Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References

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Reference Search Results You searched for externalities

Ackerman, Frank and Alejandro Nadal. 2004. The Flawed Foundations of General Equilibrium: Critical Essays on Economic Theory. Routledge, London. [PDF]

Antheaume, Nicolas. 2004. "Valuing External Costs - From Theory to Practice: Implications for Full Cost Environmental Accounting." European Accounting Review 13(3):443-464. [abstract]

Ayres, Robert U. and Allen V. Kneese. 1969. "Production, Consumption, and Externalities." American Economic Review 59(3):282-297. [introduction]

Bainbridge, David A. 2007. "True cost environmental accounting for a post-autistic economy." Post-autistic Economics Review 41. [PDF]

Barbier, Edward B. and Anil Markandya. 2013. A New Blueprint for a Green Economy. Routledge, New York.

Bartelmus, Peter. 1996. “Green Accounting for Sustainable Development.” Pages 180-196 in P.H. May and R.S. da Motta (eds.), Pricing the Planet: Economic Analysis for Sustainable Development. Columbia University Press, New York.

Beddoe, Rachael, Robert Costanza, Joshua Farley, Eric Garza, Jennifer Kent, Ida Kubiszewski, Luz Martinez, Tracy McCowen, Kathleen Murphy, Norman Myers, Zach Ogden, Kevin Stapleton, and John Woodward. 2009. "Overcoming Systemic Roadblocks to Sustainability: The Evolutionary Redesign of Worldviews, Institutions, and Technologies." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(8):2483-2489.

  • "Many governments worldwide have long-standing policies that promote growth in market goods at the expense of non-market public goods generated by healthy ecosystems. These include (i) over $2 trillion in annual subsidies for market activities and externalities that degrade the environment (i.e., perverse subsidies) (Myers and Kent 2001); (ii) reduced protection or privatization of the commons (Barnes 2006); and (iii) inadequate regulations and inadequate enforcement of existing regulations against environmental externalities (Brown 2007)." (p. 2486)
  • "Economies have weathered innumerable financial crises. However, the current financial crisis pales in comparison to the biophysical crisis. Yet these more critical crises are pushed off the front page by the financial crisis and the dominant worldview of continued economic growth and consumption. Not only do our current institutions and instruments fail to address the real crisis, they accomplish mutually reinforcing goals that move us in the wrong direction. No attention is given to the relationship between the biophysical crises and the market economy, although continuous economic growth in the wealthy countries is actually a major cause of the biophysical crises (Daly 2007)." (p. 2486)

Bjureby, Erika, Mareike Britten, Irish Cheng, Marta Ka┼║mierska, Ernest Mezak, Victor Munnik, Jayashree Nandi, Sara Pennington, Emily Rochon, Nina Schulz, Nabiha Shahab, Julien Vincent, and Meng Wei. 2008. The True Cost of Coal. How people and the planet are paying the price for the world's dirtiest fuel. Greenpeace International, Amsterdam. [PDF]  

Brandt, Adam R. and Alexander E. Farrell. 2007. "Scraping the Bottom of the Barrel: Greenhouse Gas Emission Consequences of a Transition to Low-quality and Synthetic Petroleum Resources." Climatic Change 84:241-263. [PDF]

Brown, Peter G. 2007. The Commonwealth of Life: New Environmental Economics—a Treatise on Stewardship. Black Rose Books, Montreal.

Brown, P.G. 2007. The Commonwealth of Life: New Environmental Economics—a Treatise on Stewardship. Black Rose Books, Montreal. 


Buttel, Frederick H. 2003. "Internalizing the Societal Costs of Agricultural Production." Plant Physiology 133:1656-1665.

Chameides, William L. 2011. "EPA in the Crosshairs." Science 332(6028):397.

Cherry, Todd L. and Jason Shogren. 2002. "The Social Cost of Coal: A Tale of Market Failure and Market Solution." Working Papers 01-05, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone. [related article in Appalachian Voices

Cohen, Boyd and Monika I. Winn. 2007. "Market Imperfections, Opportunity and Sustainable Entrepreneurship." Journal of Business Venturing 22:29-49. [PDF

Conservation International. 2011. Green Economy: Challenges and Opportunities. Política Ambiental 8(June):Entire Issue. [PDF]

Costanza, Robert. 2008. "Stewardship for a 'Full' World." Current History January:30-35. [PDF]

Cullen, Robert. 1993. "The True Cost of Coal." Atlantic December.

Daly, Herman E. 1993. "The Perils of Free Trade: Economists routinely ignore its hidden costs to the environment and the community." Scientific American 269(5):50-57. [PDF]

Dasgupta, Partha. 2000. "Population, Resources, and Poverty: An Exploration of Reproductive and Environmental Externalities." Population and Development Review 26:643-649. [PDF]

Dean, Thomas J. and Jeffery S. McMullen. 2007. "Toward a theory of sustainable entrepreneurship: Reducing environmental degradation through entrepreneurial action." Journal of Business Venturing 22(1):50-76. [PDF

Delucchi Mark A. and Mark Z. Jacobson. 2010. "Providing all Global Energy with Wind, Water, and Solar Power, Part II: Reliability, System and Transmission Costs, and Policies." Energy Policy 31 December.  [abstract]  [PDF]  [part 1 (PDF) [related article by authors]  [news story by National Geographic]  [related news story[Jacobson debates nuclear vs. renewable energy with Stewart Brand on TED Talks]

Dietz, Rob. 2012. "Negative Externalities Are the Norm." Mother Pelican: A Journal of Solidarity and Sustainability 8(7).

Ehrlich, Paul R. 2008. "Key Issues for Attention from Ecological Economists." Environment and Development Economics 13(1):1-20. [PDF] [response by Aart de Zeeuw (PDF)]

Epstein, Paul R., Jonathan J. Buonocore, Kevin Eckerle, Michael Hendryx, Benjamin M. Stout III, Richard Heinberg, Richard W. Clapp, Beverly May, Nancy L. Reinhart, Melissa M. Ahern, Samir K. Doshi, and Leslie Glustrom. 2011. "Full Cost Accounting for the Life Cycle of Coal." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1219:73-98.

Estabrook, Barry. 2011. Tomatoland: How Modern Industrial Agriculture Has Ruined Our Most Alluring Fruit. Andrews McMeel Publishing, Kansas City, Missouri. [video presentation by author]

Fortin, Neil D. 2003. "The Hang-up with HACCP: The Resistance to Translating Science into Food Safety Law." Food and Drug Law Journal 58:565-594. [abstract with PDF available]

Fridley, David. 2010. "Nine Challenges of Alternative Energy." Chapter 18 in Richard Heinberg and Daniel Lerch (eds.), The Post Carbon Reader: Managing the 21st Century’s Sustainability Crises. Watershed Media, Healdsburg, California. [PDF]

Gieseke, Tim. 2011. EcoCommerce 101 - Adding an Ecological Dimension to the Economy. Bascom Hill, Minneapolis. [review]

Gillingham, Kenneth and James Sweeney. 2010. "Market Failure and the Structure of Externalities." Pages 69-92 in B. Moselle, J. Padilla, and R. Schmalensee (eds.), Harnessing Renewable Energy in Electric Power Systems: Theory, Practice, Policy. Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Goldenberg, Suzanne. 2013. "A Texan tragedy: ample oil, no water. Fracking boom sucks away precious water from beneath the ground, leaving cattle dead, farms bone-dry and people thirsty." The Guardian 11 August. 

Goldsmith, Edward. 1977. "The Future of an Affluent Society: The Case of Canada." The Ecologist 7(5). [part 1] [part 2] [part 3]

Goleman, Daniel. 2009. Ecological Intelligence: How Knowing the Hidden Impacts of What We Buy Can Challenge Everything. Broadway Business, New York. [review by Robert Rattle in Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy]

Gurian-Sherman, Doug. 2008. CAFOs Uncovered: The Untold Costs of Confined Animal Feeding Operations. Union of Concerned Scientists, Washington, D.C. [PDF] [related video] [CAFO basics on Wikipedia

Hall, Charles A.S. 1990. "Sanctioning Resource Depletion: Economic Development and NeoClassical Economics." The Ecologist 20(3):99-104. [abstract]

Heal, Geoffrey. 2009. "The Economics of Renewable Energy." NBER Working Paper #15081. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [PDF]

Hill, Jason, Stephen Polasky, Erik Nelson, David Tilman, Hong Huo, Lindsay Ludwig, James Neumann, Haochi Zheng, and Diego Bonta. "Climate Change and Health Costs of Air Emissions from Biofuels and Gasoline." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(6):2077-2082.

Homer-Dixon, Thomas, Brian Walker, Reinette Biggs, Anne-Sophie Crépin, Carl Folke, Eric F. Lambin, Garry D. Peterson, Johan Rockström, Marten Scheffer, Will Steffen, and Max Troell. 2015. "Synchronous failure: the emerging causal architecture of global crisis." Ecology and Society 20(3):6.

"We argue that compared to past crises, future crises will increasingly arise from the conjunction of three underlying, long-term, and causally linked global trends. The first is the dramatic increase in the scale of human economic activity in relation to Earth’s natural resources and systems. Human-induced changes in natural systems now often rival or exceed changes arising from nonhuman processes (Steffen et al. 2007). The second trend is the rapidly rising density, capacity, and transmission speed of the connections carrying material, energy, and information among the components of human technological, economic, and social systems (Helbing 2013). This increased connectivity reduces the isolation of these systems’ components from each other and thereby increases the functional size of the overall systems of which they are a part. The third trend is the increasing homogeneity, or declining diversity, of human cultures, institutions, practices, and technologies (Boli and Thomas 1997, Meyer 2000, Young et al. 2006), including technologies that exploit ecosystem services, such as agriculture and aquaculture. Although market competition in the global economy can promote diversity, positive network externalities, winner-take-all dynamics, and efforts by firms to achieve efficiencies and economies of scale across enormous markets encourage process homogeneity and a concomitant pruning of redundancy and system slack (Levitt 1983, Arthur 1994, Frank and Cook 1996).

The second and third of these trends are reciprocally related, that is, they are both causes and consequences of each other, although not exclusively so. Greater connectivity facilitates homogenization, while homogenization encourages greater connectivity.

The three global trends contribute both separately and in combination to conditions favoring synchronous failure in three major ways. First, they generate multiple simultaneous stresses affecting human societies. These stresses build their force slowly yet are potentially very powerful over time. For instance, the first of the three above trends, the sharply rising scale of human economic activity in relation to natural resources and systems, is causing greater scarcity of some critical resources such as conventional oil (Sorrell et al. 2012, IEA 2013, Höök et al. 2014), where this scarcity is gauged by the amount of energy needed to extract and process an additional increment of final output (Davidson et al. 2014). It is also contributing to higher atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, which are boosting the incidence of extreme climate events such as heat waves (Hansen et al. 2012, IPCC 2012). Additionally, it is producing severe disruption of many natural systems that are vital to human well-being, including the majority of Earth’s fisheries and large tracts of its grasslands and forests. For some of these systems, such as coral reefs, disruption is approaching or even exceeding the systems’ homeostatic capacity to maintain their integrity and identity (Bellwood et al. 2004, Hughes et al. 2010)."

Hopwood, Anthony, Jeffrey Unerman, Jessica Fries. 2010. Accounting for Sustainability: Practical Insights. Routledge, London.

Howarth, Richard B. 1996. "Status Effects and Environmental Externalities." Ecological Economics 16(1):25-34. [abstract

Howarth, Richard B. and Richard B. Norgaard. 1992. "Environmental Valuation under Sustainable Development." American Economic Review 82:473-477.

Jaffe, Adam B., Richard G. Newell, and Robert N. Stavins. 2004. "A tale of two market failures: technology and environmental policy." Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Kahn, Alfred E. 1966. "The Tyranny of Small Decisions: Market Failures, Imperfections, and the Limits of Economics." Kyklos 19(1):23-47. [abstract] [related short paper]

Khan Academy. "Negative Externalities. Taking negative externalities into account when thinking about the optimal equilibrium price and quantity" (Video 1). Khan Academy video [video 2, paying for externalities through taxation]

Khan Academy. "Taxes for Factoring in Negative Externalities. How to factor in negative externalities through taxation" (video 2). Khan Academy. [video 1, accounting for externalities]

Kohn, Robert E. 1994. "Alternative Property Rights to Wetland Externalities." Ecological Economics 10(1):61-68. [abstract]

Kox, Henk L.M. 1991. "Integration of Environmental Externalities in International Commodity Agreements." World Development 19:933-943. [abstract]

López, Ramón. 1997. "Environmental Externalities in Traditional Agriculture and the Impact of Trade Liberalization: The Case of Ghana." Journal of Development Economics 3(1):17-39. [abstract]

Lave, Lester B. and Eugene P. Seskin. 1970. "Air Pollution and Human Health." Science 169(3947):723-733. [PDF]  

Lenferna, Georges Alexandre (Alex). 2013. "A Conservative Case for a Carbon Tax in the United States of America." Philosophy Department, University of Kansas.

Liu, Wen-Fang and Stephen J. Turnovsky. 2003. "Consumption Externalities, Production Externalities, and Long-run Macroeconomic Efficiency." Working Paper, University of Washington, Seattle. [PDF]

Lockwood, Alan H., Kristen Welker-Hood, Molly Rauch, and Barbara Gottlieb. 2009. "Coal's Assualt on Human Health." Physicians for Social Responsibility, Washington, D.C. 

Lovins, L. Hunter and Boyd Cohen. 2011. Climate Capitalism: Capitalism in the Age of Climate Change. Hill and Wang, New York. [video interview] [review by Gail Whiteman in Nature]

McCandless, Matthew, Henry David Venema, Stephan Barg, and Bryan Oborne. 2008. Full Cost Accounting for Agriculture – Final Report. Valuing Public Benefits Accruing from Agricultural Beneficial Management Practices: An Impact Pathway Analysis for Tobacco Creek, Manitoba. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Winnipeg. [PDF]

Myers, Norman and Julian Simon. 1994. Scarcity or Abundance: Debate on the Environment. Norton, New York. [review by R. Costanza (PDF)]

Najam, Adil, David Runnalls, and Mark Halle. 2007. Environment and Globalization: Five Propositions. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg. [PDF]

National Research Council. 2010. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use. Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption, National Research Council (NRC), National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. [news article] [PDF of 2009 version]

  • "The gasoline-driven technologies have somewhat higher damages and GHG emissions in 2005 than a number of other fuel/technology combinations. The grid-dependent electric options have somewhat higher damages and GWP than other technologies, even in our 2030 analysis, in large measure due to the continued conventional and greenhouse gas emissions from the existing and likely future grid at least as of 2030." (2009:155)

Nemetz, Peter N. 2004. "Basic Concepts of Sustainable Development for Business Students." Journal of International Business Education 1(1):23-90. [PDF]

Page, Talbot and John Ferejohn. 1974. "Externalities as Commodities: Comment." The American Economic Review 64(June):454-459. [PDF]

Perelman, Michael. 2003. The Perverse Economy: The Impact of Markets on People and the Environment. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. [review]

Pezzey, John C.V. and Michael A. Toman. 2002. "The Economics of Sustainability: A Review of Journal Articles." Discussion Paper 02-03, January 2002. Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Pretty, Jules N. 2008. "Agricultural Sustainability: Concepts, Principles and Evidence." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363:447-465. [PDF

Pro Social Progress Foundation. 2014. "Taking The Future Into Account." Video of interviews.

Roy, Arundhati. 1999. The Cost of Living. Random House, New York.

Scudder, B.C., L.C. Chasar, D.A. Wentz, N.J. Bauch, M.E. Brigham, P.W. Moran, and D.P. Krabbenhoft. 2009. "Mercury in Fish, Bed Sediment, and Water from Streams across the United States, 1998-2005." U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5109. [news story]

SIGMA Project. 2003. Sustainability Accounting Guide. SIGMA Project Guidelines – Toolkit. SIGMA Project, London. [PDF]

Steier, Gabriela. 2011. "Externalities in Industrial Food Production: The Costs of Profit." Dartmouth Law Journal 9(3):163-197. [PDF]

  • "The large food companies' failure to internalize food production costs creats negative externalities and economic deficiencies in the food market. Government regulation to-date is insufficient to stop the externalization of costs. Poor eating habits of the general public promote such market failures and are controlled by misinformation, advertisements, and unhealthy foods. Until…citizens and lawyers use tort law to force the food producers to internalize the food production costs, the market will continue to fail." (p. 163)

Suh, Jungho. 2014. "Towards sustainable agricultural stewardship: Evolution and future directions of the permaculture concept." Environmental Values 23(1): 75-98. [PDF]

Temple, James. 2017. "Why Bad Things Happen to Clean-Energy Startups. New technologies for storing power from wind and solar farms will be key to a clean-energy future. But Aquion Energy’s recent bankruptcy shows the market challenge of making that happen." MIT Technology Review 19 June.

  • "The fear, however, is that market mechanisms alone aren’t working fast enough given the pace at which the world needs to cut emissions to avoid the greatest threats of climate change. One tool that could accelerate the shift is smart public policy. Carbon taxes, or cap-and-trade programs like the ones in place in California, New York, and other states, raise the cost of using fossil-fuel plants and increase the incentives to add more renewables and storage to the grid. There are more direct ways the government can support the sector as well, such as California’s requirement that state utilities add more than 1.3 gigawatts of storage to the grid by the end of this decade, or federal grant and loan programs for promising startups."
  • "But ultimately, nascent storage technologies are fighting forces embedded deep in the core of capitalism. Markets consolidate around dominant technologies and companies. It often takes a radical advance to shake up the old order, and in the energy sector those don’t come along often."

Templet, Paul H. 1995. "Grazing the Commons: An Empirical Analysis of Externalities, Subsidies and Sustainability." Ecological Economics 12(2):141-159. [abstract]

Timilsina, Govinda R., Lado Kurdgelashvili, and Patrick A. Narbel. 2011. "A Review of Solar Energy Markets, Economics and Policies." Policy Research Working Paper #5845, October. Environment and Energy Team, Development Research Group, The World Bank, Washington, D.C. 

Trucost. 2013. Natural Capital at Risk: The Top 100 Externalities of Business. TEEB for Business Coalition and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), London. [PDF] [related story by David Roberts in Grist]

Urbina, Ian. 2011. "Regulation Lax as Gas Wells' Tainted Water Hits Rivers." The New York Times 26 February. [related video]

Wise, Timothy A. 2010. "The True Cost of Cheap Food. The Globalisation of the Food Market Has Made Food Cheap, but Who Is Benefiting?" Resurgence 259(March/April).

Worldwatch Institute (Erik Assadourian and Thomas Prugh, eds.). 2013. State of the World 2013: Is Sustainability Still Possible? Island Press, Washington, D.C. 

Young, Carlos Eduardo Frickmann. 2013. "Green Economy Policies in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities." Revista del CESLA 16:261-277. [PDF]

Yushi, Mao, Sheng Hong, and Yang Fuqiang. 2008. The True Cost of Coal. Climate Change and Energy Programme, WWF China, Beijing. [PDF] [2007 interview with Yang Fuqiang in The New York Times]

Zehner, Ozzie. 2012. Green Illusions: The Dirty Secrets of Clean Energy and the Future of Environmentalism. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. [author interview in Truthout] [review] [introduction (PDF)] [author video presentation]

  • "Building a heavy box with wheels and then shoving it thousands of miles down a road requires a lot of energy. There's no physical way around that. Electric car companies haven't found a way around the physics. But they've created an illusion that they have." (from interview in Truthout)
  • "Finally, there's the influence of media, which I spend a whole chapter dissecting in Green Illusions. Green media has become a war of press releases—a contest of half-baked models and glorified science fair experiments. It doesn't have to be this way. We can change it all if we are willing to think and inquire differently as concerned citizens." (from Truthout interview)
  • "Subsidies for electric cars are ultimately a subsidy to car culture and the infrastructure that goes with it. Car culture is not sustainable within the limits we face to growth." (from Truthout interview)

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