, switched from polystyrene to paper wraps–the benefit of which is still being debated by toxicologists and economists.
  • But there is another path, one being traveled by a whole new movement, an angry fourth wave led by 21st century descendants of Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Rachel Carson, and Martin Luther King Jr. Gathering force at the grassroots is a new swell of environmental passion, democratic in origin, populist in style, untrammeled by bureaucracy, and inspired by a host of new ideologies."

My note: Dowie's "fourth wave" remains stalled at best.

Dowie, Mark. 2005. "Conservation Refugees." Orion November/December.

  • "Market-based solutions put forth by human rights groups, which may have been implemented with the best of social and ecological intentions, share a lamentable outcome, barely discernible behind a smoke screen of slick promotion. In almost every case indigenous people are moved into the money economy without the means to participate in it fully. They become permanently indentured as park rangers (never wardens), porters, waiters, harvesters, or, if they manage to learn a European language, ecotour guides. Under this model, “conservation” edges ever closer to “development,” while native communities are assimilated into the lowest ranks of national cultures."

Dowie, Mark. 2009. "Conservation: Indigenous People’s Enemy No. 1? For centuries we've displaced people to save nature. A huge project in Africa offers a chance to turn that around." Mother Jones 25 November.

  • "…another complaint heard at one international meeting after another: Relocation often occurs with the tacit approval of one or more of the five largest conservation organizations—The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Conservation International (CI), the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF), and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)—which collectively have been nicknamed the BINGOs (Big International NGOs) by indigenous leaders."

Dreher, Axel and Valentin F. Lang. 2016. The Political Economy of International Organizations. CESIFO Working paper #6077.

"...the institution’s ideational culture is dominated by a set of ‘neoliberal’ economic beliefs."

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich. 1996. Betrayal of Science and Reason: How Anti-environmental Rhetoric Threatens Our Future. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [review by Mike Hudak]

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich. 2004. One With Nineveh: Politics, Consumption, and the Human Future. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [video lecture by P. Ehrlich] [review by Herman Daly in BioScience (PDF)]

  • "Nothing less is needed than a rapid ethical evolution toward readjusting our relationship with nature so that the preservation of biodiversity becomes akin to a religious duty." (p. 270)

Eisenstein, Charles. 2015. "Sustainable Development: Something New or More of the Same?" Resilience 25 September.

  • "Switching from chemical to herbal growth stimulants ('green' or 'sustainable' development) isn’t going to solve the problem. If development equals growth, then 'sustainable development' is an oxymoron. Poverty and ecocide are baked into the cake. It is time to transition to a world in which wealth no longer means more and more."

Eriksson, K.E. and Karl-Henrik Robèrt. 1991. "From the Big Bang to sustainable societies." Acta Oncologica 30(6 Spec No):5-14.

  • "Rather than address the millions of environmental problems one at a time, we need to approach them at the systemic level. It is essential to convert to human life-styles and forms of societal organization that are based on cyclic processes compatible with the earth's natural cycles." (p. 5)

Fearnside, Philip M. 2016. "Brazilian politics threaten environmental policies." Science 353(6301):746-748. [PDF English] [PDF Português]

Fernando, Jude L. 2003. "The power of unsustainable development: What is to be done?" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 590:6-31.

  • Abstract. “Regardless of the state of theory and practice in sustainable development, there is no doubt that an ethical/moral imperative exists to address socioeconomic inequality and degradation of the environment. To realize the goals of sustainable development, it must be liberated from its embeddedness in the ideology and institutional parameters of capitalism. This calls for a departure from the current reformist character of development theory and the practice and articulation of an alternative vision of political economy, as well as a politically strong commitment to realizing it. This endeavor should be global in scope: not in an attempt to create a homogeneous world order but rather to prevent social diversity from being reconfigured and disciplined according to the imperatives of capital. The state must play a pivotal role if social transformative efforts are to bear fruit and break through the impasse capitalism has imposed on realizing the goals of sustainable development.”

Florida, Richard. 2017. "The Unaffordable Urban Paradise. Tech startups helped turn a handful of metro areas into megastars. Now they’re tearing those cities apart. MIT Technology Review 20 June. 

  • "For years, economists, mayors, and urbanists believed that high-tech development was an unalloyed good thing, and that more high-tech startups and more venture capital investment would 'lift all boats.' But the reality is that high-tech development has ushered in a new phase of what I call winner-take-all urbanism, where a relatively small number of metro areas, and a small number of neighborhoods within them, capture most of the benefits."

Florida, Richard. 2017. The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class—and What We Can Do About It. Basic Books, New York. [NPR podcast] [review by Amy Liu] [review essay by Sam Wetherell]

Frank, Andre Gunder. 1979. Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment. Monthly Review Press, New York.

Fridell, Gavin, Daniel Jaffee, and Laura Raynolds. 2009. "Dissecting the Boom: Is Fair Trade growing its way out of its roots?" Historical Materialism 17:237-299. 

Fridell, Mara, Ian Hudson, and Mark Hudson. 2008. "With Friends Like These: The Corporate Response to Fair Trade Coffee." Review of Radical Political Economics 40:8-34. [PDF]

Fullerton, John. 2015. Regenerative Capitalism: How Universal Principles and Patterns Will Shape Our New Economy. Capital Institute, Greenwich, CT. [PDF]

  • "Capitalism as practiced today is in question for good reason. Neoliberal economics —the mechanistic, equilibrium-based theoretical construct for today's dominant form of capitalism — is built on several false assumptions that will never be addressed by contemporary political debates about how to reign in the irresponsible financial sector or how to address inequality.
  • Neo-liberal economics assumes the primacy of the individual and that broad-based prosperity can be achieved through the operations of unfettered, free markets that efficiently allocate resources, presumably maximizing what economists call the 'utility' of the participants in the system. Its mental model contains a number of assumptions, which are, in fact, all fatally flawed." (PP. 28-29)

Gaile, G.L. 1980. "The spread-backwash concept." Regional Studies 14(1):15-25. 

Gallagher, Kevin P. 2010. "China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization." Issues in Brief, #18, October 2010. Frederick S. Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer-Range Future, Boston University, Boston.  

Gallagher, Kevin P. and Daniel Chudnovsky (eds.). 2010. Rethinking Foreign Investment for Sustainable Development: Lessons from Latin America. Anthem Press, New York. [Foreword by J. Ocampo (PDF)]  [brief review]

Gamble, A. 1986. "The Political Economy of Freedom." Pages 25-54 in R. Levitas (ed.), The Ideology of the New Right. Polity, Cambridge. 

George, Susan. 1999. "A Short History of Neo-Liberalism: Twenty Years of Elite Economics and Emerging Opportunities for Structural Change." Conference on Economic Sovereignty in a Globalizing World, Bangkok, March 24-26.

Gibney, Bruce Cannon. 2017. A Generation of Sociopaths: How the Baby Boomers Betrayed America. Hachette Books, New York. [author interview on WPR] [review in The Washington Post] [brief review in Salon]

Giroux, Henry A. 2004. The Terror of Neoliberalism: Cultural Politics and the Promise of Democracy. Paradigm Publishers, Boulder.

Giroux, Henry A. 2005. "The Terror of Neoliberalism: Rethinking the Significance of Cultural Politics." College Literature 32(Winter):1-19. [PDF]

  • "Corporations more and more design not only the economic sphere but also shape legislation and policy affecting all levels of government, and with limited opposition. As corporate power lays siege to the political process, the benefits flow to the rich and the powerful." (p. 2)

Giroux, Henry A. 2010. "Business Culture and the Death of Public Education: The Triumph of Management Over Leadership." Truthout 12 November.

  • "Business management of the market fundamentalist stripe now trumps any trace of a democratic social vision, while corporate and private interests take the place of public values and notions of the collective good. Unfortunately, the real story here is not about outsiders from the business world with little classroom or educational experience being appointed to positions of leadership in public schools systems. On the contrary, it represents the rise of a market-driven culture and apparatus of power that fills the void in a society in which informed memory is under siege and neoliberal pedagogy permeates every aspect of the cultural apparatus."

Giroux, Henry A. 2012. Education and the crisis of public values. Peter Lang, New York. [abstract] [related video]

Giroux, Henry A. 2013. "Public Intellectuals against the Neoliberal University." Truthout 29 October.

Giroux, Henry A. 2015. "Democracy in Crisis, the Specter of Authoritarianism, and the Future of Higher Education." Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs 1(7):101-113. [PDF] [related interview with author]

  • "Boardman (2014) argues, the destruction of higher education, by the forces of commerce and authoritarian politics is a sad illustration of how the democratic ethos (educate everyone to their capacity, for free) has given way to exploitation (turning students into a profit center that has the serendipitous benefit of feeding inequality; para 3)." (p. 107)
  • "Higher education must be widely understood as a democratic public sphere—a space in which education enables students to develop a keen sense of prophetic justice, claim their moral and political agency, utilize critical analytical skills, and cultivate an ethical sensibility through which they learn to respect the rights of others." (p. 110)

Glaude, Eddie. 2015. Democracy in Black: How Race Still Enslaves the American Soul. Crown, New York. [interview in Salon] [discussion on Book TV (video)]

Goellner, H.E. and A.M. Weinberg. 1976. "The Age of Substitutability." Science 191:683-689.

  • Goellner is among the cornucopians and technological optimists who believe that human ingenuity responding to need and foresight is inventive enough to always find substitutes for diminishing resources, especially mineral resources, to avoid resource shortages.

Goldsmith, Edward and Jerry Mander (eds.). 2001. The Case Against the Global Economy: And for a Turn Towards Localization. Earthscan, London. [brief review]

  • Notes three critical objectives of sustainable development: "1) meet the basic needs of all people; 2) maintain biodiversity; and 3) ensure the sustained availability of comparable resource flows to future generations. Our present economic system is failing on all three counts." (Chapter 2, D. Korten, "The Failure of Bretton Woods", p. 38)

Halebsky, S. and R.L. Harris (eds.). 1995. Capital, Power, and Inequality in Latin America. Westview Press, Boulder.

Hall, Charles A.S. 1990. "Sanctioning Resource Depletion: Economic Development and NeoClassical Economics." The Ecologist 20(3):99-104. [abstract]

Hall, Peter A. and David Soskice (eds.). 2001. Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [Introduction (PDF)] [review by C. Umney] [critique by N. Kang (PDF)] [related paper (PDF)] [related paper by M. Wilkins (PDF)

Hance, Jeremy. 2016. "Has big conservation gone astray?" Mongabay Series: Evolving Conservation 26 April.

  • "The world's biggest conservation groups have embraced a human-centric approach known as 'new conservation'."

Haque, M. Shamsul. 1999. "The Fate of Sustainable Development Under Neo-liberal Regimes in Developing Countries." International Political Science Review 20(2):197-218. [PDF

Hardin, Carolyn. 2014. "Finding the 'Neo' in Neoliberalism." Cultural Studies 28(2):199-221.

  • "...what is new in neoliberalism is what I call corporism, the privileging of the form and position of corporations." (p. 199)

Harry W. Richardson. 2007. "Growth Pole Spillovers: the dynamics of backwash and spread." Regional Studies 41(S1):S27-S35. [PDF

Harvey, David. 2005. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford University Press, New York. [Author interview]

Haugard, Lisa and Kelly Nicholls. 2010. Breaking the Silence: In Search of Colombia’s Disappeared. Latin America Working Group Education Fund, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Hedges, Chris. 2009. Empire of Illusion: The End of Literacy and the Triumph of Spectacle. Nation Books, New York. [review] [lecture]

Hedges, Chris. 2013. The world as it is: dispatches on the myth of human progress, revised edition. Nation Books, New York. [author interview] [related essay] [essay related to the media] [author podcast] [podcast 2 with Q&A]

Hedges, Chris. 2015. "Sheldon Wolin and Inverted Totalitarianism." Truthdig 1 November. [Hedges interviews Wolin]

  • In classic totalitarianism, power is held by an individual or small group of leaders who use the economy to maintain its power. In inverted totalitarianism, power is held by corporations or the corporate state and politicians are manipulated to act in the interests of the corporations. 

Hedges, Chris. 2015. "The Great Unraveling." Truth Dig 30 August.

Hedges, Chris. 2017. "Fight the Disease, Not the Symptoms." TruthDig 12 November.

Hedges, Chris. 2017. Stop Fascism: Chris Hedges in Portland, Oregon. A KBOO radio benefit, published on YouTube 7 June. [Part Two: Hedges talks with Joe Sacco]

Hess, David J. 2011. "Electricity Transformed: Neoliberalism and Local Energy in the United States." Antipode 43(4):1056-1077. 

Holden, C. 1980. "The Reagan Years: Environmentalists Tremble." Science 210:988-991.

Holmberg, Susan and Mark Schmitt. 2016. "The overpaid CEO. There have been many attempts to curb exorbitant executive pay. But we won’t fix the problem until we address the nature of the corporation." Democracy 34(Fall). [reprinted as: "The Milton Friedman Doctrine Is Wrong. Here’s How to Rethink the Corporation. We won’t fix the problem until we address the nature of the corporation" in Evonomics 9 June.]  

Homer-Dixon, Thomas F. 1991. "On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict." International Security 16(2):76-116. [PDF] [related popular article by Robert Kaplan]

Hornborg, Alf. 2014. "Technology as Fetish: Marx, Latour, and the Cultural Foundations of Capitalism." Theory, Culture & Society 31 (4):119-140. [abstract] [related video] [related podcast interview]

Hurrell, Andrew and Ngaire Woods. 1995. "Globalisation and Inequality." Millennium - Journal of International Studies 24(3):447-470.

Hurrell, Andrew. 1992. "Brazil and the International Politics of Amazon Deforestation." Pages 396-420 in A. Hurrell and B. Kingbury (eds.), The International Politics of the Environment: Actors, Interests, and Institutions. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

ILO. 2011. The global crisis: Causes, responses and Challenges. International Labour Office (ILO), International Labour Organization, Geneva. [PDF

Jacques, Peter J. 2006. "How Should Corporations Deal with Environmental Scepticism?" Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 13(1):25-36. [PDF]

Johnston, David Cay. 2005. Perfectly Legal: The Covert Campaign to Rig Our Tax System to Benefit the Super Rich—and Cheat Everybody Else. Penguin Press, New York. [review in the Economist] [author discussion on C-SPAN Booknotes] [interview of David Clay Johnston by Chris Hedges]

Johnston, David Cay. 2008. Free Lunch: How the Wealthiest Americans Enrich Themselves at Government Expense (and Stick You with the Bill). Penguin, New York. 

Kahn, Richard. 2011. "How should Global Climate Change Change the Climate of Our Conversation in Education?"  Presentation, University of Oslo, 20 May, Oslo Norway. [synopsis]

Katz, Lawrence F. and Alan B. Krueger. 2017. "Documenting decline in U.S. economic mobility." Science 24 April:eaan3264.

  • "Median incomes stagnate as inequality increases."

Kay, Cristóbal. 1989. Latin American Theories of Development and Underdevelopment. Routledge, London.

Kay, Cristóbal. 1997. "Latin America’s Exclusionary Rural Development in a Neo-liberal World." Latin American Studies Association (LASA) 1997 meeting, Guadalajara, Mexico, 17-19 April. [PDF]

Kearins, Kate and Clive Gilson. 2005. "Editorial: Theoretical Perspectives on Sustainability." Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory 9(1):1-5. [PDF]

Kellogg, Paul. 2007. "Regional Integration in Latin America: Dawn of an Alternative to Neoliberalism." New Political Science 29(2):187-209. [PDF]

Kermath, Brian. 2004 [2014]. "What Is Neoliberalism?" Online at Resources for Understanding & Teaching Sustainability. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh. 

  • "Neoliberalism is defined as a political-economic philosophy and set of policies that establishes development priorities along austere capitalist paths. Its guiding principles espouse a strict adherence to free trade, market expansion, privatization, and individual responsibility. Neoliberal proponents reject governmental intervention, regulation, taxation, and the concept of the 'public good'. Although its antecedents stem from 18th and 19th Century Neoclassical economic arguments favoring market liberalization over protectionist mercantilism, neoliberalism is much more than free trade and laissez faire economics. It evolved into an ethos that its proponents believe to be superior as a guide to all forms of human organization and social behavior from setting prices and wages, allocating resources, distributing goods and services, managing environmental impacts, and cultivating human potentials."

Kinzer, Stephen. 2017. The True Flag: Theodore Roosevelt, Mark Twain, and the Birth of American Empire. Henry Holt, New York. [Author interview with Chris Hedges

Klein, Naomi. 2007. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Metropolitan Books, New York. [review 1, review 2] [related news story by Jason Mark in Salon] [related essay on hurricane Harvey] [related short video presentation by author] [related long video be author]

Klein, Naomi. 2007. This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate. Simon & Schuster, New York. [related video lecture]

Klein, Naomi. 2013. "How science is telling us all to revolt. Is our relentless quest for economic growth killing the planet? Climate scientists have seen the data – and they are coming to some incendiary conclusions." New Statesman 29 October.

Klein, Naomi. 2017. No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump's Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need. Haymarket Books, Chicago.

  • "Trump is extreme, but he's not a Martian," writes Klein. "On the contrary, he is the logical conclusion to many of the most dangerous trends of the past half century. He is the personification of the merger of humans and corporations—a one-man megabrand, with wife and children as spin-off brands."
  • “four decades of corporate, neoliberal policies and privatization, deregulation, free trade, and austerity" produced ongoing economic pain and in turn, the rise of a con-man populist like Trump.
  • "If we want to defend against the likes of Donald Trump—and every country has their own Trump—we must urgently confront and battle racism and misogyny in our culture, in our movements, and in ourselves. This cannot be an afterthought, it cannot be an add-on. It is central to how someone like Trump can rise to power."

Klikauer, Thomas. 2015. "What Is Managerialism?" Critical Sociology 41(7-8):1103-1119. [PDF] [review by S. Jaros of Klikauer's related book Managerialism: A Critique of an Ideology (PDF)]

Klikauer. Thomas. 2013. Managerialism: A Critique of an Ideology. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. [review by S. Jaros (PDF)] [related paper "What is managerialism" by Klikauer (PDF)]

Korten, David C. 2001. "The failure of Bretton Woods." Pages 35-44 in Edward Goldsmith and Jerry Mander (eds.), The Case Against the Global Economy: And for a Turn Towards Localization. Earthscan, London. [reprint of a plenary presentation in 1994]

  • Notes three critical objectives of sustainable development: "1) meet the basic needs of all people; 2) maintain biodiversity; and 3) ensure the sustained availability of comparable resource flows to future generations. Our present economic system is failing on all three counts." (p. 38)
  • "The issue is not the market per se. Trying to run an economy without markets is disastrous, as the experience of the Soviet Union demonstrated. However, there is a fundamentally important distinction between markets and free markets.

    A struggle between two extremist ideologies has been a central feature of the 20th century. Communism called for all power to the state. Market capitalism calls for all power to the market a euphemism for giant corporations. Both ideologies lead to their own distinctive form of tyranny. The secret of Western success in World War II and the early post-war period was not a free market economy. It was the practice of democratic pluralism built on institutional arrangements that seek to maintain a balance between the institutions of the state and the market and protect the right of an active citizenry to hold both institutions accountable to the public interest.

    Contrary to the claims of ideologues who preach a form of corporate libertarianism, markets need governments to function efficiently. It is well established in economic theory and practice that markets allocate resources efficiently only when firms internalize the costs of their production and when markets are competitive. Governments must set and enforce the rules that make cost internalization happen and since successful firms invariably grow larger and more monopolistic, governments must regularly step in to break them up and restore competition." (pp. 39-40)

Korten, David C. 2016. The New Economy: A Living Earth System Model. A report prepared for and published by the Next System Project, Washington, D.C. 

Kotz, David. 2003. "Neoliberalism and the U.S. Economic Expansion of the '90s." Monthly Review 54(11):15-33.

Kruse, Kevin M. 2015. One Nation Under God. How Corporate America Invented Christian America. [related essay by author] [author podcast interview] [related lecture by author] [review 1] [review 2]

Kumhof, Michael and Romain Rancière. 2010. "Inequality, Leverage and Crises." International Monetary Fund (IMF), Working Paper #WP/10/268. IMF, Washington, D.C. [PDF]  [news story]

López, Ramón. 1997. "Environmental Externalities in Traditional Agriculture and the Impact of Trade Liberalization: The Case of Ghana." Journal of Development Economics 3(1):17-39. [abstract]

Lacy, Peter, Rob Hayward, Jennifer Lee, Justin Keeble, Robert McNamara, Carrie Hall, Sean Cruse, Pranshu Gupta, and Edward Robinson. 2013. The UN Global Compact—Accenture CEO Study on Sustainability 2013: Architects of a Better World. United Nations Global Compact,  [PDF] [news story by Jo Confino in The Guardian

Lawn, Philip A. 2011. "Is steady-state capitalism viable? A review of the issues and an answer in the affirmative." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1219:1-25.

Le Mare, Ann. 2008. "The Impact of Fair Trade on Social and Economic Development: A Review of the Literature." Geography Compass 2(6):1922-1942.

  • "Abstract. This article explores the outcomes of Fair Trade for producers, artisans and their organisations. It asks the question, ‘what happens to people who are involved in Fair Trade?’, and reviews the case studies and empirical research conducted on Fair Trade for a range of products in different countries. The article is organised around important aspects of development which Fair Trade seeks to influence, including market relations, institutional development, economic development and reductions in poverty, social development, gender equity and sustainable development. The outcomes are diverse and complex, though, most studies found significant impact on social and economic aspects of development, contributing to the capacity to improve and diversify livelihoods. Fostering sustainable commercial organisations is an important contribution of Fair Trade networks. However, there appears to be less success in achieving gender equality and dealing with issues of importance to women. Both the enactment of partnership and the achievement of development goals require continuous commitment, a variety of strategies and cooperation with other actors, such as government and non-governmental organisations."

LeBaron, Genevieve. 2013. "Green NGOs cannot take big business cash and save planet." The Guardian 1 October.

Leshem, Dotan. 2016. The Origins of Neoliberalism: Modeling the Economy from Jesus to Foucault. Columbia University Press, New York. [excerpt

Levy, David L. 1997. "Environmental management as political sustainability." Organization and Environment 10(2):126-147. [PDF]

  • "On the ideological and symbolic level, EM serves to construct products and companies as 'green' and legitimizes corporate management as the primary societal agent responsible for addressing environmental issues. Together with more overtly political measures, such as forming alliances with environmental organizations, EM helps to shore up the legitimacy of the hegemonic bloc." (p. 127)

Lyon, Sarah and Mark Moberg (eds.). 2010. Fair Trade and Social Justice Global Ethnographies. New York University Press, New York. [review by Ian Hussey]

Lyon, Sarah, Josefina Aranda Bezaury, and Tad Mutersbaugh. 2010. "Gender Equity in Fairtrade–Organic Coffee Producer Organizations: Cases from Mesoamerica." GeoForum 41(1):93-103. [abstract

Lyon, Sarah. 2010. Coffee and Community: Maya Farmers and Fair-Trade Markets. University Press of Colorado, Boulder. [Introduction (PDF)] [review]

Madley, John. 2000. Hungry for Trade: How the Poor Pay for Free Trade. Zed Books, New York. [review]

Maniates, Michael F. 2001. "Individualization: Plant a tree, buy a bike, save the world?." Global Environmental Politics 1:31-52. [PDF]

  • "...the individually responsible consumer is encouraged to purchase a vast array of 'green' or 'eco-friendly' products on the promise that the more such products are purchased and consumed, the healthier the planet's ecological processes will become. 'Living lightly on the planet' and 'reducing your environmental impact' becomes, paradoxically, a consumer-product growth industry."
  • "A theory of social change that embraced the image of consumers voting with their pocketbook soon took root. Almost overnight, the responsibility for fundamental change in American consumption and production landed squarely on the backs of individual consumers—not on government (which was to be trimmed) or corporations (which were cast as victims of government meddling, and willing servants to consumer sovereignty)."

Mark, Jason. 2013. "Naomi Klein: Green groups may be more damaging than climate change deniers. The "No Logo" author explains how environmentalists may be more damaging to their cause than climate change deniers." Salon 5 September.

Mazzucato, Mariana. 2013. The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths. Anthem Press, New York. [Introduction (PDF)]

  • "Getting governments to think big again about innovation is not just about throwing more taxpayer money at more activities. It requires fundamentally reconsidering the traditional role of the State in the economy." (p. 5)

    "First, it means empowering governments to envision a direction for technological change and invest in that direction. Creating markets not only fixing them. Different from narrow attempts to identify and pick winners, envisioning a direction for economic development and technical change broadens the technological opportunity landscape and requires that the State creates a network of willing (not necessarily ‘winning’) agents that are keen to seize this opportunity through public-private partnerships. Second, it means abandoning the shortsighted way public spending is usually evaluated. Public investment should be measured by its courage in pushing markets into new areas, rather than the usual assumption of an existing market that the public and private actors must bump elbows in (one ‘crowding out’ the other). Third, it means allowing public organizations to experiment, learn and even fail! Fourth, precisely because failure is part of the trial and error process of trying to push markets into new areas, it means figuring out ways for governments and taxpayers to reap some of the rewards from the upside, rather than just de-risking the downside. Only once policymakers move past the myths about the State’s role in innovation will they stop being, as John Maynard Keynes put it in another era, 'the slaves of some defunct economist'." (p. 5)

  • Points out that in neoliberal countries, the state has considerable involvement in stimulating innovation. In the U.S., the state has been especially important in space, military, and industrial technologies, which have allowed the private sector to exploit and profit from innovations. 
  • Private sector capital is not geared to make the long-term investment necessary for innovations that need to happen in the future, and is therefore reliant on state funding for proper guidance and stimulant. This requires an active state role in entrepreneurship. For sustainability transformations, therefore, the state must be involved in guiding technologies and market mechanisms.

McAfee, Kathleen and Elizabeth N. Shapiro. 2010. "Payments for Ecosystem Services in Mexico: Nature, Neoliberalism, Social Movements, and the State." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 100(3):1-21.

McAfee, Kathleen. 2012. "The Contradictory Logic of Global Ecosystem Services Markets." Development and Change 43(1):105-131.

Meadway, James and Kirsty Styles. 2015. Beginners Guide to Neoliberalism. Weekly Economics Podcast, Six-part Miniseries, New Economics Foundation, London. [podcast]  

Milne, Marcus J. and Rob Gray. 2013. "W(h)ither ecology? The triple bottom line, the global reporting initiative, and corporate sustainability reporting." Journal of Business Ethics 118(1):13-29.

  • "…the TBL and the GRI are insufficient conditions for organizations contributing to the sustaining of the Earth’s ecology. Paradoxically, they may reinforce business-as-usual and greater levels of un-sustainability." (p.13)

Mirowski, Philip. 2013. Never Let a Serious Crisis go to Waste: How Neoliberalism Survived the Financial Meltdown. Verso, London.

Moberg, Mark. 2014. Certification and Neoliberal Governance: Moral Economies of Fair Trade in the Eastern Caribbean. American Anthropologist 116(1):8-22. 

  • "Abstract. Many consumers and food-justice activists regard Fair Trade as a moral alternative to markets dominated by corporate agribusiness. Fair Trade frames producer–consumer relationships in the language of reciprocity and justice rather than the impersonal logic of the market. Despite its moral economy discourse, the movement embodies neoliberal assumptions that regulation and development should occur through the realm of consumer choice rather than state intervention. To receive the higher prices that Fair Trade promises, farmers are subject to certification processes that heavily regulate their planting practices and development priorities. Here I explore the contrasting views of economic morality held by Fair Trade organizations and Caribbean banana farmers. Farmers do not view Fair Trade in terms of the lofty values of social justice and reciprocity animating the movement's discourse. Rather, they operate with a working definition of economic morality similar to those elucidated by E. P. Thompson, James Scott, Marc Edelman, and others who have examined peasant and worker responses to injustice. From farmers’ points of view, compliance with Fair Trade certification should at least enable them to persist in agriculture. As Fair Trade prices have fallen while surveillance of their working lives has increased, many regard this notion of economic morality as increasingly violated."

Momsen, J. 1998. "Caribbean Tourism and Agriculture: New Linkages in the Global Era?" Pages 115-133 in T. Klak Lanham (ed.), Globalization and Neoliberalism: The Caribbean Context, Rowman & Littleman, Oxford.

Monbiot, George. 2010. "For the Conservatives, this is not a financial crisis but a long-awaited opportunity. In a classic example of 'disaster capitalism', the cuts are being used to reshape the economy in the interests of business – and to trash the public sector." The Guardian 18 October. 

Monbiot, George. 2014. "Deviant and Proud. Do you feel left out? Perhaps it’s because you refuse to succumb to the competition, envy and fear neoliberalism breeds." The Guardian 6 August. 

Monbiot, George. 2014. “If you think we're done with neoliberalism, think again: The global application of a fraudulent economic theory brought the west to its knees. Yet for those in power, it offers riches”. The Gaurdian 14 January.

Monbiot, George. 2016. "Neoliberalism – the ideology at the root of all our problems." The Guardian 15 April. 

Monbiot, George. 2017. "Too right it's Black Friday: our relentless consumption is trashing the planet." The Guardian 22 November. [republished on Monbiot’s blog as "Everything must go."]

  • "I know people who recycle meticulously, save their plastic bags, carefully measure the water in their kettles, then take their holidays in the Caribbean, cancelling any environmental savings a hundredfold. I’ve come to believe that the recycling licences their long-haul flights. It persuades people they’ve gone green, enabling them to overlook their greater impacts."

Morris, Jason. 2013. "The Evolving Localism (and Neoliberalism) of Urban Renewable Energy Projects." Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment 35(1):16-29. 

Moser, Stephanie and Silke Kleinhückelkotten. 2017. "Good Intents, but Low Impacts: Diverging Importance of Motivational and Socioeconomic Determinants Explaining Pro-Environmental Behavior, Energy Use, and Carbon Footprint." Environment and Behavior 9 June. [related news column by George Monbiot in The Guardian]

  • "Regression analyses revealed people’s environmental self-identity to be the main predictor of pro-environmental behavior; however, environmental self-identity played an ambiguous role in predicting actual environmental impacts. Instead, environmental impacts were best predicted by people’s income level. Our results show that individuals with high pro-environmental self-identity intend to behave in an ecologically responsible way, but they typically emphasize actions that have relatively small ecological benefits." (p. 1)

Moser, Stephanie and Silke Kleinhückelkotten. 2017. "Good Intents, but Low Impacts: Diverging Importance of Motivational and Socioeconomic Determinants Explaining Pro-Environmental Behavior, Energy Use, and Carbon Footprint." Environment and Behavior 9 June. [related news column by George Monbiot in The Guardian]

Mosse, David. 2005. Cultivating Development: An Ethnography of Aid Policy and Practice. Pluto Press, London. [PDF] [Chapter 6, "Consultant Knowledge" (PDF)] [review by P. Fountain] [review by B. Büscher (PDF)]

Munck, Ronaldo. 2013. Rethinking Latin America: Development, Hegemony, and Social Transformation. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. [review by Nathan Sperber

  • Dependency theory, which dates to 1949, continues to explain the status of Latin America in the world order.

Nader, Ralph. 2014. Unstoppable: The Emerging Left-Right Alliance to Dismantle the Corporate State. Nation Books, New York. [review in the Washington Post] [interview with Nader in Salon] [related article by Bill Curry in Salon] [video interview on Democracy Now!

Nair, Yasmin. 2017. "The Dangerous Academic is an Extinct Species. If these ever existed at all, they are now deader than dodos. Current Affairs 18 April.

  • "If anything, the university has only gotten less dangerous in recent years. Campuses like Berkeley were once centers of political dissent. There was open confrontation between students and the state. In May of 1970, the Ohio National Guard killed four students at Kent State. Ten days later, police at the historically black Jackson State University fired into a crowd of students, killing two. At Cornell in 1969, armed black students took over the student union building in a demand for recognition and reform, part of a pattern of serious upheaval. But over the years the university became corporatized. It became a job training center rather than an educational institution. Academic research became progressively more specialized, narrow, technical, and obscure. (The most successful scholarship is that which seems to be engaged with serious social questions, but does not actually reach any conclusions that would force the Professor to leave his office.)"

Nederveen Pieterse, Jan. 1998. "My Paradigm or Yours? Alternative Development, Post-Development, Reflexive Development." Development and Change 29:343-373. [PDF]

Nugent, David (ed.). 2002. Locating Capitalism in Time and Space: Global Restructurings, Politics, and Identity. Stanford University Press, Redwood City, California.

Nylen, William. 2003. Participatory Democracy versus Elitist Democracy: Lessons from Brazil. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. [review]

Oreskes, Naomi and Erik M. Conway. 2013. "The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View from the Future." Dædalus, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences 142(1):41-58. [PDF]

Paehlke, Robert C. 1989. Environmentalism and the Future of Progressive Politics. Yale University Press, New Haven. [review]

Parenti, Christian. 2012. Tropic of Chaos: Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence. Nation Books, New York. [video lecture by Parenti

Parr, Adrian. 2013. The Wrath of Capital: Neoliberalism and Climate Change Politics. Columbia University Press, New York. [excellent review by Allan Stoekl]

  • From the Stoekl review:

"Counting on individuals alone to solve the ‘environmental problem’ is itself a symptom of the overarching problem: the current ideological triumph of a relentless capitalist neoliberalism, grounded above all in the supposed wants and needs of the (consumerist) individual."

"Typically, authors focus on individual responses to these problems: for example, changes proposed include eating less meat; driving less or not at all; living in a compact city; recycling, dumpster diving, and so on. Only if a significant portion of the world population decides on these changes, individually or in small groups, will the world somehow be ‘saved’."

Passet, René. 2002. A Ilusão Neoliberal: O Homem é Joguete ou Actor da História? Terramar, Lisboa. 

Pearse, Rebecca and Steffen Böhm. 2014. "Ten reasons why carbon markets will not bring about radical emissions reduction." Carbon Management 17 February. [abstract

Peck, Jamie. 2010. "Zombie neoliberalism and the ambidextrous state." Theoretical Criminology 14(1):104-110. [PDF]

  • "Neoliberalism, in this sense, is not what it used to be (and it can never be what it used to be). From dogmatic deregulation to market-friendly reregulation, from structural adjustment to good governance, from budget cuts to regulation-by-audit, from welfare retrenchment to active social policy, from privatization to public-private partnership, from greed-is-good to markets-with-morals … the variegated face of ‘roll-out’ neoliberalism represents, at the same time, a deeply consolidated and a crisis-driven form of market rule." (p. 106)

Perelman, Michael. 2003. The Perverse Economy: The Impact of Markets on People and the Environment. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. [review]

Perelman, Michael. 2006. Railroading Economics: The Creation of the Free Market Mythology. Monthly Review Press, New York. 

Ritzer, George. 1995. The McDonaldization of Society: An Investigation into the Changing Character of Contemporary Social Life (Revised edition). Pine Forge Press, London. [discussion 1] [discussion 2]

Robèrt, Karl-Henrik, Herman Daly, Paul Hawken, and John Holmber. 1997. "A Compass for Sustainable Development." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 4:79-92. [PDF]

Robèrt et al. articulate eight "critical requirements for a theoretical model of sustainability:

  • a. The model must be based on a scientifically acceptable conception of the world. 
  • b. The model must contain a scientifically supportable definition of sustainability. 
  • c. The overall perspective must be applicable at different scales, and must see the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem at each scale. Individuals must see how their actions aggregate from micro scales up to the macro scale, and thus understand their role in the overall move toward sustainability. 
  • d. The micro-economical perspective should not require individuals to act against self interest. We may need some altruistic behavior in the political task of setting up the rules of the game, but in the actual playing of the game we should not expect individuals to behave altruistically. 
  • e. The model must be pedagogical and simple to disseminate so that it can support a public consensus necessary to be put into practice democratically. 
  • f. The model must not engender unnecessary resistance or be adversarial. 
  • g. The model must be able to get started without first requiring large scale societal changes. It should be implementable within today’s economic reality. Business corporations, political parties and the public should be able to use the model directly. 
  • h. It would be an advantage if the model could also be used as a starting point for developing “new economics” — as a way to recognize a new and larger pattern of scarcity to which old and basic economizing principles must be applied." (pp. 80-81)

"Previous models satisfy few of these demands. Some of the requirements are satisfied, but many models fail requirement b), which means the rest fail automatically." (p. 81)

The authors also identify four required system conditions:

  • "System condition # 1: Substances from the lithosphere must not systematically increase in the ecosphere."
  • "System condition # 2: Substances produced by society must not systematically increase in the ecosphere."
  • "System condition # 3: The physical basis for the productivity and diversity of Nature must not be systematically deteriorated."
  • "System condition # 4: Fair and efficient use of resources with respect to meeting human needs."

Robertson, Morgan M. "The Neoliberalization of Ecosystem Services: Wetland Mitigation Banking and the Problem of Measurement." Pages 114-124 in Nik Heynen, James McCarthy, Scott Prudham, and Paul Robbins (eds.), Neoliberal Environments: False Promises and Unnatural Consequences. Routledge, New York. 

Robin, Corey. 2013. The Reactionary Mind: Conservatism from Edmund Burke to Sarah Palin. Oxford University Press, New York. [related interview video]

Roos, Jerome. 2012. "Since the Mexican debt crisis, 30 years of neoliberalism." RoarMag.org 22 August. 

Rosenfeld, Seth. 2012. Subversives: The FBI's War on Student Radicals, and Reagan's Rise to Power. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York. 

Rottenberg, Catherine. 2013. "The Rise of neoliberal feminism." Cultural Studies 28(3):418-437. [abstract]

Ryan, Liz. 2014. "'If You Can't Measure It, You Can't Manage It': Not True." Forbes 10 February.

  • When you put on an event for the students on your floor, as an RA, I asked the young man hosting the call, how do you measure its success? You report the number of students who came to the event, he said. Of course, I replied. Forty people could show up, sit in their chairs, begin to listen to the speaker, be horrified at the awfulness of the talk and gradually dribble out the door over an hour's time, but you'd be able to report forty attendees! Now, if seven people came to the event and got into a real, community-building conversation about something important, you'd look like a failure as an RA because you didn't hit the headcount mark for your event. That's backwards. What is the purpose of a floor event when you're an RA - to build trust and community, right? But Godzilla can't see that. Godzilla loves the metrics, whether they're significant or not."
  • "Measurement is our opiate of choice in the business world precisely because it temporarily allays fear all the way up the ladder. Look boss, there's the number, right there on the chart—I hit the mark, so don't blame me!"

Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2010. "America’s Deepening Moral Crisis." Project Syndicate 30 September.

Sachs, Wolfgang. 1997. "No Sustainability without Development." Aisling Magazine.

Sandberg, Sheryl. 2013. Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead. Knopf, New York.

Schmitz, Hubert and Ian Scoones. 2015. Accelerating Sustainability: Why Political Economy Matters. September  Evidence Report #152, Policy Anticipation, Response and Evaluation, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, U.K. [PDF]

  • "Yet, as critics of the neoliberal order point out, such dynamics will only reinforce extractive and exploitative capitalist relations (cf. O’Connor 1994; Magdoff and Bellamy Foster 2010). Given the relentless search for profit, will capitalism really be able to save itself from environmental disaster? Does a sustainability transformation really mean old-style polluting fossil fuel conglomerates refashioning themselves for new ‘green’ markets? Is the ‘green economy’ not just a façade for the replication of the existing neoliberal economy, a reinvention of an old argument for ecological modernisation without challenging the power relations that created the sustainability crisis in the first place? Will they be committed to sustainability for the long term, if the price of carbon or other incentives drop away? And if carbon emissions are reduced, is this the only element of sustainability that matters?" (p. 21)
  • "Mariana Mazzucato points out in her book The Entrepreneurial State (2013), that in many countries that appear at face-value the epitome of the neoliberal, free-market setting – for example the US – the state has had considerable involvement in key processes of innovation, including in ‘green’ technologies. State funding for space exploration, military equipment or industrial engineering has provided the core funds that have allowed private companies to exploit and profit from such innovations. Private venture capital, she argues, is too impatient to make the long-term investment necessary for breakthrough innovations, and hence state funding is needed to get things moving. This requires setting priorities, picking winners, providing funds for the long term and ensuring that technologies move to market use later in the cycle. This requires actually quite an active – and entrepreneurial – state that in her comparative review appears in some places more than others. This has important lessons for sustainability transformations, as state-backed shaping and guiding of technology or market trajectories can be crucial. Indeed, most of the ‘market-led’ examples highlighted in the previous section require some form of state intervention, even if in a fairly limited regulatory role." (p. 21)
  • "Linking wider social movements – around human rights, labour, land and other issues – with ‘green’ movements presents the possibility of networking across movements around progressive alternatives that challenge the neoliberal mainstream (Jamison 2001). The environmental movement, born out of the growth in environmental awareness in the North, but also appearing under different guises in the global South, has been notoriously bad at linking environmental issues to wider rights, livelihoods and other concerns that allow a wider mobilisation in society, with real political clout. The few green parties that contest elections have made limited inroads into mainstream politics outside the coalition politics of continental Europe." (p. 23)

Schnaiberg, Alan and Ken Gould. 1994. Environment and Society: The Enduring Conflict. St. Martin's Press, New York. (Reprinted in 2000 by Blackburn Press, Caldwell, New Jersey.)

  • Schnaiberg and Gould point to recycling on college campuses as an example of how campus administrations appease students and other campus advocates with feel-good initiatives. Students get involved in recycling because it is relatively easy to manage and generally well accepted by administrations eager to do the right thing, but less willing to make more substantive changes in the day to-day operations of their institutions. While the authors point out that recycling is generally good, they argue that it does little to alter what they call the "treadmill of production," and that it is more important to reduce consumption.

Shannon, Jerry. 2013. "Food deserts: Governing obesity in the neoliberal city." Progress in Human Geography 29 April. [abstract]

Shelton, Jon. 2013. Against the Public: Teacher Strikes and the Decline of Liberalism, 1968-1981. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park. [PDF] [review by Joseph Hower]

Shiva, Vandana. 2013. "How economic growth has become anti-life. An obsession with growth has eclipsed our concern for sustainability, justice and human dignity. But people are not disposable – the value of life lies outside economic development." The Guardian 1 November.

Shivji, Issa G. 2007. Silences in NGO discourse: The role and future of NGOs in Africa. Pambazuka Press, Fahamu – Networks for Social Justice, Nairobi and Oxford. [PDF] [review essay by Michael Barker]

  • "Within this context, NGOs are neither a third sector, nor independent of the state. Rather they are inextricably imbricated in the neoliberal offensive, which follows on the heels of the crisis of the national project. Unless there is awareness on the part of NGOs of this fundamental moment in the struggle between imperialism and nationalism, they end up playing the role of ideological and organisational foot soldier of imperialism, however this is described." (p.29)
  • "To pretend that society is a harmonious whole of stakeholders is to be complicit in perpetrating the status quo in the interest of the dominant classes and powers. In the struggle between national liberation and imperialist domination, and between social emancipation and capitalist slavery, NGOs have to choose sides. In this there are no in-betweens." (p.41)

Simon, Julian L. 1994. "More People, Greater Wealth, More Resources, Healthier Environment." Economic Affairs 14(3):22-29.

Simon, Julian L. 1996. The Ultimate Resource, 2nd Edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton.   [review of 1st Edition by Herman Daly]   [related critical essay "Perilous Optimism" by Ernest Partridge]

Slaughter, Anne-Marie. 2012. "Why Women Still Can’t Have It All. It’s time to stop fooling ourselves, says a woman who left a position of power: the women who have managed to be both mothers and top professionals are superhuman, rich, or self-employed. If we truly believe in equal opportunity for all women, here’s what has to change." The Atlantic July/August.

Spangenberg, Joachim H. 2004. "Sustainability beyond Environmentalism: The Missing Dimensions." Governance for Sustainable Development, Working Paper 2. [PDF]

Spangenberg, Joachim H. 2013b. "Pick Simply the Best: Sustainable Development is about Radical Analysis and Selective Synthesis, not about Old Wine in New Bottles." Sustainable Development 21(2):101-111. [abstract]

  • [Looking to the future] "The resulting society might still be called a capitalist one; it would significantly differ from current capitalism, but not resemble past socialist economies. Rather than categorizing it as one or the other, or than deriving new ‘-isms’, the discussion should focus on the practical means to pursue the sustainable transformation of our societies and economies." (p. 101)

Spangenberg, Joachim H. 2016. "The world we see shapes the world we create:how the underlying worldviews lead to different recommendations from environmental and ecological economics – the green economy example." International Journal of Sustainable Development 19(2):127-146.

  • "The ability of neoclassical economics to survive in the political arena despite its flaws and the economic disasters caused by relying on it is not due to its predictive capabilities or mathematical rigour, but rather due to its function as legitimation science – power supports the science legitimising power. The capitalist accumulation regime and its inherent growth tendency, along with the limited ability to distribute the wealth created are legitimised by a world view explaining that this is as the world must be. Alternatives are declared to be rather unthinkable (illusionary, day dreams, unrealistic, castles in the air etc. are terms used to discredit suggestions for change)." (p. 142)

Speth, James Gustave and Peter M. Haas (eds.). 2006. Global Environmental Governance: Foundations of Contemporary Environmental Studies. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [review by Daniel Esty in Global Governance (PDF)]

Speth, James Gustave. 2005. Red Sky at Morning: America and the Crisis of the Global Environment, 2nd Edition. Yale University Press, New Haven. [author presentation] [Chapter 1: "A World of Wounds"] [review by Dave Haven and Diane Bates]

  • "No president since Carter has given prority to global-scale environmental challenges. The failure has been truly bipartisan. These issues more than most require true political leadership." (p. 9)
  • "Regarding this growth, here is what happened in just the past twenty years: 1) Global population up 35 %; 2) World economic output up 75 %; 3) Global energy use up 40 %; Global meat consumption up 70 %; 4) World auto production up 45 %; 5) Global paper use up 90 %; 6) Advertising globally up 100 %. Today, the world economy is poised to quadruple in size again by midcentury, just as it did in the last half-century." (p. 20-21)

  • "Humans dominate the planet today as never before. We now live in a full world. An unprecedented responsibility for planetary management is now thrust upon us, whether we like it or not. This huge new burden, for which there is no precedent and little preparation, is the price of our economic success. We brought it upon ourselves, and we must turn to it with urgency and with even greater determination and political attention than has been brought to liberalizing trade and making the world safe for market capitalism. The risks of inaction extend beyond unprecedented environmental deterioration. Following closely in its wake would be widespread loss of livelihoods, social tensions and conflict, and huge economic costs." (pp. 21-22)

Springer, Simon. 2010. "Neoliberalism and Geography: Expansions, Variegations, Formations." Geography Compass 4(8):1025-1038. [PDF]

Springer, Simon. 2016. "Fuck Neoliberalism." ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 15(2):285-292. [video presentation]

Springett, Delyse. 2003. "Business conceptions of sustainable development: a perspective from critical theory." Business Strategy and the Environment 12(2):71-86. [related Ph.D. thesis by author (PDF)]

  • "It is argued that the predominating 'green business' discourse engages only superficially with sustainable development, and that what is now needed is a discourse of business and sustainable development framed in critical theory."

Springett, Delyse. 2005. "Critical Perspectives on Sustainable Development." Sustainable Development 13:209-211. [abstract]

Springett, Delyse. 2006. "Managing the narrative of sustainable development: 'discipline' of an 'inefficient' concept." International Journal of Green Economics 1(1-2). [abstract]

  • Managerialism is largely driving the debate. 

Steier, Gabriela. 2011. "Externalities in Industrial Food Production: The Costs of Profit." Dartmouth Law Journal 9(3):163-197. [PDF]

  • "The large food companies' failure to internalize food production costs creats negative externalities and economic deficiencies in the food market. Government regulation to-date is insufficient to stop the externalization of costs. Poor eating habits of the general public promote such market failures and are controlled by misinformation, advertisements, and unhealthy foods. Until…citizens and lawyers use tort law to force the food producers to internalize the food production costs, the market will continue to fail." (p. 163)

Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2002b. "Globalism's Discontents." The American Prospect 13(1):A16-A21. [PDF]

Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2017. "Austerity has strangled Britain. Only Labour will consign it to history." The Guardian 7 June. 

  • "Neoliberalism was a creature of the Reagan and Thatcher era. Austerity is its death rattle. Before it does any more damage, Britain needs a plan for growth."

Sunderlin, William D. 1995. "Managerialism and the Conceptual Limits of Sustainable Development." Society and Natural Resources 8(6):481-492. [abstract] [summary]

  • Concludes that competing paradigms, that includes neoliberal interests, leave little prospect for establishing a unified concept of sustainable development.

Tabi, Andrea. 2013. "Does pro-environmental behaviour affect carbon emissions?" Energy Policy 63:972-981.

  • "Results of the data analysis show that no significant difference is found between the impacts of environmentally aware and environmentally unaware consumers, i.e. both 'Brown' and 'Supergreen' consumers consume approximately the same amount of energy and produce approximately the same amount of carbon emissions because the motivation-driven activities of 'Supergreens' are offset by structural factors." (p. 972)

Tarnoff, Ben. 2016. "Neoliberalism turned our world into a business. And there are two big winners. Fearmongering Donald Trump and optimistic Silicon Valley seem to epitomize opposing ideologies. But the two have far more in common than you think." The Guardian 13 December.

Temple, James. 2017. "Why Bad Things Happen to Clean-Energy Startups. New technologies for storing power from wind and solar farms will be key to a clean-energy future. But Aquion Energy’s recent bankruptcy shows the market challenge of making that happen." MIT Technology Review 19 June.

  • "The fear, however, is that market mechanisms alone aren’t working fast enough given the pace at which the world needs to cut emissions to avoid the greatest threats of climate change. One tool that could accelerate the shift is smart public policy. Carbon taxes, or cap-and-trade programs like the ones in place in California, New York, and other states, raise the cost of using fossil-fuel plants and increase the incentives to add more renewables and storage to the grid. There are more direct ways the government can support the sector as well, such as California’s requirement that state utilities add more than 1.3 gigawatts of storage to the grid by the end of this decade, or federal grant and loan programs for promising startups."
  • "But ultimately, nascent storage technologies are fighting forces embedded deep in the core of capitalism. Markets consolidate around dominant technologies and companies. It often takes a radical advance to shake up the old order, and in the energy sector those don’t come along often."

Thompson, Derek. 2012. "Tax Cuts Don't Lead to Economic Growth, a New 65-Year Study Finds. The Atlantic 16 September.

Tokar, Brian. 1997. "Questioning Official Environmentalism." Z Magazine 1 April.

  • "…Earth Day was going to be a politically safe event, with almost no attention toward the institutions or the economic system responsible for ecocide, nothing about confronting corporate polluters, nothing about changing the structures of society. The overriding message was simply, 'change your lifestyle': recycle, drive less, stop wasting energy, buy better appliances, etc. Celebrations in several major U.S. cities were supported by some of the most notorious corporate polluters—companies like Monsanto, Peabody Coal, and Georgia Power, to name a few. Everyone from the nuclear power industry to the Chemical Manufacturers’ Association took out full-page advertisements in newspapers and magazines proclaiming that, for them, 'Every day is Earth Day.' The now-familiar greenwashing of Earth Day had clearly begun."
  • "The Multinational Monitor found that 23 directors and council members from Audubon, NRDC, the Wilderness Society, the World Resources Institute, and World Wildlife Fund were associated with 19 corporations cited in a recent survey of the 500 worst industrial polluters. These companies included such recognized environmental offenders as Union Carbide, Exxon, Monsanto, Weyerhaeuser, DuPont, and Waste Management, Inc. Furthermore, some 67 individuals associated with just 7 environmental groups served as CEOs, chairpersons, presidents, consultants or directors for 92 major corporations."
  • "To challenge the hegemony of the voices of official environmentalism on the national level will ultimately require more active and diverse networks of grassroots activists, organized and coordinated from the ground up. Such networks have begun to appear in the environmental justice movement, as well as among grassroots forest activists. Activists working on similar issues and facing an increasingly unified corporate agenda need to find ways to join forces across boundaries of geography, ethnicity, class, and specific-issue focus." 
  • "The official Earth Day 1995 petition, addressed with a puzzling forthrightness to House Speaker Newt Gingrich, began, “With major polluters such as Texaco and Monsanto attempting to ‘sponsor’ Earth Day, and every politician in the nation claiming to be ‘for the environment,’ it is getting hard to figure out who is really protecting the planet and who is poisoning it.” The corporate co-optation of Earth Day, an idea that provoked intense controversy in 1990, and brought hundreds of people to demonstrate on Wall Street, had become conventional wisdom by mid-decade. Will activists in 1997 begin to chart a different path?"

Tokar, Brian. 2014. "The Myths of Green Capitalism." New Politics 14(4):56.

  • "By 1990, as environmentalists were gathering to celebrate the twentieth anniversary of the first Earth Day, a new kind of environmental politics was emerging from America's boardrooms, an overtly corporate environmentalism that extolled the virtues of the capitalist 'free market' and suggested that adjustments in personal lifestyles through “green” consumerism were a better way to curtail pollution and further environmental goals while simultaneously increasing profits."

  • "To this day, market enthusiasts extol the EPA’s acid rain program as a successful example of how emissions trading can help lower the costs of environmental compliance. But in practice, it demonstrated some predictable features of an essentially artificial new commodity market, including overwhelming dominance by major players and distorting trade-offs between market behavior and regulatory compliance. In the end it confirmed that regulation remains a far more efficient means of achieving environmental goals."

  • "…carbon offsets allow corporations to postpone investments in necessary emissions reductions at home, and ultimately represent a gaping hole in any mandated 'cap' in carbon dioxide emissions. They are a means for polluting industries to continue business as usual while contributing, marginally at best, to overall emissions reductions."
  • Many argue "...that socially responsible investing and 'triple bottom lines' (monetary, social, and environmental) can sufficiently transform the business world. Environmental economists have come up with far more sophisticated measures of social and environmental costs and benefits, seeking to substitute more nuanced measures of 'genuine progress' for conventional GDP calculations. All these approaches, however, serve to obscure the inherently anti-ecological character of capitalism. A system that concentrates political and economic power in the hands of those who pursue the accumulation of capital without restraint is going to continue to demand expansion and growth, however skilled we may become at measuring our ecological footprint. The imperative to grow and accumulate in turn redoubles the economy’s impacts on the earth’s threatened ecosystems. While environmentalists continue to work toward feasible near-term solutions to pollution, biodiversity loss, and the destabilization of the climate, it is also essential to look forward toward a genuinely ecological and democratic alternative both in economics and politics."

Tornell, Aarón and Andrés Velasco. 1992. "The Tragedy of the Commons and Economic Growth: Why Does Capital Flow from Poor to Rich Countries?" Journal of Political Economy 100(6):1208-1231.  [abstract]

Trainer, Ted. 1990. "A rejection of the Brundtland Report." IFAD Dossier 77(May/June):71-84.

  • Abstract. "The paper examines the Brundtland Report, Our common future, submitted to the World Commission on Environment and Development. The discussions of particular problems on the environment, energy, resources, industry and development contained in the report are examined. It is argued that the Brundtland Report is a regressive document which reinforces the belief that growth and affluence are necessary to solve problems related to the environment. Although it offers a valuable documentation on these problems, the report fails to identify the fundamental causes of the problems and as a result it puts forward solutions which are the direct opposite of those required. It is a conventional statement that argues for continuation of the same basic values, systems and strategies, which are the very roots of the problems to which the report was intending to offer solutions." (p. 71)

Trentmann, Frank. 2007. "Before 'Fair Trade': Empire, Free Trade, and the Moral Economies of Food in the Modern World." Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 25:1079-1102.

Truelove, Heather Barnes, Amanda R. Carrico, Elke U. Weber, Kaitlin Toner Raimi, and Michael P. Vandenbergh. 2014. "Positive and negative spillover of pro-environmental behavior: An integrative review and theoretical framework." Global Environmental Change 29:127-138. [PDF]

Truelove, Heather Barnes, Kam Leung Yeung, Amanda R. Carrico, Ashley J. Gilles, and Kaitlin Toner Raimi. 2016. "From plastic bottle recycling to policy support: An experimental test of pro-environmental spillover." Journal of Environmental Psychology 46:55-66.

Useche, Bernardo and Amalia Cabezas. 2005. "The Vicious Cycle of AIDS, Poverty, and Neoliberalism." Americas Program, Special Report (December), International Relations Center, Silver City, New Mexico.

Vera-Diaz, Maria del Carmen, Robert K. Kaufmann, and Daniel C. Nepstad. 2009. "The Environmental Impacts of Soybean Expansion and Infrastructure Development in Brazil’s Amazon Basin." Working Paper #09-05, May 2009, Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts.  [PDF]

Verhaeghe, Paul. 2014. What About Me? The struggle for identity in a market-based society. Scribe, London. [related paper by George Monbiot]

Wagner, Gernot. 2011. "Going Green but Getting Nowhere." The New York Times 7 September. [related video lecture by Gernot]

  • "The reality is that we cannot overcome the global threats posed by greenhouse gases without speaking the ultimate inconvenient truth: getting people excited about making individual environmental sacrifices is doomed to fail."

Wagner, Gernot. 2011. But Will the Planet Notice? How Smart Economics Can Save the World. Hill and Wang, New York. [related essay by author in The New York Times: "Going Green but Getting Nowhere"] [related video presentatio by author]

  • General takeaway: individual behavior is fine, but sweeping policies are needed for real progress.
  • "A 5% gasoline price increase leads to a 3% consumption reduction in the U.S." (from video lecture)
  • From video: benefits of clean air act exceeded costs 30 to 1.
  • From video: "Starting next year flying in Europe at least will no longer be socialized. With the CO2 pollution costs paid by society and it won’t be up to a few volunteers paying a few bucks extra for the flight, everyone will be doing it. That’s the kind of policy change that really makes a difference." (24:14) [By socialized, he means dumping the costs of negative externalities on the larger society.]

Walker, Alexis. 2017. "Narrating health and scarcity: Guyanese healthcare workers, development reformers, and sacrifice as solution from socialist to neoliberal governance." Social Science and Medicine doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.01.062.

  • Abstract. "In oral history interviews, Guyanese healthcare workers emphasize continuity in public health governance throughout the late twentieth century, despite major shifts in broader systems of governance during this period. I argue that these healthcare workers' recollections reflect long-term scarcities and the discourses through which both socialist politicians and neoliberal reformers have narrated them. I highlight the striking similarities in discourses of responsibility and efficiency advanced by socialist politicians in 1970s Guyana and by World Bank representatives designing the country's market transition in the late 1980s, and the ways these discourses have played out in Guyana's health system. Across diverging ideologies, politicians and administrators have promoted severe cost-control as the means to a more prosperous future, presenting short-term pains as necessary to creating new, better, leaner ways of life. In the health sector this has been enacted through a focus on self-help, and on nutrition as a tool available without funds dedicated for pharmaceuticals, advanced medical technologies, or a fully staffed public health system. I argue that across these periods Guyanese citizens have been offered a very similar recipe of ongoing sacrifice. I base my analysis on oral histories with forty-six healthcare workers conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Guyana in Regions 3, 4, 5, 9, and 10, as well as written records from World Bank and Guyanese national archives; I analyze official discourses as well as recollections and experiences of public health governance by those working in Guyana's health system."

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 2004. "After Developmentalism and Globalization, What?" Keynote address at the Development Challenges for the 21st Century Conference, Cornell University, Ithaca, 1 October. [PDF]

Ward, James D., Paul C. Sutton, Adrian D. Werner, Robert Costanza, Steve H. Mohr, and Craig T. Simmons. 2016. "Is Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact Possible?" PLOS One 11(10):e0164733.

  • Abstract: "The argument that human society can decouple economic growth—defined as growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP)—from growth in environmental impacts is appealing. If such decoupling is possible, it means that GDP growth is a sustainable societal goal. Here we show that the decoupling concept can be interpreted using an easily understood model of economic growth and environmental impact. The simple model is compared to historical data and modelled projections to demonstrate that growth in GDP ultimately cannot be decoupled from growth in material and energy use. It is therefore misleading to develop growth-oriented policy around the expectation that decoupling is possible. We also note that GDP is increasingly seen as a poor proxy for societal wellbeing. GDP growth is therefore a questionable societal goal. Society can sustainably improve wellbeing, including the wellbeing of its natural assets, but only by discarding GDP growth as the goal in favor of more comprehensive measures of societal wellbeing."

WCED. 1987. Report of the World Commission on Environmenta and Development: Our Common Future. United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, Oxford University Press, London. (Chaired by Gro Brundtland, the publication also is referred to as the Brundtland Report.) [PDF] [Chapter Two with a focus on growth]

Werfel, Seth H. 2017. "Household behaviour crowds out support for climate change policy when sufficient progress is perceived." Nature Climate Change 12 June. [story in Scientific American by Knvul Sheikh]

  • "…household behaviour may crowd out public support for government action by creating the perception of sufficient progress."
  • "...study in Japan finds that after people unplug appliances and turn down the A-C, they are more resistant to nationwide climate change measures." (Sheikh, Scientific American 21 June)

Wicker, Alden. 2017. "Conscious consumerism is a lie. Here’s a better way to help save the world." Quartz 1 March.

  • "There’s also the issue of privilege. The sustainability movement has been charged with being elitist—and it most certainly is. You need a fair amount of disposable income to afford ethical and sustainable consumption options, the leisure time to research the purchasing decisions you make, the luxury to turn up your nose at 95% of what you’re offered, and, arguably, a post-graduate degree in chemistry to understand the true meaning behind ingredient labels."
  • "Choosing fashion made from hemp, grilling the waiter about how your fish was caught, and researching whether your city can recycle bottle caps might make you feel good, reward a few social entrepreneurs, and perhaps protect you from charges of hypocrisy. But it’s no substitute for systematic change."

Wilk, Richard. 2013. "Green Consumerism Is No Solution." HuffPost, The Blog 14 June (updated 14 August).

  • "Goodness and moral values have been privatized in our post-Reagan-Thatcher neoliberal world. 'Green' consumer goods promise...that we can change the world without sacrifice, or any more effort than smarter shopping."
  • "Those of us concerned with the real impacts of global consumer culture are stuck in the territory between cynicism and tokenism, trying to think more productively about the kinds of strategies that can make a symbolic and material difference. We hope that the passive activism of green (or greenish) consumption can connect with more overtly political activities…"

Wise, Timothy A. 2009. Agricultural Dumping Under NAFTA: Estimating the Costs of U.S. Agricultural Policies to Mexican Producers. Report #7, December, Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts. [PDF] [related short video]

Wise, Timothy A. 2011. "Mexico: The Cost of U.S. Dumping." NACLA Report on the Americas January/February:47-49. [PDF]

Wolin, Sheldon S. 2008. Democracy Incorporated: Managed Democracy and the Specter of Inverted Totalitarianism. Princeton University Press, Princeton. [PDF] [book review] [Chris Hedges: "Sheldon Wolin and Inverted Totalitarianism" in Truthdig] [Hedges interviews Wolin]

  • "During the intervals between elections the political existence of the citizenry is relegated to a shadow-citizenship of virtual participation. Instead of participating in power, the virtual citizen is invited to have 'opinions': measurable responses to questions predesigned to elicit them." (p. 59)
  • "That the patriotic citizen unswervingly supports the military and its huge budget means that conservatives have succeeded in persuading the public that the military is distinct from government. Thus the most substantial element of state power is removed from public debate. Similarly in his/her new status as imperial citizen the believer remains contemptuous of bureaucracy yet does not hesitate to obey the directives issued by the Department of Homeland Security, the largest and most intrusive governmental department in the history of the nation. Identification with militarism and patriotism, along with the images of American might projected by the media, serves to make the individual citizen feel stronger, thereby compensating for the feelings of weakness visited by the economy upon an overworked, exhausted, and insecure labor force. For its antipolitics inverted totalitarianism requires believers, patriots, and nonunion 'guest workers'." (p. 199)

Wolin, Sheldon. 2003. "Inverted Totalitarianism: How the Bush regime is effecting the transformation to a fascist-like state." The Nation 1 May.

Wood, Rachel Godfrey. 2009. "Neoliberals Do the Amazon." Counter Punch 25 February.

Wynes, Seth and Kimberly A. Nicholas. 2017. "The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions." Environmental Research Letters 12 July. [news story]

  • "We have identified four recommended actions which we believe to be especially effective in reducing an individual’s greenhouse gas emissions: having one fewer child, living car-free, avoiding airplane travel, and eating a plant-based diet." (p. 7 from online PDF version)

  • "Focusing on high-impact actions (through providing accurate guidance and information, especially to 'catalytic' individuals such as adolescents) could be an important dimension of scaling bottom-up action to the transformative decarbonisation implied by the 2 °C climate target, and starting to close this gap." (p. 7 from online PDF version)

Note: Although this analysis effectively identifies the behavior changes that would lead to the greatest climate change mitigation benefits, other research suggests that simply knowing which personal choices theoretically may produce those benefits, does not lead to behavior change. Instead, substantial incentives typically come about through better policies or after crises set in. If we get to the point that crises bring about the desired changes, it will be too late.

Yotopoulos, Pan A. 1989. "The (Rip) Tide of Privatization: Lessons from Chile." World Development 17(5):683-702.

Zibechi, Raúl. 2006. "Indigenous Movements: Between Neoliberalism and Leftist Governments." Americas Program, International Relations Center, 22 May.

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