Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References

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Reference Search Results You searched for consumption

Adam, Barbara. 1998. Timescapes of Modernity: The Environment and Invisible Hazards. Routledge, London.

  • Corporations interested in maximizing profits favor established crops, monocultures, and simplicity over diversity.

Adams, William M. and Sally Jeanrenaud. 2008. Transition to Sustainability: Towards a Humane and Diverse World. IUCN, Gland. [PDF] [related IUCN video]

Alcott, Blake. 2005. "Jevons’ Paradox." Ecological Economics 54:9-21. [PDF]

  • "…efficiency, sufficiency, and population strategies all face the problem that the I =PAT equation is transitive: all right-side factors influence each other, leaving impact the same or higher. This enhances the attractiveness of directly lowering impact through rationing and quotas, whether of resources or emissions (as in the Kyoto agreement)  (Daly, 1973, pp. 337ff., 1996, p. 15; Wackernagel and Rees, 1996, p. 129; Brookes, 2000, pp. 363–64; Rudin, 2000). Politically unfashionable though they may be—Jevons himself denied that 'the consumption of coal can be kept down in our free system of industry...' (p. 136)—ecological economics should once again take resource rationing seriously." (pp. 19-20)

Allendorf, T.D. and K. Allendorf. 2012. "What Every Conservation Biologist Should Know about Human Population." Conservation Biology 26(6):953-1161. [PDF]

Anderson, E.N. 1997. "Traditional Medical Values of Food." Pages 80-91 in Carole Counihan and Penny Van Esterik (eds.), Food and Culture: A Reader. Routledge, London.

Appleton, Albert F. 2006. "Sustainability: A practitioner's reflection." Technology in Society 28(1):3-18.

  • Abstract. "This article presents a practitioner's reflections on sustainability. What is most striking about sustainability and sustainable development is the speed with which these concepts have been seized upon and have changed the intellectual environment. The explanation for this lies in the history of the environmental movement between the time it came of age in 1970 and when sustainability emerged, in the late eighties and early nineties. This was a period of clash between environmental and economic interests that ended in a stalemate, with the environmentalists establishing that the environmental crisis was real, but environmental opponents blocking action that would have addressed it at the cost of sacrificing economic growth and the elimination of poverty. Sustainability offered a way around that stalemate and opened up a new era of innovative discussion by providing a formula that legitimized for each side the other's fundamental interest, conceding the need to both meet human needs while not sacrificing the environmental resources future generations will need. This transformation of the environmental dialogue is a positive and important event that will hopefully produce a new period of environmental productivity much like the seventies even though, if the logic of sustainability is applied to problems like the loss of biodiversity, the use of petroleum resources and global warming, sustainability seems to be an impossible goal. In truth, sustainability is likely to be much more immediately productive in areas of pollution management and resource consumption than in areas like biodiversity where species and resources are irrevocably lost. But until the potential of the concept is exhausted, it offers the best path forward for both environmental and economic interests."

Armelagos, George J. 1987. "Biocultural Aspects of Food Choice." Pages 579-594 in Marvin Harris and Eric B. Ross (eds.), Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Human Food Habits. Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

Armelagos, George J. 2010. "The omnivore’s dilemma: The evolution of the brain and the determinants of food choice." Journal of Anthropological Research 66(2):161-186. [PDF]

Arrow, Kenneth J., Partha Dasgupta, Lawrence Goulder, Gretchen Daily, Paul Ehrlich, Geoffrey Heal, Simon Levin, Karl-Göran Mäler, Stephen Schneider, David Starrett, and Brian Walker. 2004. "Are We Consuming too much?" Journal of Economic Perspectives 18(3):147-172. [PDF]

Ash, Timothy Garton. 2007. "Global capitalism now has no serious rivals. But it could destroy itself. Our planet cannot long sustain the momentous worldwide embrace of the manufacture of desires." The Guardian 22 February.

Atkinson, G., S. Dietz, and E. Neumayer. 2007. Handbook of Sustainable Development. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, U.K.

Ayres, Robert U. and Allen V. Kneese. 1969. "Production, Consumption, and Externalities." American Economic Review 59(3):282-297. [introduction]

Bacon, Christofer M., V. Ernesto Méndez, Stephen R. Gliessman, Davod Goodman, and Jonathon A. Fox. 2008. Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Fair Trade, Sustainable Livlihoods and Ecosystems in Mexico and in Central America. MIT Press, Cambridge. [review by S. Lyon (PDF)]

Bagley, Bruce M. 2012. Drug Trafficking and Organized Crime in the Americas: Major Trends in the Twenty-First Century. Latin American Program, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Balée, William. 1994. Footprints in the Forest: Ka’apor Ethnobotany — The Historical Ecology of Plant Utilization by an Amazonian People. Columbia University Press, New York.

Balick, Michael J. 1984. "Ethnobotany of Palms in the Neotropics." Advances in Economic Botany 1:9-23.

Balick, Michael J. 1988. "The Uses of Palms by the Apinayé and Guajajara Indians of Northeastern Brazil." Advances in Economic Botany 6:65-90.

Barnard, N.D., A. Nicholson, and J.L. Howard. 1995. "The Medical Costs Attributable to Meat Consumption." Preventative Medicine 24:656-657. [abstract] [news report]

Barry, John. 1996. "Sustainability, political judgement and citizenship: Connecting green politics and democracy." Chapter 6 (pages 113-129) in Brian Doherty and Marius de Geus (eds.), Democracy and Green Political Thought: Sustainability, Rights and Citizenship. Routledge, London. [Berry Chapter (PDF)] [entire book (PDF)]

  • "Sustainability is thus more than finding ecologically rational methods of production and consumption; it also involves collective judgement on those patterns. It is not just a matter of examining the ecological means to determined ends; ultimately sustainability requires a political-normative judgement on the ends themselves. Sustainability is therefore a matter for communicative as well as instrumental rationality, but the former takes precedence over the latter. This normative character of sustainability as a public principle or social goal makes it conducive to democratic as opposed to non-democratic forms of ‘will formation’. That is, we can link green politics and democracy by recognising first that as a normative concept sustainability is a political/ethical issue first and only derivatively a technical/ economic one…" (p. 114)
  • "‘Sustainability’ here refers to the ensemble of social-nature relations in general, material and moral,…" (p. 115)
  • "The issues involved in the translation of sustainability from a political-ethical concept to a regulative social principle, expressed in law and policies, for example, require the deliberation as well as the consent and action of those whose lives will be affected by such a principle." (p. 116)

Barthes, Roland. 1997. "Toward a Psychosociology of Contemporary Food Consumption." Pages 20-27 in Carole Counihan and Penny Van Esterik (eds.), Food and Culture: A Reader. Routledge, London.

Bartlett, Albert A. 1978 (with 1998 overview). "Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis – overview." Reprinted from the American Journal of Physics 46(9). [related video lecture by A. Bratlett on the Exponential Function]

Beddoe, Rachael, Robert Costanza, Joshua Farley, Eric Garza, Jennifer Kent, Ida Kubiszewski, Luz Martinez, Tracy McCowen, Kathleen Murphy, Norman Myers, Zach Ogden, Kevin Stapleton, and John Woodward. 2009. "Overcoming Systemic Roadblocks to Sustainability: The Evolutionary Redesign of Worldviews, Institutions, and Technologies." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(8):2483-2489.

  • "Many governments worldwide have long-standing policies that promote growth in market goods at the expense of non-market public goods generated by healthy ecosystems. These include (i) over $2 trillion in annual subsidies for market activities and externalities that degrade the environment (i.e., perverse subsidies) (Myers and Kent 2001); (ii) reduced protection or privatization of the commons (Barnes 2006); and (iii) inadequate regulations and inadequate enforcement of existing regulations against environmental externalities (Brown 2007)." (p. 2486)
  • "Economies have weathered innumerable financial crises. However, the current financial crisis pales in comparison to the biophysical crisis. Yet these more critical crises are pushed off the front page by the financial crisis and the dominant worldview of continued economic growth and consumption. Not only do our current institutions and instruments fail to address the real crisis, they accomplish mutually reinforcing goals that move us in the wrong direction. No attention is given to the relationship between the biophysical crises and the market economy, although continuous economic growth in the wealthy countries is actually a major cause of the biophysical crises." (interpreted from Daly 2007, p. 2486)

Bell, David and Gill Valentine. 1997. Consuming Geographies: We Are where we Eat. Routledge, London.

Bennett, Bradley C., Marc A. Baker, and Patricia Gómez Andrade. 2001. "Ethnobotany of the Shuar of Eastern Ecuador." Advances in Economic Botany 14:1-299.

Bird, Kate and David R. Hughes. 1997. "Ethical Consumerism: The Case of 'Fairly-Traded' Coffee." Business Ethics 6(3):159-167. [PDF]

Bloom, Jonathan. 2010. American Wasteland: How America Throws Away Nearly Half of Its Food (and what We Can Do about It). Da Capo Lifelong Books, New York. [news story in Grist]

Bonini, Sheila and Jeremy Oppenheim. 2008. "Cultivating the Green Consumer." Stanford Social Innovation Review Fall:56-61.

Botsman, Rachel and Roo Rogers. 2010. What's Mine Is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption. HarperCollins, New York. [podcast interview]

Boucher, Jean Léon. 2017. "Culture, Carbon, and Climate Change: A Class Analysis of Climate Change Belief, Lifestyle Lock-In, and Personal Carbon Footprint." Socijalna ekologija: Zeitschrift für Umweltgedanken und Soziologische Forschung (Journal for Environmental Thought and Sociological Research) 25(1-2):53-80. 

  • Abstract. "Global climate change is arguably the defining issue of the present age, and high carbon emissions are the major cause of this change. Prior research has shown that carbon emissions are strongly positively associated with household incomes – both in a given nation and between nations. Scholars explain that one of the root causes of this “income-carbon” relationship is lifestyle lock-in: the inability of individuals to change their consumption habits—due to institutionalized structures, contexts, and norms. Using a United States nationally representative dataset (N=2107), I test whether climate change beliefs moderate the income-carbon relationship (emissions were only examined for personal mobility and dietary carbon footprints). I found a significant positive correlation between climate change beliefs and personal carbon footprints only among one segment of the public—those who are most concerned about climate change (18% of the sample). I also reaffirm the significant positive correlation between household income and carbon emissions—income was the most dominant predictor variable in my analyses. I call for taxes and limits on both income and carbon emissions." (p. 53)

Boucher, Jean Léon. 2017. "The logics of frugality: Reproducing tastes of necessity among auent climate change activists." Energy Research & Social Science 31:223-232.

  • "Though frugality may be a practice of some affluent climate change activists, its capacity to reduce human impacts on the environment is questionable and deserves more attention." (p. 223)
  • "Finally, when returning to my interest in how the affluent might make sense of the potential contradictions between their climate change beliefs and their lifestyles—an interest which was not the specific focus of this paper, there is the possibility of an absolving frugality: one, like an exchange, that releases or frees an individual from the potential guilt of a high consuming lifestyle. This is only speculative, but in earlier research [70], I did find precursory evidence for a carbon conscience—a practice where individuals seemed to adopt lower carbon behaviors in one area of their lives in exchange for higher carbon behaviors in another." (p. 231)

    "Frugality, then, in accord with individuals and conditions, can be distributed into a taxonomy of logics; it can be constrained or habitual or nostalgic—and even people of affluence can preserve behaviors that seem to contradict their economic status. Frugality may even reduce one’s carbon footprint, but I would question such a finding, especially among the affluent: I question the environmental relief that would follow from such a seemingly individualized and internal project." (p. 231)

Boulding, Kenneth E. 1966. "The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth." Pages 3-14 in Henry E. Jarrett (ed.), Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. [PDF] [related video]

  • "Even now we are very far from having made the moral, political, and psychological adjustments which are implied in this transition from an illimitable plane to the closed sphere." 

  • "The closed earth of the future requires economic principles which are somewhat different from those of the open earth of the past. ...I am tempted to call the open economy the 'cowboy economy,' the cowboy being symbolic of the illimitable plains and also associated with reckless, exploitative, romantic, and violent behavior, which is characteristic of open societies. The closed economy of the future might similarly be called the 'spaceman' economy, in which the earth has become a single spaceship, without unlimited reservoirs of anything, either for extraction or for pollution, and in which, therefore, man must find his place in a cyclical ecological system which is capable of continuous reproduction of material form even though it cannot escape having inputs of energy."
  • Note: Boulding called for a system change, especially in economics. Unfortunately, although in the 1960s and 1970s, the U.S. and other developed countries began to deal with negative externalities through regulations, that trend has reversed especially in the U.S.

Boyce, James K. 2007. "Is inequality bad for the environment?" Research in Social Problems and Public Policy 15:267-288. [PDF] [related article]

Brücher, Heinz. 1989. Useful Plants of Neotropical Origin and Their Wild Relatives. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Capone, Roberto, Massimo Iannetta, Hamid El Bilali, Nicola Colonna, Philipp Debs, Sandro Dernini, Giuseppe Maiani, Federica Intorre, Angela Polito, and Aida Turrin. 2013. "A Preliminary Assessment of the Environmental Sustainability of the Current Italian Dietary Pattern: Water Footprint Related to Food Consumption." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 1(4):59-67. [PDF]

Carpenter, Novella. 2009. Farm City: The Education of an Urban Farmer. Penguin Press, New York.

Carrier, Jim. 2009. "All You Can Eat: A Journey through a Seafood Fantasy." Orion March/April.

Chancel, Lucas. 2014. "Are younger generations higher carbon emitters than their elders? Inequalities, generations and CO2 emissions in France and in the USA." Ecological Economics 100:195-207. [PDF]

  • Despite much attention to millennials living more lightly in the popular discourse, Chancel finds that there is no difference in greenhouse gas emissions between generations in the U.S., whereas baby boomers emit more GHGs than younger generations in France.

Chefurka, Paul. 2013. "Thermodynamic Footprints." Approaching the Limits to Growth 12 March. 

Chin-Sweeney, Patricia Jason Spindler. 2011. "The Future of Fair Trade…Is There One? If Fair Trade coffee quality doesn’t improve, the Direct Trade movement will quickly become a growing threat." (Blog) Stanford Social Innovation Review 6 June.

Christensen, T., M. Godskesen, K. Gram-Hanssen, M.-B. Quitzau, and I. Røpke. 2007. "Greening the Danes? Experience with consumption and environment policies." Journal of Consumer Policy 30(2):91-116. [PDF]

Clark, Duncan. 2006. The Rough Guide to Ethical Living: Energy, Food, Clothes, Money, Transport. Penguin, London.

Cohen, Maurie J., Aaron Comrov, and Brian Hoffner. 2005. "The New Politics of Consumption: Promoting Sustainability in the American Marketplace." Sustainability: Science, Practice, and Policy 1(1).

Commoner, Barry. 1971. The Closing Circle: Man, Nature, and Technology. Knopf, New York. [critical review by Ehrlich and Holdren] [review by Michael Crichton in The New York Times]

>Early references to "sustainability":

  • "As the links between one living thing and another, and between all of them and their surroundings, begin to break down, the dynamic interactions that sustain the whole have begun to falter and, in some places, stop."
  • "...the testimony to our power to tear the ecological fabric that has, for millions of years, sustained the planet's life."
  • "Suddenly we have discovered what we should have known long before: that the ecosphere sustains people and everything that they do; that anything that fails to fit into the ecosphere is a threat to its finely balanced cycles; that wastes are not only unpleasant, not only toxic, but, more meaningfully, evidence that the ecosphere is being driven towards collapse."
  • "If we are to survive, we must understand why this collapse now threatens. Here the issues become far more complex than even the ecosphere. Our assaults on the ecosystem are so powerful, so numerous, so finely interconnected, that although the damage they do is clear, it is very difficult to discover how it was done. By which weapon? In whose hand? Are we driving the ecosphere to destruction simply by our growing numbers? By our greedy accumulation of wealth? Or are the machines which we have built to gain this wealth—the magnificent technology that now feeds us out of neat packages, that clothes us in man-made fibers, that surround us with new chemical creations—at fault?"
  • Note: Although the book was criticized for overemphasizing the role of technology in the environmental crisis, the book was important for at least four reasons: (1) illuminating some of the many unintended negative consequesnces of technology and placing those negative impacts as expressions of negative externalities, (2) placing the blame for the over-use of technology on the the greed of capitalism, (3) using the word "sustain" in the context of the present use of the terms "sustainability" and "sustainable development," and (4) conceptually placing the term "sustain" into the dimensions of nature and human society.

Cortese, Anthony D. 2001. "Education for Sustainability: Accelerating the Transition to Sustainability Through Higher Education." Second Nature, Boston. [PDF] [related video]

Cortez, Sarah and Sergio Troncoso (eds.). 2013. Our Lost Border: Essays on Life Amid the Narco-Violence. Arte Público Press, Houston. [review] [discussion questions]

Cowen, Tyler. 2008. "Public Goods." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics

Csutora, M. 2012. "The ecological footprint of green and brown consumers. Introducing the behaviour-impact-gap (BIG) problem." 15th European Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (15th  ERSCP), 2-4 May, Bregenz, Austria. [PDF] [related story]

  • "The research found no significant difference between the carbon footprints of green and brown consumers suggesting that individual environmental behaviour does not always modify consumption patterns significantly. Consumers offset the impact of their environmental behaviour by consuming more."

Dardozzi, Jeff. 2008. "The spector of Jevon’s Paradox." Stanford University Press, Stanford. [PDF]

Dauvergne, Peter and Jane Lister. 2013a. "The Corporatization of Sustainability." E-International Relations 17 January. 

  • "Sustainability for companies like Walmart, Tesco and Target is about maintaining high-quality and low-cost inputs to increase the supply of and demand for branded goods. The strategy is to leverage environmental management tools like life-cycle assessment and eco-certification to reduce supply chain risks and protect brand reputations with the goal to keep selling more. Companies see opportunity to legitimize the on-going production of rapidly obsolete, disposable items like diapers, household cleaners, and bottled water through a discourse that emphasizes product improvements, such as smaller packages and more recycled content to reduce per unit energy and material usage."
  • "Sustainability here is meant to encourage demand, not reduce total consumption; it will therefore mean more rather than less pressure on the planet’s climate, forests and oceans."
  • "The end result is a far cry from the 1987 Brundtland Commission’s original conception of 'sustainable development'…"

Dauvergne, Peter and Jane Lister. 2015. Eco-Business: A Big-Brand Takeover of Sustainability. MIT Press, Cambridge. [brief video discussion by Dauvergne]

Dauvergne, Peter. 2008. The Shadows of Consumption: Consequences for the Global Environment. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge. [review]

Dauvergne, Peter and Genevieve LeBaron. 2014. Protest Inc.: The Corporatization of Activism. Polity, Press, Malden, Massachusetts. [interview with LeBaron]

Davidson, Debra J., Jeffrey Andrews, and Daniel Pauly. 2014. "The effort factor: Evaluating the increasing marginal impact of resource extraction over time." Global Environmental Change 25:63-68.

  • "When efficiency efforts do not succeed, declining reserves to production ratios are presumed to induce substitution. Discussions have been especially enthusiastic of late for the application of renewable energy resources, and to a lesser extent nuclear power, as less carbon-intensive substitutes for fossil fuel. While all options for climate mitigation ought to be thoroughly considered, and we do not dispute the potential benefits of energy alternatives, all material requirements impose ecological costs. Therefore substituting one form of fuel/mineral/protein for another when one becomes depleted, in those instances in which alternative resources capable of comparable performance are available, simply substitutes one portfolio of social and ecological impacts for another. Replacing coal with nuclear power reduces CO2 emissions but raises the specter of accidents involving widespread radiation; replacing fish with soy increases pressure on agrarian lands, further motivating the use of chemical inputs to boost production. Grains on the other hand simply have no substitute. Technological innovations directed toward efficiency, moreover, as with all investments in science and technology, suffer from declining returns: big discoveries tend not to be followed by bigger discoveries, they are followed by smaller, and more expensive ones (Strumski et al., 2010). A brief case in point, Imperial Oil has brought water consumption at its Cold Lake oilsands in-situ operations down from 3.5 barrels of water per barrel of oil in 1985 to about 0.5 barrels today (CAPP, 2012). But that 0.5 threshold was achieved over twelve years ago, basically within the first few years, and further improvements have not been realized despite continued investments in efficiency technologies." (p. 67)

Davis, Steven J. and Ken Caldeira. 2010. "Consumption-based Accounting of CO2 Emissions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(12):5687-5692. [PDF] [news report]

De Pelsmaker, Patrick, Liesbeth Driesen, and Glenn Rayp. 2003. "Are fair trade labels good business? Ethics and coffee buying intentions." Working paper, January 2003, Universiteit Gent. [PDF]

De Pelsmaker, Patrick, Liesbeth Driesen, and Glenn Rayp. 2005. "Do Consumers Care about Ethics? Willingness to Pay for Fair-Trade Coffee." The Journal of Consumer Affairs 39(2):363-385. [PDF

Denholma, Paul and Robert M. Margolis. 2008. "Land-use Requirements and the Per-capita Solar Footprint for Photovoltaic Generation in the United States." Energy Policy 36(9):3531-3543.                                                 

Diamond, Jared M. 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive. Viking Press, New York. [excerpts from EcoBooks] [review by Joseph Stiglitz (in doc format)] [review by William Rees in Nature] [review by Jonathon Porritt in The Guardian] [review by David Leary, Macquarie University (in PDF)] [review by Michael Kavanagh in Grist] [review by Scott Page (PDF)] [review by Malcolm Gladwell in The New Yorker] [Diamond on TED Talks]

Doebley, John F. 1984. "Seeds of Wild Grasses: A Major Food of Southwestern Indians." Economic Botany 38(1):52-64.

Downton, W.J.S. 1973. "Amaranthus edulis: A High Lysine Grain Amaranth." World Crops 25(1):20.

Early, Daniel K. 1992. "The Renaissance of Amaranth." Pages 15-33 in Nelson Foster and Linda S. Cordell (eds.), Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Edelman, Mark. 1987. "From Costa Rican Pasture to North American Hamburger." Pages 541-561 in Marvin Harris and Eric B. Ross (eds.), Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Human Food Habits, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

Ehrenfeld, John R. 2009. Sustainability by Design: A Subversive Strategy for Transforming our Consumer Culture. Yale University Press, New Haven. [summary and reviews] [preview]

Ehrlich, Paul R. 2014. "Human impact: the ethics of I=PAT." Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 14:11-18. [PDF

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich. 2004. One With Nineveh: Politics, Consumption, and the Human Future. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [video lecture by P. Ehrlich] [review by Herman Daly in BioScience (PDF)]

  • "Nothing less is needed than a rapid ethical evolution toward readjusting our relationship with nature so that the preservation of biodiversity becomes akin to a religious duty." (p. 270)

Ehrlich, Paul R. and John P. Holdren. 1971. "Impact of population growth." Science 171(397):1212-1217. [PDF]

EIA. 2010. Annual Energy Outlook 2010: With Projections to 2035. Report #:DOE/EIA-0383(2010), 11 May, 2010. United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. (Project leaders: John J. Conti, Paul D. Holtberg, Joseph A. Beamon, A. Michael Schaal, Glen E. Sweetnam, and Andy S. Kydes)

Ericson, Rose Benz. 2006. The Conscious Consumer: Promoting Economic Justice through Fair Trade, 4th Edition. Fair Trade Resource Network, Washington, D.C. [excerpts (PDF)]

Eriksson, K.E. and Karl-Henrik Robèrt. 1991. "From the Big Bang to sustainable societies." Acta Oncologica 30(6 Spec No):5-14.

  • "Rather than address the millions of environmental problems one at a time, we need to approach them at the systemic level. It is essential to convert to human life-styles and forms of societal organization that are based on cyclic processes compatible with the earth's natural cycles." (p. 5)

Farb, Peter and George J. Armelagos. 1980. Consuming Passions: The Anthropology of Eating. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Fischer, C. 2008. "Feedback on household electricity consumption: a tool for saving energy?" Energy Efficiency 1(1):79-104. [PDF]

Ford, Richard I. 1984. "Prehistoric Phytogeography of Economic Plants in Latin America." Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 76:175-183.

Foster, C., K. Green, M. Bleda, P. Dewick, B. Evans, A. Flynn, and J. Mylan. 2006. Environmental Impacts of Food Production and Consumption: A Report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Manchester Business School, DEFRA, London.

Foster, Nelson and Linda S. Cordell (eds.). 1992. Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Frank, Robert H. 1999. Luxury Fever: Money and Happiness in an Era of Excess. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Frank, Robert H. 2007. Falling behind: How Rising Inequality Harms the Middle Class. University of California Press, Berkeley.  [related article by author in The NY Times]  [review by Daniel Gross in The NY Times]  [review by Thomas Leonard (PDF)]

Frank, Thomas. 1997. The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture, Counterculture, and the Rise of Hip Consumerism. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Fridell, Gavin, Daniel Jaffee, and Laura Raynolds. 2009. "Dissecting the Boom: Is Fair Trade growing its way out of its roots?" Historical Materialism 17:237-299. 

Fridell, Gavin. 2007. Fair Trade Coffee: The Prospects and Pitfalls of Market-driven Social Justice. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. [review by Stuart McCook]

Fridell, Mara, Ian Hudson, and Mark Hudson. 2008. "With Friends Like These: The Corporate Response to Fair Trade Coffee." Review of Radical Political Economics 40:8-34. [PDF]

Fritz, Thomas. 2014. "The illusory promise of the livestock revolution".

Garland, Christian. 2011. "Something for all, so that none may escape: reworking the critique of consumption." Fast Capitalism 8(2). 

Garnett, Tara. 2013. "Food sustainability: problems, perspectives and solutions." Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 72(1):29-39. [PDF] [related article] [related video]

Garrett, T.J. 2012. "No way out? The double-bind in seeking global prosperity alongside mitigated climate change." Earth System Dynamics 3:1-17. [PDF] [excerpt on Jevons’ Paradox

Gibney, Bruce Cannon. 2017. A Generation of Sociopaths: How the Baby Boomers Betrayed America. Hachette Books, New York. [author interview on WPR] [author interview on Salon Talks] [review in The Washington Post] [brief review in Salon]

  • "A key feature of Boomer sociopathy is maximizing present consumption regardless of future costs,..." (p. 98)
  • "The essence of Reagan’s message was paleoliberalism, but Goldwater had shown that paleoliberalism was a hard sell. The people liked many of the benefits big government handed out, so even if doctrine required their abolition, the most that could be done was shutting off the flow to the least telegenic recipients. The second obstacle was fiscal restraint. Sociopathic consumption demanded tax cuts, but it also demanded government largesse. Liberalist orthodoxy also required tax cuts, but insisted on a balanced budget. Reducing government spending on research, development, the arts, and so on could never offset the tax cuts being proposed, and reducing middle-class benefits was out of the question. The only option, therefore, was to tolerate huge deficits, until such time as Americans were prepared to do away with the big state." (p. 113-114)

Goldsmith, Edward. 1977. "The Future of an Affluent Society: The Case of Canada." The Ecologist 7(5). [part 1] [part 2] [part 3]

Goleman, Daniel. 2009. Ecological Intelligence: How Knowing the Hidden Impacts of What We Buy Can Challenge Everything. Broadway Business, New York. [review by Robert Rattle in Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy]

Goleman, Daniel. 2009. Ecological Intelligence: How Knowing the Hidden Impacts of what We Buy Can Change Everything. Broadway Business, New York. [brief summary]

Gomez, Carlos Mario and Carlos Gutierrez. 2011. "Enhancing Irrigation Efficiency but Increasing Water Use: The Jevons' Paradox." EAAE 2011 Congress Change and Uncertainty Challenges. [PDF]

Goodman, Jenn and Mark Camp. 2005. "So, You Want to Be a Fair Trader?" Cultural Survival Quarterly 29(3).

Graaf, John de, David Wann, and Thomas H. Naylor. 2001. Affluenza: The All-consuming Epidemic. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco. [review] [video 1] [video 2]

Grove, Noel. 1974. "Oil, the Dwindling Treasure." National Geographic June:792-825.

Haberl, Helmut. 2001a. "The Energetic Metabolism of Societies, Part I: Accounting Concepts." Journal of Industrial Ecology 5(1):11-33.

Haberl, Helmut. 2001b. "The Energetic Metabolism of Societies, Part II: Empirical Examples." Journal of Industrial Ecology 5(2):71-88. 

Hagens, Nathan J. 2009. "The Psychological and Evolutionary Roots of Resource Overconsumption Revisited." The Oil Drum 25 June.

Haight. Colleen. 2011. "The Problem with Fair Trade Coffee." Stanford Social Innovation Review Summer. [see "Fair Trade: A Model for Sustainable Development" by P. Rice for an opposing view

Hall, Charles A.S., Pradeep Tharakan, John Hallock, Cutler Cleveland, and Michael Jefferson. 2003. "Hydrocarbons and the Evolution of Human Culture." Nature 426:318-322. [PDF]

Hall, Kevin D., Juen Guo, Michael Dore, and Carson C. Chow. 2009. "The progressive increase of food waste in America and its environmental impact." PLoS ONE 4(11):e7940. [news story]

Hamilton, Clive. 2010. Requiem for a Species: Why We Resist the Truth about Climate Change. Earthscan, New York. [excerpt in The Guardian] [extract in Geographical] [review 1] [review 2] [Wikipedia summary]

Harrison, Neil E. 2000.Constructing Sustainable Development. State University of New York Press, Albany. [summary]

Hart, Patricia H. 2003. Reducing Household Energy Consumption in Maine: What it Would Take to Achieve a 25% Reduction by 2011. Report prepared by Hart Energy Consulting for the State of Maine. Maine State Planning Office, Augusta. [PDF]

Heinberg, Richard. 2005. The Party’s Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies, 2nd Edition. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia. 

Hoekstra, A.Y. 2008. "Human Appropriation of Natural Capital: A Comparison of Ecological Footprint and Water Footprint Analysis." Ecological Economics 68:1963-1974. [PDF]

Hornborg, Alf. 2014. "Technology as Fetish: Marx, Latour, and the Cultural Foundations of Capitalism." Theory, Culture & Society 31 (4):119-140. [abstract] [related video] [related podcast interview]

Howarth, Richard B. 1996. "Status Effects and Environmental Externalities." Ecological Economics 16(1):25-34. [abstract

Howse, R. and M.J. Trebilcock. 1996. "The Fair Trade-Free Trade Debate: Trade, Labor, and the Environment." International Review of Law and Economics 16(1):61-79.

Iltis, Hugh H. 1988. "Serendipity in the Exploration of Biodiversity: What Good Are Weedy Tomatoes?" Pages 98-105 in E.O. Wilson (ed.), Biodiversity. National Acadamy Press, Washington, D.C.

Imhoff, Marc L., Lahouari Bounoua, Taylor Ricketts, Colby Loucks, Robert Harriss, and William T. Lawrence. 2004. "Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production." Nature 429(24 June):870-873. [PDF]

Jaffee, Daniel and Philip H. Howard. 2016. "Who's the Fairest of Them All? The Fractured Landscape of U.S. Fair Trade Certification." Agriculture and Human Values 33(4):813-826.

  • "We make two primary arguments. First, we contend that the case of fair trade challenges the dominant conceptual model used to analyze competition among multiple private standards in a single arena, in which newer challengers lower the rigor of standards. Second, we argue that the present fragmented U.S. certification landscape illuminates preexisting divisions among different interest groups over which principles—and which labor and production forms—should be privileged under the banner of 'fair trade.' The opacity of the differences in these principles to consumers, and the resource disparities between the various seals, suggest that those initiatives with the most stringent standards may face significant barriers to success." (p. 814)

  • "…nearly from its inception Transfair USA (now FTUSA) has lacked meaningful participation by civil society in its governance, and developed a hierarchical administrative model in which the CEO exercises considerable power (Jaffee 2012; Raynolds 2012)." (p. 215)

  • "The issue of increased corporate participation in fair trade in the U.S. and the terms on which that access was granted has generated major tensions between two groups of retail firms, which Jaffee (2007) terms movement-oriented (small and medium-sized ethical firms typically selling exclusively fair-trade products, such as Equal Exchange) and profit-oriented (medium or large firms drawn by the profits from growing demand, such as Starbucks or Dole). The former group alleged that the profit-oriented participants have caused fair trade standards to become watered down. Antagonized by what they perceived as their unfavorable treatment by the U.S. certifier, virtually all of the small and medium movement-oriented companies had by 2011 left Transfair certification, the same year it changed its name to Fair Trade USA (Jaffee 2012)." (p. 816)

  • "The entire FLO system has embraced a strategy of 'mainstreaming' fair trade by selling certified products through conventional brands and retail channels in order to reach mass consumer audiences." (p. 816)

  • "Of the four seals, the Small Producer Symbol arguably hews most closely to the fair trade movement’s original model and founding principles by certifying only the products of organized small farmers, who are also the owners of the seal." (p. 823)

  • "The proliferation of fair trade seals clearly alters the fair trade consumption landscape and places a greater burden on consumers who seek options that enhance rather than weaken social justice in the global food system, albeit within the constrained realm of the marketplace. While fair-trade activists once could advise shoppers simply to “look for the label,” informed purchasing now obliges consumers to engage in additional research and balance multiple factors. … the fragmentation will [may] cement into place the fundamental splits already existing in the fair trade system, with weaker standards creating a lower floor for labor practices in agribusiness on one hand, and multiple variants of a higher floor for small and medium firms still dedicated to the original smallholder model on the other. Such spaces of resistance may be challenging to maintain, given the much greater resources available to the agribusiness-supported labels." (p. 824)

  • "This article has made two principal arguments. First, the fracturing of fair trade certification in the United States illustrates broader institutional and ideological divisions within the fair trade system and movement, centered on the question of which production forms and actors should be privileged: organized peasant smallholders, or plantation agriculture employing hired laborers. Advocates of the latter vision argue that limiting fair trade certification to small farmers denies the leverage of the seal to exploited plantation workers, and that fair trade is the best route to reform labor practices in corporate agriculture (Neuman 2011; Rice 2012). On the other hand, defenders of the small producer model claim that expanding fair-trade certification of plantations undercuts small producers and permits fairwashing by agrifood TNCs with problematic records in labor rights, environmental practices, and other areas." (p. 824)
  • "Second, we have argued that this case requires a reevaluation of the dominant frameworks used by scholars to analyze contexts in which multiple private standards compete within a single arena. While it confirms Smith and Fischlein’s (2010) argument that competition among rival standards in the same arena results from the exclusion of important stakeholders (in this context organized small producers and movement-oriented firms), the case of fair trade in the U.S. departs from the pattern observed in other contested standards arenas, in which an initial rigorous system located in civil society is supplanted by competing, lower-bar systems from either industry or other NGO actors." (p. 824)
  • "…the United States, … whose key fair trade body … contributed the most to setting the stage for corporate entry with few safeguards at the international level, and thus to the weakening of fair trade standards more generally…" (p. 825)

Jaffee, Daniel. 2007. Brewing Justice: Fair Trade Coffee, Sustainability, and Survival. University of California Press, Berkeley. [review by Christopher Bacon] [review by Stuart McCook]

  • From Bacon's review: "Although producer cooperatives, coffee companies, social movement organizers, and consumers have used Fair Trade as an effective tool for change, much work remains. So far, none of the certification systems have managed to stop migration, assure farmers’ food security, or significantly reduce economic poverty. The movement must get stronger and push for even higher standards if we hope to create meaningful partnerships with small-scale farmers in the transition from survival to sustainability."
  • Note: the book and the review were written in 2007. The situation has not improved.

Jensen, Derrick and Aric McBay. 2009. What We Leave Behind. Seven Stories Press, New York.

Jensen, Derrick. 2004. The Culture of Make Believe. Chelsea Green, White River Junction, Vermont.  

Johnston, Paul, Mark Everard, David Santillo, and Karl-Henrik Robèrt. 2007. "Reclaiming the Definition of Sustainability." Environmental Science and Pollution Research 14(1):60-66.

  • "…we argue the need for the concept of sustainable development to be reclaimed from the plethora of economically-focused or somewhat vague and un-measurable definitions which have found increasing favour in recent years and which all too often accompany relatively minor progress against 'business as usual'." (p. 60)
  • "If…true sustainability in human interactions with the biosphere is to be realised, a far stronger and more empirical interpretation of the original intent is urgently required. To be effective, such an interpretation must encompass and guide developments in political instruments and public policy as well as corporate decisionmaking, and must focus increasingly on addressing the root causes of major threats to sustainability rather than just their consequences." (p. 60)

Jones, Glenn A. and Kevin J. Warner. 2016. "The 21st century population-energy-climate nexus." Energy Policy 93:206-212.

  • "Abstract. World population is projected to reach 10.9 billion by 2100, yet nearly one-fifth of the world's current 7.2 billion live without access to electricity. Though universal energy access is desirable, a significant reduction in fossil fuel usage is required before mid-century if global warming is to be limited to <2 °C. Here we quantify the changes in the global energy mix necessary to address population and climate change under two energy-use scenarios, finding that renewable energy production (9% in 2014) must comprise 87–94% of global energy consumption by 2100. Our study suggests >50% renewable energy needs to occur by 2028 in a <2 °C warming scenario, but not until 2054 in an unconstrained energy use scenario. Given the required rate and magnitude of this transition to renewable energy, it is unlikely that the <2 °C goal can be met. Focus should be placed on expanding renewable energy as quickly as possible in order to limit warming to 2.5–3 °C." (p. 206)

Jones, Kevin. 2008. "Why I Like Fair Trade… And What It Needs. Good Capital invests in socially responsible Adina." (Blog.) Stanford Social Innovation Review 2 December.

Kaplan, Lawrence and Lucille N. Kaplan. 1992. "Beans of the Americas." Pages 61-79 in Nelson Foster and Linda S. Cordell (eds.), Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Keim, Brandon. 2010. "Chemical from Plastic Water Bottles Found throughout Oceans." Wired Science 24 March.

Kemp, René, J. Schot, and R. Hoogma. 1998. "Regime Shifts to Sustainability through Processes of Niche Formation. The Approach of Strategic Niche Management." Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 10(2):175-195.  [PDF]

Kempf, Herve. 2007. How the Rich Are Destroying the Earth. Chelsea Green, White River Junction, Vermont. [review 1, review 2]

Khazzoom, J. Daniel, 1980. "Economic implications of mandated efficiency in standards or household appliances." Energy Journal 1(4):21-40.

  • "...changes in appliance efficiency have a price content.... [W]ith increased productivity comes a decline in the effective price of commodities, and that in the face of lower effective prices, demand does not remain stagnant...but tends to increase." (pp. 22-23)

Komiyama, Hiroshi and Kazuhiko Takeuchi. 2006. "Sustainability Science: Building a New Discipline." Sustainability Science 1(1):1-6. [PDF]

  • Offers a complex model with three pillars, three sets of problems, and three outcomes. The pillars are: 1) Global System, 2) Human System, and 3) Social System. The problems include 1) poverty, natural disasters, and infectious diseases, 2) global warming, and 3) destructive mass production, and consumption. The outcomes are: 1) low-carbon society, 2) human security, and 3) sustainable production and consumption.

Kopnina, Helen. 2017. "Teaching Sustainable Development Goals in The Netherlands: a critical approach." Environmental Education Research 13 March.

  • "Increasingly 'resilient' policies of neoliberalism (Wilk 2002) and democratic governance (Lidskog and Elander 2010) delegate responsibility for sustainable choices to consumers. Yet, the clever marketing leading to the 'rebound eect' easily appeases consumers (Isenhour 2010), making consumption itself more resilient (e.g. Kopnina 2016d)."

Korten, David C. 2006. The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco. [excerpt] [review]

Kramer, Klaas Jan, Henri Moll, Sanderine Nonhebel, and Harry Wilting. 1999. "Greenhouse Gas Emissions Related to Dutch Food Consumption." Energy Policy 27:203-216.

Kumhof, Michael and Romain Rancière. 2010. "Inequality, Leverage and Crises." International Monetary Fund (IMF), Working Paper #WP/10/268. IMF, Washington, D.C. [PDF]  [news story]

Lappé, Frances Moore. 2011. EcoMind: Changing the Way We Think, to Create the World We Want. Nation Books, New York. [related article by author]

Lappé, Frances Moore. 2013. "Scarcity-mind or Eco-mind: Where Do They Lead?" Solutions 4(2).

Layke, C., E. Matthews, C. Amann, S. Bringezu, M. Fischer-Kowalski, W. Hüttler, R. Kleijn, Y. Moriguchi, E. Rodenburg, D. Rogich, H. Schandl, H. Schütz, E. van der Voet, and H.  Weisz. 2000. The Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrialized Economies. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Le Mare, Ann. 2008. "The Impact of Fair Trade on Social and Economic Development: A Review of the Literature." Geography Compass 2(6):1922-1942.

  • "Abstract. This article explores the outcomes of Fair Trade for producers, artisans and their organisations. It asks the question, ‘what happens to people who are involved in Fair Trade?’, and reviews the case studies and empirical research conducted on Fair Trade for a range of products in different countries. The article is organised around important aspects of development which Fair Trade seeks to influence, including market relations, institutional development, economic development and reductions in poverty, social development, gender equity and sustainable development. The outcomes are diverse and complex, though, most studies found significant impact on social and economic aspects of development, contributing to the capacity to improve and diversify livelihoods. Fostering sustainable commercial organisations is an important contribution of Fair Trade networks. However, there appears to be less success in achieving gender equality and dealing with issues of importance to women. Both the enactment of partnership and the achievement of development goals require continuous commitment, a variety of strategies and cooperation with other actors, such as government and non-governmental organisations."

Lebow, Victor. 1955. "Price Competition." Journal of Retailing Spring:5-10, 42, 44. [PDF]

  • "Our enormously productive economy demands that we make consumption our way of life, that we convert the buying and use of goods into rituals, that we seek our spiritual satisfactions, our ego satisfactions, in consumption. The measure of social status, of social acceptance, of prestige, is now to be found in our consumptive patterns. The very meaning and significance of our lives today expressed in consumptive terms. …We need things consumed, burned up, worn out, replaced, and discarded at an ever increasing pace. We need to have people eat, drink, dress, ride, live, with ever more complicated and, therefore, constantly more expensive consumption. …What becomes clear is that from the larger viewpoint of our economy, the total effect of all the advertising and promotion and selling is to create and maintain the multiplicity and intensity of wants that are the spur to the standard of living in the United States." (p. 7) 
  • [Note: these words are not Lebow's views necessarily, but rather his critique of what was happening in the U.S. at that time.]

Leonard, Annie. "The Story of Stuff, Referenced and Annotated Script." [PDF] [website] [interview] [video

Lister, Jane, Genevieve LeBaron, and Peter Dauvergne. 2013. "A Patch of Green. On the ground at the planet’s largest consumer goods trade fair, searching for evidence of sustainability." Alternatives Journal 39(1):28-31.

  • "When we explained that we wanted to ask vendors about their sustainability commitments, the entire bus erupted in laughter." (p. 30)
  • "While incremental improvements are occurring, these efforts are also helping to legitimize and sustain even more growth of discount retail, which ultimately contributes to a worsening global environment." (p. 31)

Liu, Wen-Fang and Stephen J. Turnovsky. 2003. "Consumption Externalities, Production Externalities, and Long-run Macroeconomic Efficiency." Working Paper, University of Washington, Seattle. [PDF]

Lorek, Sylvia and Joachim H. Spangenberg. 2012. "Sustainable Consumption within a Sustainable Economy – debunking buzzwords to develop the content." Workshop presented 14 June, Proceedings, Global Research Forum on Sustainable Consumption and Production Systems: Achievements, Challenges and Dialogues, June 13-15, 2012, Rio de Janeiro. [PDF

  • "...buzzwords like sustainability or sustainable consumption are no longer sufficient to indicate intentions – they have too long been used for labelling plans and policies falling short of sustainability in the initial sense (in this paper: strong sustainability). Thus a more precise definition of the meanings associated with a specific use of the term sustainable consumption is needed to assess their possible contributions to sustainable development." (p. 1)
  • Note: "strong sustainability" represents whatthe concept was as it emerged--derived out of sense of urgency on a finite planet where economic growth cannot continue indefinitely. The cooptation of true sustainability as it was emerging became something short of true sustainability, though it is still called sustainability by the status quo that did the coopting. This present version of sustainability is what some in the field refer to as "weak sustainability" and is usually depicted with the popular three pillars or the triple bottom line.

Lovins, Amory B. 2011. "Re: The Efficiency Dilemma. A letter in response to David Owen's article (December 20 & 27, 2010)." The New Yorker 17 January. [Owen's aricle (PDF)]

Lyon, Sarah and Mark Moberg (eds.). 2010. Fair Trade and Social Justice Global Ethnographies. New York University Press, New York. [review by Ian Hussey]

Lyon, Sarah, Josefina Aranda Bezaury, and Tad Mutersbaugh. 2010. "Gender Equity in Fairtrade–Organic Coffee Producer Organizations: Cases from Mesoamerica." GeoForum 41(1):93-103. [abstract

Lyon, Sarah. 2010. Coffee and Community: Maya Farmers and Fair-Trade Markets. University Press of Colorado, Boulder. [Introduction (PDF)] [review]

Maniates, Michael F. 2001. "Individualization: Plant a tree, buy a bike, save the world?." Global Environmental Politics 1:31-52. [PDF]

  • "...the individually responsible consumer is encouraged to purchase a vast array of 'green' or 'eco-friendly' products on the promise that the more such products are purchased and consumed, the healthier the planet's ecological processes will become. 'Living lightly on the planet' and 'reducing your environmental impact' becomes, paradoxically, a consumer-product growth industry."
  • "A theory of social change that embraced the image of consumers voting with their pocketbook soon took root. Almost overnight, the responsibility for fundamental change in American consumption and production landed squarely on the backs of individual consumers—not on government (which was to be trimmed) or corporations (which were cast as victims of government meddling, and willing servants to consumer sovereignty)."

Matthews, Emily and Allen Hammond. 1999. Critical Consumption Trends and Implications: Degrading Earth's Ecosystems. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.

McKibben, Bill. 2010. Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet. Times Books, New York. [podcast interview from Scientific American]

McNally, Jess. 2010. "Massive North Atlantic Garbage Patch Mapped." Wired Science 19 August. [related article(PDF)]

Meyer, Warren. 2010. "The EPA's Electric Vehicle Mileage Fraud." Forbes 24 November. [related article by author]

  • EPA fuel efficiency stickers measure tank-to-wheel efficiencies, which is fine if you are comparing vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICEVs). If comparing electric vehicles (EVs) to ICEVs, then well-to-wheel measures must be made due to the fact that much of the energy losses occur upon combustion.

Miller, Richard G. 2011. "Future Oil Supply: The Changing Stance of the International Energy Agency." Energy Policy 39(3):1569-1574. [PDF]

Moberg, David. 2011. "Wal-Mart's Shocking Impact on the Lives of Hundreds of Millions of People. Wal-Mart's actions shape our landscape, work, income distribution, consumption patterns, politics and culture, and the organization of industries, from California to China." The American Prospect 28 April.

Moberg, Mark. 2014. "Certification and Neoliberal Governance: Moral Economies of Fair Trade in the Eastern Caribbean." American Anthropologist 116(1):8-22. 

  • "Abstract. Many consumers and food-justice activists regard Fair Trade as a moral alternative to markets dominated by corporate agribusiness. Fair Trade frames producer–consumer relationships in the language of reciprocity and justice rather than the impersonal logic of the market. Despite its moral economy discourse, the movement embodies neoliberal assumptions that regulation and development should occur through the realm of consumer choice rather than state intervention. To receive the higher prices that Fair Trade promises, farmers are subject to certification processes that heavily regulate their planting practices and development priorities. Here I explore the contrasting views of economic morality held by Fair Trade organizations and Caribbean banana farmers. Farmers do not view Fair Trade in terms of the lofty values of social justice and reciprocity animating the movement's discourse. Rather, they operate with a working definition of economic morality similar to those elucidated by E. P. Thompson, James Scott, Marc Edelman, and others who have examined peasant and worker responses to injustice. From farmers’ points of view, compliance with Fair Trade certification should at least enable them to persist in agriculture. As Fair Trade prices have fallen while surveillance of their working lives has increased, many regard this notion of economic morality as increasingly violated."

Monbiot, George. 2010. "I was wrong about veganism. Let them eat meat – but farm it properly." The Guardian 6 September.

Monbiot, George. 2017. "Too right it's Black Friday: our relentless consumption is trashing the planet." The Guardian 22 November. [republished on Monbiot’s blog as "Everything must go."]

  • "I know people who recycle meticulously, save their plastic bags, carefully measure the water in their kettles, then take their holidays in the Caribbean, cancelling any environmental savings a hundredfold. I’ve come to believe that the recycling licences their long-haul flights. It persuades people they’ve gone green, enabling them to overlook their greater impacts."

Murray, Douglas, Laura Raynolds, and Peter Taylor. 2003. One Cup at a Time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade in Latin America. Fair Trade Research Group, Colorado State University. [PDF]

Myers, Norman. 1981. "The Hamburger Connection: How Central America's Forests Became North America's Hamburgers." Ambio 10:3-8. [abstract]

Myers, Norman. 1997. "Consumption: Challenge to Sustainable Development." Science 276(5309):53-55.

Nader, Ralph. 1965. Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of the American Automobile. Grossman Publishers, New York. [Wikipedia summary

National Research Council, America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.   [press release from the National Academies]    [news story]

National Research Council, America's Climate Choices: Panel on Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change. 2010. Limiting the Magnitude of Climate Change. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.    [press release from the National Academies]    [news story]

National Research Council. 2010. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use. Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption, National Research Council (NRC), National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. [news article] [PDF of 2009 version]

  • "The grid-dependent electric options have somewhat higher damages and GWP than other technologies, even in our 2030 analysis, in large measure due to the continued conventional and greenhouse gas emissions from the existing and likely future grid at least as of 2030." (2009:155) [Note: GWP = global warming potential.]

Newman, Lenore and Ann Dale. 2009. "Large Footprints in a Small World: Toward a Macroeconomics of Scale." Sustainability: Science, Practice, and Policy 5(1):9-19.

Newton, Peter, Arun Agrawal, and Lini Wollenberg. 2013. "Enhancing the sustainability of commodity supply chains in tropical forest and agricultural landscapes." Global Environmental Chang 6 September.

Odum, Howard T. and Elisabeth C. Odum. 2011. A Prosperous Way Down. University Press of Colorado, Boulder. [related paper by E. Odum (PDF)]

OECD. 2001. Household Food Consumption: Trends, Environmental Impacts and Policy Responses. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Paris.

Oskamp, Stuart. 2000b. "Psychological Contributions to Achieving an Ecologically Sustainable Future for Humanity." Journal of Social Issues 56(3):373-390. [PDF]

Owen, David. 2010. "Annals of Environmentalism: The Efficiency Dilemma. If our machines use less energy, will we just use them more? The New Yorker 20 December. [PDF]  [response by Amory Lovins in The New Yorker]

Pachauri, Shonaliand and Leiwen Jiang. 2008. "The Household Energy Transition in India and China." Energy Policy 36(11):4022-4035. [abstract]

Pearson, T., J. Russell, M.J. Campbell, and M.E. Barker. 2005. "Do 'food deserts' influence fruit and vegetable consumption? A cross-sectional study." Appetite 45:195-197. [PDF]

Pfister, Stephan, A. Koehler, and Stefanie Hellweg. 2009. "Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Freshwater Consumption in LCA." Environmental Science and Technology 43(11):4098-4104. [abstract]

Plotkin, Mark J. and Lisa Famolare (eds.). 1992. Sustainable Harvest and Marketing of Rain Forest Products. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Polimeni, John, Kozo Mayumi, Mario Giampietro, and Blake Alcott. 2007. The Jevons Paradox and the Myth of Resource Efficiency Improvements. Earthscan, London. [Foreword by Joseph Tainter (PDF)] [reviews in Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy with response by Polimeni]

Princen, Thomas, Michael F. Maniates, and Ken Conca (eds.). 2002. Confronting Consumption. MIT Press, Cambridge.

Prohens, Jaime, Juan J. Ruiz, and Fernando Nuez. 1996. "The Pepino (Solanum muricatum, Solanaceae): A New Crop with a History." Economic Botany 50(4):355-368.

Rain, Patricia. 1992. "Vanilla: Nectar of the Gods." Pages 35-45 in Nelson Foster and Linda S. Cordell (eds.), Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Raynolds, Laura, Douglas Murray, and John Wilkinson. 2007. Fair Trade: The Challenges of Transforming Globalization. Taylor & Francis, London. [review (PDF)]

Redclift, Michael. 1996. Wasted: Counting the Costs of Global Consumption. Earthscan, London.

Redford, Kent H. and Christine Padoch. 1992. Conservation of Neotropical Forests: Working from Traditional Resource Use. Columbia University Press, New York.

Rees, William E. 2004. "The Eco-Footprint of Agriculture: A Far-from-(Thermodynamic)-Equilibrium Interpretation." Pages 87-111 in Allan Eaglesham, Alan Wildeman, and Ralph W.F. Hardy (eds.), Papers from NABC's 16th Annual Meeting, University of Guelph, June 13-15, Report #16. National Agricultural Biotechnology Council, Ithaca. [PDF]

Rees, William E. 2010b. "What’s Blocking Sustainability? Human Nature, Cognition, and Denial." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 6(2):13-25. 

Rees, William E. and Mathis Wackernagel. 1994. "Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: Measuring the Natural Capital Requirements of the Human Economy." Pages 362-390 in A.M. Jansson, M. Hammer, C. Folke, and R. Costanza (eds.), Investing in Natural Capital: The Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability. Island Press, Washington, D.C

Reisch, L. 2001. "Time and Wealth: The Role of Time and Temporalities for Sustainable Patterns of Consumption." Time and Society 10(2/3):387-405. [abstract]

Reisner, Marc. 1993. Cadillac Desert: The American West and its Disappearing Water. Penguin Books, New York. [related research news from Arizona State University]

Rice, Paul. 2011. "Fair Trade: A Model for Sustainable Development. Fair Trade is a viable vehicle for producers to strengthen their positions and take more control over their lives." Stanford Social Innovation Review 23 January. [counterpoint to "The Problem with Fair Trade Coffee" by C. Haight] 

Riley, Patrick. 2001. "Email’s Contribution to Total Paper Consumption on the UC Berkeley Campus: An Investigation of the Printing Behavior of both Students and Staff." Berkeley. [PDF]

Ritzer, George. 1995. The McDonaldization of Society: An Investigation into the Changing Character of Contemporary Social Life (Revised edition). Pine Forge Press, London. [discussion 1 by Ashley Crossman] [discussion 2

  • From Crossman: "McDonaldization is a concept developed by American sociologist George Ritzer which refers to the particular kind of rationalization of production, work, and consumption that rose to prominence in the late twentieth century. The basic idea is that these elements have been adapted based on the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant—efficiency, calculability, predictability and standardization, and control—and that this adaptation has ripple effects throughout all aspects of society."
  • From Crossman: "Sociologists observe the characteristics of McDonaldization in other areas of life, like education and media too, with a clear shift from quality to quantifiable measures over time, standardization and efficiency playing significant roles in both, and control too."

Robèrt, Karl-Henrik, Herman Daly, Paul Hawken, and John Holmberg. 1997. "A Compass for Sustainable Development." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 4:79-92. [PDF]

Robèrt et al. articulate eight "critical requirements for a theoretical model of sustainability:

  • (a) The model must be based on a scientifically acceptable conception of the world. 
  • (b) The model must contain a scientifically supportable definition of sustainability.
  • (c) The overall perspective must be applicable at different scales, and must see the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem at each scale. Individuals must see how their actions aggregate from micro scales up to the macro scale, and thus understand their role in the overall move toward sustainability.
  • (d) The micro-economical perspective should not require individuals to act against self-interest. We may need some altruistic behavior in the political task of setting up the rules of the game, but in the actual playing of the game we should not expect individuals to behave altruistically.
  • (e) The model must be pedagogical and simple to disseminate so that it can support a public consensus necessary to be put into practice democratically.
  • (f) The model must not engender unnecessary resistance or be adversarial.
  • (g) The model must be able to get started without first requiring large scale societal changes. It should be implementable within today’s economic reality. Business corporations, political parties and the public should be able to use the model directly.
  • (h) It would be an advantage if the model could also be used as a starting point for developing 'new economics' — as a way to recognize a new and larger pattern of scarcity to which old and basic economizing principles must be applied." (pp. 80-81)

"Previous models satisfy few of these demands. Some of the requirements are satisfied, but many models fail requirement b), which means the rest fail automatically." (p. 81)

The authors also identify four required system conditions:

  • "System condition # 1: Substances from the lithosphere must not systematically increase in the ecosphere."
  • "System condition # 2: Substances produced by society must not systematically increase in the ecosphere."
  • "System condition # 3: The physical basis for the productivity and diversity of Nature must not be systematically deteriorated."
  • "System condition # 4: Fair and efficient use of resources with respect to meeting human needs."

Roberts, David. 2010b. "Is a ‘Utility-only’ Cap-and-Trade Bill Worth PassingGrist 21 June.

Rodgers, Randy. 2013. "Architect Advocates for Adaptive Reuse. Jean Carroon Presses for Action to Slow Consumption." Sustainable City Network 7 August. 

Røpke, Inge. 2005. "Consumption in Ecological Economics." Internet Encyclopaedia of Ecological Economics. International Society for Ecological Economics. [PDF]

Royte, Elizabeth. 2006. Garbage Land: On the Secret Trail of Trash. Back Bay Books, New York. [short video] [interview podcast from NPR] [excerpt] [review by Neil Genzlinger] [review by William Grimes] [brief excerpts (PDF)]

Sachs, Ignacy. 1984. "Developing in harmony with nature: Consumption patterns, time and space use, resource profiles, and technological choices." In B. Glaeser (ed.), Ecodevelopment: Concepts, Policies, Strategies. Pergamon, New York.

Sachs, Wolfgang. 1999. "Globalization and Sustainability." Development Research Series Working Paper #71, Institut for Historie, Internationale Studier og Samfundsforhold, Aalborg Universitet, Aalborg. [PDF

Saido, Katsuhiko, Tadashi Itagaki, Hideto Sato, Yoichi Kodera, Osamu Abe, Naoto Ogawa, Seon-Yong Chung, and Kiyotaka Miyashita.2009. "New Contamination Derived from Marine Debris Plastics." Paper presented at the 238th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Washington, DC, 19 August.  [PDF]   [news report]   [related video]

Sauer, Jonathan D. 1993. Historical Geography of Crop Plants: A Select Roster. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Schaefer, Anja, and Andrew Crane. 2005. "Addressing sustainability and consumption." Journal of Macromarketing 25(1):76-92. [PDF] [related article (PDF)]

Schaper, David. 2016. "Record Number of Miles Driven in U.S. Last Year." The Two-Way 21 February.

  • "Drivers in cars, trucks, minivans and SUVs put a record 3.22 trillion miles on the nation's roads last year, up 2.8 percent from 3.1 trillion miles in 2015.
  • It's the fifth consecutive year of increased miles driven on public roads and highways, reflecting a strengthening economy, but it also "underscores the demands facing American's roads and bridges," according to a statement from the FHWA, "and reaffirms calls for greater investment in surface transportation infrastructure."
  • Lower gasoline prices are helping fuel the increase in driving, as the cost of a gallon averages $2.28 nationwide, according to AAA, and the price has remained relatively steady in recent months.
  • The strengthening economy has lowered unemployment, which means more people are driving to work and more discretionary income has more people out and about driving.
  • The increase in driving has also increased gasoline consumption, which hit a record high back in June but because vehicles are becoming more fuel efficient, and there are more hybrid, electric, and natural gas vehicles on the road, the country is not burning gasoline at the same rate that driving is increasing."

Schlosser, Eric. 2002. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Harper Perennial, New York. [wiki summary] [excerpts]

Schnaiberg, Alan and Ken Gould. 1994. Environment and Society: The Enduring Conflict. St. Martin's Press, New York. (Reprinted in 2000 by Blackburn Press, Caldwell, New Jersey.)

  • Schnaiberg and Gould point to recycling on college campuses as an example of how campus administrations appease students and other campus advocates with feel-good initiatives. Students get involved in recycling because it is relatively easy to manage and generally well accepted by administrations eager to do the right thing, but less willing to make more substantive changes in the day to-day operations of their institutions. While the authors point out that recycling is generally good, they argue that it does little to alter what they call the "treadmill of production," and that it is more important to reduce consumption.

Schumacher, E.F. 1973. Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. Harper and Row, New York. [wiki summary]

Schwab, Klaus. 2008. "Global Corporate Citizenship: Working with Government and Civil Society." Foreign Affairs 87(1):107-118. [PDF]

Shastri, Yogendra, Urmila Diwekar, Heriberto Cabezas, and James Williamson. 2008. "Is Sustainability Achievable? Exploring the Limits of Sustainability with Model Systems." Environmental Science and Technology 42(17):6710–6716.

Shell, Ellen Ruppel. 2009. Cheap: The High Cost of Discount Culture. Penguin, New York. [review] [excerpt and podcast interview on NPR] [video presentation on BookTV] [five part roundtable debate]

Smith, Alison Dalton. 2010. "Too Much of a Good Thing: The Relationship between Money and Happiness in a Post-Industrial Society." The Sustainability Review 7 March.

Smith, Nigel J.H., J.T. Williams, Donald L. Plucknett, and Jennifer P. Talbot. 1992. Tropical Forests and Their Crops. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Sokolov, Raymond. 1991. Why We Eat what We Eat: How Columbus Changed the Way the World Eats. Touchstone, New York.

Spangenberg, Joachim H. 2013a. "Development without Growth without Regret." Presentation at the Deutsche Welle Global Media Forum, 17 June, Auftakt.

  • "Of course efficiency, circular economy, and renewable resources offer a potential reduction [of resource consumption]: Maybe by a factor of 4 to 5, i.e. exactly what 3% growth will eliminate within 50 years." (slide 28)
  • Note: Global economic growth has averaged about 3% per annum since 1975 (World Bank) and is expected to rise to 3.6% in 2018 (IMF 2017). Also, although a high rate of reduction may be theoretically possible, it is unlikely that such a reduction would ever occur, so the return to present levels of consumption would likely to be within far fewer years than 50.

Spangenberg, Joachim H. 2013b. "Pick Simply the Best: Sustainable Development is about Radical Analysis and Selective Synthesis, not about Old Wine in New Bottles." Sustainable Development 21(2):101-111. [abstract]

  • [Looking to the future] "The resulting society might still be called a capitalist one; it would significantly differ from current capitalism, but not resemble past socialist economies. Rather than categorizing it as one or the other, or than deriving new ‘-isms’, the discussion should focus on the practical means to pursue the sustainable transformation of our societies and economies." (p. 101)

Speth, James Gustave. 2005. Red Sky at Morning: America and the Crisis of the Global Environment, 2nd Edition. Yale University Press, New Haven. [author presentation] [Chapter 1: "A World of Wounds"] [review by Dave Haven and Diane Bates]

  • "No president since Carter has given prority to global-scale environmental challenges. The failure has been truly bipartisan. These issues more than most require true political leadership." (p. 9)
  • "Regarding this growth, here is what happened in just the past twenty years: 1) Global population up 35 %; 2) World economic output up 75 %; 3) Global energy use up 40 %; Global meat consumption up 70 %; 4) World auto production up 45 %; 5) Global paper use up 90 %; 6) Advertising globally up 100 %. Today, the world economy is poised to quadruple in size again by midcentury, just as it did in the last half-century." (p. 20-21)

  • "Humans dominate the planet today as never before. We now live in a full world. An unprecedented responsibility for planetary management is now thrust upon us, whether we like it or not. This huge new burden, for which there is no precedent and little preparation, is the price of our economic success. We brought it upon ourselves, and we must turn to it with urgency and with even greater determination and political attention than has been brought to liberalizing trade and making the world safe for market capitalism. The risks of inaction extend beyond unprecedented environmental deterioration. Following closely in its wake would be widespread loss of livelihoods, social tensions and conflict, and huge economic costs." (pp. 21-22)

Stephen Dovers and Tony Norton. 1994. "Population, environment and sustainability: reconstructing the debate." Sustainable Development 2. [PDF]

Stiglitz, Joseph E. and Andrew Charlton. 2007. Fair Trade for All: How Trade Can Promote Development. Oxford University Press, New York. [review]

Strong, Carolyn. 1997. "The Role of Fair Trade Principles within Sustainable Development." Sustainable Development 5(1):1-10. [abstract]

Stutz, John. 2010. "The Three-front War: Pursuing Sustainability in a World Shaped by Explosive Growth." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 6(2). 

Taylor, Peter Leigh, Douglas L. Murray, and Laura T. Raynolds. 2005. "Keeping Trade Fair: Governance Challenges in the Fair Trade Coffee Initiative." Sustainable Development 13:199-208. [abstract]

Tokar, Brian. 1997. "Questioning Official Environmentalism." Z Magazine 1 April.

  • "…Earth Day was going to be a politically safe event, with almost no attention toward the institutions or the economic system responsible for ecocide, nothing about confronting corporate polluters, nothing about changing the structures of society. The overriding message was simply, 'change your lifestyle': recycle, drive less, stop wasting energy, buy better appliances, etc. Celebrations in several major U.S. cities were supported by some of the most notorious corporate polluters—companies like Monsanto, Peabody Coal, and Georgia Power, to name a few. Everyone from the nuclear power industry to the Chemical Manufacturers’ Association took out full-page advertisements in newspapers and magazines proclaiming that, for them, 'Every day is Earth Day.' The now-familiar greenwashing of Earth Day had clearly begun."
  • "The Multinational Monitor found that 23 directors and council members from Audubon, NRDC, the Wilderness Society, the World Resources Institute, and World Wildlife Fund were associated with 19 corporations cited in a recent survey of the 500 worst industrial polluters. These companies included such recognized environmental offenders as Union Carbide, Exxon, Monsanto, Weyerhaeuser, DuPont, and Waste Management, Inc. Furthermore, some 67 individuals associated with just 7 environmental groups served as CEOs, chairpersons, presidents, consultants or directors for 92 major corporations."
  • "To challenge the hegemony of the voices of official environmentalism on the national level will ultimately require more active and diverse networks of grassroots activists, organized and coordinated from the ground up. Such networks have begun to appear in the environmental justice movement, as well as among grassroots forest activists. Activists working on similar issues and facing an increasingly unified corporate agenda need to find ways to join forces across boundaries of geography, ethnicity, class, and specific-issue focus." 
  • "The official Earth Day 1995 petition, addressed with a puzzling forthrightness to House Speaker Newt Gingrich, began, “With major polluters such as Texaco and Monsanto attempting to ‘sponsor’ Earth Day, and every politician in the nation claiming to be ‘for the environment,’ it is getting hard to figure out who is really protecting the planet and who is poisoning it.” The corporate co-optation of Earth Day, an idea that provoked intense controversy in 1990, and brought hundreds of people to demonstrate on Wall Street, had become conventional wisdom by mid-decade. Will activists in 1997 begin to chart a different path?"

Trainer, Ted. 2007. Renewable Energy Cannot Sustain a Consumer Society. Springer, Dordrecht. [related paper by author (PDF)]

Trentmann, Frank. 2007. "Before 'Fair Trade': Empire, Free Trade, and the Moral Economies of Food in the Modern World." Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 25:1079-1102.

Truelove, Heather Barnes, Amanda R. Carrico, Elke U. Weber, Kaitlin Toner Raimi, and Michael P. Vandenbergh. 2014. "Positive and negative spillover of pro-environmental behavior: An integrative review and theoretical framework." Global Environmental Change 29:127-138. [PDF]

  • "The evidence evaluating these spillover effects has been mixed, with some studies finding evidence for positive spillover (i.e., one pro-environmental behavior increases the likelihood of performing additional pro-environmental behaviors) and others finding negative spillover (i.e., one pro-environmental behavior decreases the likelihood of additional pro-environmental behaviors)." (p. 127)

Truelove, Heather Barnes, Kam Leung Yeung, Amanda R. Carrico, Ashley J. Gilles, and Kaitlin Toner Raimi. 2016. "From plastic bottle recycling to policy support: An experimental test of pro-environmental spillover." Journal of Environmental Psychology 46:55-66.

  • "This result provides initial support for Wagner's (2011) argument that performance of easy PEBs may undermine policy support, though this effect was moderated by political party affiliation."
  • "...we found that Democrats displayed negative spillover between recycling and policy support."

Udall, Steward L. 1963. The Quiet Crisis and the Next Generation. Peregrine Smith, Salt Lake City.

Udall, Stewart L. 1963. "The Conservation Challenge of the Sixties." Albright Lecture, University of California Berkeley, 19 April, Berkeley, California. 

  • "But the erosion of our environment will continue unless we make public rights paramount, which means that we put the future first. The conservation of man, through the conservation of his environment, must become a major national objective and the pursuit of "progress" and the pursuit of happiness must be harmonized if, in the long run, our society is to flourish."
  • "The sad fact is that the 19th century Myth of Superabundance - the idea that we have such unending resources of forests and soil that it didn't matter how we dealt with them as husbandmen - has been supplanted by what we might call the Myth of Scientific Supremacy. Striding about as supermen, we tolerate great imbalances in resource uses, and shrug off the newer forms of erosion with a let-science-fix-it-tomorrow attitude. This rationalization is potentially as destructive as the mischievous rain follows-the-plow slogan of those who a few decades ago turned the land of the Great Plains into a Dust Bowl. Regrettably, the very men who are quickest to rely on the Myth of Scientific Supremacy are the same men who are usually opposed, or grounds of 'economy', to the investment of public funds an the voting of public laws to do the conservation work of today."

USDA. 2003. Agriculture Fact Book 2001-2002. USDA, Washington, D.C. [PDF

Valkila, Joni. 2009. "Fair Trade Organic Coffee Production in Nicaragua—Sustainable Development or a Poverty Trap?" Ecological Economics 68(12):3018-3025. [abstract]

van den Berg, Karijn. 2016. "Neoliberal Sustainability? The Biopolitical Dynamics of “Green” Capitalism." Colloquium Paper #31, Global governance/politics, climate justice & agrarian/social justice:  linkages and challenges, an international colloquium, 4‐5 February, International Institute of Social Studies (ISS), The Hague. [PDF]

  • "Besides as a form of greenwashing, this green card on the hotel bed can be seen as an example of ‘sustainable citizenship’ the idea that individuals should help increase social justice and safeguard nature through individual and collective practices (Micheletti, 89). Big corporations, celebrities and activists certify consumer products as a way to take responsibility for (food) production and consumption in a sustainable way. Such activities increasingly reflect the ways in which individual citizens can, and are expected to, become caretakers of the planet in their daily lives. This is for instance reflected in current hip trends such as eating organic, local and Fair Trade, and in campaigns such as Albert Heijn’s 'Doe maar lekker duurzaam' (translated as 'Just be nicely sustainable'), which is paradoxically sponsored by Unilever and the postcode lottery. Such campaigns seem to urge individuals to become sustainable and responsible actors in contributing to the wellbeing of our 'Mother Earth', but only in a manner that seems to be tightly interwoven with neoliberal capitalist agendas…"

van der Ploeg, Frederick. 2008. "Voracious Transformation of a Common Natural Resource into Productive Capital." Oxford Centre for the Analysis of Resource Rich Economies (OxCarre) Research Paper #2008-02, Revised October 2008, OxCarre, University of Oxford, Oxford.  [PDF

van der Veen, Marijke. 2003. "When is food a luxury?" World Archaeology 34(3):405-427.

van Gelder, Sarah (ed.). 2015. Sustainable Happiness: Live Simply, Live Well, Make a Difference. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Oakland. [video lecture by van Gelder] [related essay by van Gelder]

Veblen, Thorstein. 1899. The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions.  [New edition published in 1994 by Dover Publications.)

Vergragt, Philip J. and Halina Szejnwald Brown. 2016. Fostering and Communicating Sustainable Lifestyles: Principles and Emerging Practices. United Nations Environment Programme - Sustainable Lifestyles, Cities and Industry Branch (UN Environment). [PDF]

"The rich body of literature on communication and lifestyle-related initiatives and policies shows an evolution of the problem framing. Several approaches from the past have been shown to be overly simplistic, ineffective or altogether misplaced. 27 Some of these 'debunked assumptions' include:

·         The assumption of ‘consumer-choice’ - that individuals are rational decisionmakers guided by price signals and information. Linked to that is the assumption that appealing to people’s self-interest in the most effective method of changing behaviours. We now know that while price signals and information are important factors for many people and in many situations, they are not universal and not always the most important motivators of behaviour.

·         The assumption that individuals can change their consumption behaviours by deciding to do so. We now know that individual consumption choices are conditioned by culture, life experiences, and market forces and are constrained by infrastructure, social practices, and institutions. These often result in “lock-ins” into highly consuming lifestyles.

·         The assumption that all we need to do to change individual’s behaviours is to foster a change in values and attitudes. This assumption has led to the discovery of the so-called ‘value-action gap,’ in which people’s attitudes don’t match their behaviours, and has led research and practice to explore the role of emotions, habits, and structures in shaping behaviour. There is also a growing recognition that values and attitudes are very hard to change because they are closely linked to a dominant culture.

·         The assumption that “green consumption” is the best way to achieve a sustainable lifestyle. This assumption has been challenged by accumulating evidence that green products and simple acts such as waste recycling have no impact on reducing energy consumption either on an individual or societal level, and that technological solutions are mitigated through rebound effects."

Wagner, Gernot. 2011. "Going Green but Getting Nowhere." The New York Times 7 September. [related video lecture by Gernot]

  • "The reality is that we cannot overcome the global threats posed by greenhouse gases without speaking the ultimate inconvenient truth: getting people excited about making individual environmental sacrifices is doomed to fail."

Wagner, Gernot. 2011. But Will the Planet Notice? How Smart Economics Can Save the World. Hill and Wang, New York. [related essay by author in The New York Times: "Going Green but Getting Nowhere"] [related video presentatio by author]

  • General takeaway: individual behavior is fine, but sweeping policies are needed for real progress.
  • "A 5% gasoline price increase leads to a 3% consumption reduction in the U.S." (from video lecture)
  • From video: benefits of clean air act exceeded costs 30 to 1.
  • From video: "Starting next year flying in Europe at least will no longer be socialized. With the CO2 pollution costs paid by society and it won’t be up to a few volunteers paying a few bucks extra for the flight, everyone will be doing it. That’s the kind of policy change that really makes a difference." (24:14) [By socialized, he means dumping the costs of negative externalities on the larger society.]

Ward, James D., Paul C. Sutton, Adrian D. Werner, Robert Costanza, Steve H. Mohr, and Craig T. Simmons. 2016. "Is Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact Possible?" PLOS One 11(10):e0164733.

  • Abstract: "The argument that human society can decouple economic growth—defined as growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP)—from growth in environmental impacts is appealing. If such decoupling is possible, it means that GDP growth is a sustainable societal goal. Here we show that the decoupling concept can be interpreted using an easily understood model of economic growth and environmental impact. The simple model is compared to historical data and modelled projections to demonstrate that growth in GDP ultimately cannot be decoupled from growth in material and energy use. It is therefore misleading to develop growth-oriented policy around the expectation that decoupling is possible. We also note that GDP is increasingly seen as a poor proxy for societal wellbeing. GDP growth is therefore a questionable societal goal. Society can sustainably improve wellbeing, including the wellbeing of its natural assets, but only by discarding GDP growth as the goal in favor of more comprehensive measures of societal wellbeing."

Watts, Jonathan. 2010. When a Billion Chinese Jump: How China Will Save Mankind -- or Destroy It. Scribner, New York. [review 1 by Isabel Hilton in The Guardian]  [review 2 by Jonathan Mirsky in Literary Review] [review 3 by Michael McCarthy in The Independent]   

Weatherford, Jack. 1988. Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World. Crown, New York.

Weatherford, Jack. 1992. Native Roots: How the Indians Enriched America. Ballantine, New York.

Weinstein, Michael P., R. Eugene Turner, and Carles Ibáñez. 2013. "The Global Sustainability Transition: It Is more than Changing Light Bulbs." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 9(1):4-15.

  • "Abstract: Current policies and norms to reconcile human demands for resources with the Earth’s ability to supply them have resulted in practices that mainly treat the symptoms of unsustainability rather than their underlying causes. Moreover, the increase in our knowledge about humankind’s role in ecosystems is not keeping pace with our understanding of the consequences of our actions, resulting in a deepening inability to address sustainability issues. The extreme complexity and intricate workings of the world require the expansion of our mental models in a systems-thinking framework if we are to realize a sustainable place for humans in it. The challenge of the emerging transdiscipline of sustainability science lies in developing specific tools and processes, including curriculum development and a new generation of systems models, to help us better understand complexity — uncertainty and surprise, scale, hierarchy, and feedback loops — and to educate a new generation of sustainability scientists to design better policies, to facilitate social learning, and to catalyze the technical, economic, social, political, and personal changes needed to create a sustainable world."

  • Summary: The paper employs the dual-pillar sustainability model based on human and natural systems, stated as "coupled human-environment systems" (CH-ESs). From an education perspective, the authors frame six challenges all related to the principal challenge of finding a way for humans to meet their needs without compromising future options while also maintaining ecological integrity. Included in the six are: reconciling that the worldview articulated in the Bretton Woods agreement in 1944, that economic growth must reach all persons and must continue indefinitely, must change; that our economy must reduce energy consumption and the throughput of resources; we must fundamentally change the way our cities are built and operate; and that we must learn how to create resiliency in human systems. The authors also discuss six sustainability dimensions five—technical, economic, social, political, and personal—embedded in nature.

Werfel, Seth H. 2017. "Household behaviour crowds out support for climate change policy when sufficient progress is perceived." Nature Climate Change 12 June. [story in Scientific American by Knvul Sheikh]

  • "…household behaviour may crowd out public support for government action by creating the perception of sufficient progress."
  • "...study in Japan finds that after people unplug appliances and turn down the A-C, they are more resistant to nationwide climate change measures." (Sheikh, Scientific American 21 June)

Werner, Brett. 2010. "Food and Campus Sustainability" (syllabus). Centre College, Danville, Kentucky. [PDF

Wicker, Alden. 2017. "Conscious consumerism is a lie. Here’s a better way to help save the world." Quartz 1 March.

  • "There’s also the issue of privilege. The sustainability movement has been charged with being elitist—and it most certainly is. You need a fair amount of disposable income to afford ethical and sustainable consumption options, the leisure time to research the purchasing decisions you make, the luxury to turn up your nose at 95% of what you’re offered, and, arguably, a post-graduate degree in chemistry to understand the true meaning behind ingredient labels."
  • "Choosing fashion made from hemp, grilling the waiter about how your fish was caught, and researching whether your city can recycle bottle caps might make you feel good, reward a few social entrepreneurs, and perhaps protect you from charges of hypocrisy. But it’s no substitute for systematic change."

Wiedmann, T., M. Lenzen, K. Turner, and J. Barrett. 2007. "Examining the Global Environmental Impact of Regional Consumption Activities - Part 2: Review of Input-output Models for the Assessment of Environmental Impacts Embodied in Trade." Ecological Economics 61:15-26.

Wiedmann, Thomas O., Heinz Schandl, Manfred Lenzen, Daniel Moran, Sangwon Suh, James West, and Keiichiro Kanemoto. 2013. "The material footprint of nations." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 3 September. [PDF] [news story in ScienceDaily]

Wilk, Richard. 2010. "Consumption Embedded in Culture and Language: Implications for Finding Sustainability." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 6(2):38-48. [PDF]

Wilk, Richard. 2013. "Green Consumerism Is No Solution." HuffPost, The Blog 14 June (updated 14 August).

  • "Goodness and moral values have been privatized in our post-Reagan-Thatcher neoliberal world. 'Green' consumer goods promise...that we can change the world without sacrifice, or any more effort than smarter shopping."
  • "Those of us concerned with the real impacts of global consumer culture are stuck in the territory between cynicism and tokenism, trying to think more productively about the kinds of strategies that can make a symbolic and material difference. We hope that the passive activism of green (or greenish) consumption can connect with more overtly political activities…" [My note: unfortunately it mostly does not.]

Williams, Colin C. 1996. "The New Barter Economy: An Appraisal of Local Exchange and Trading Systems (LETS)." Journal of Public Policy 16(1):85-101. 

Wilson, Alex. 2008. "Making the Case for Green Building: Cataloging the Benefits of Environmentally Responsible Design and Construction." Pages 135-142 in W. Simpson (ed.), The Green Campus: Meeting the Challenge of Environmental Sustainability. APPA, Alexandria, Virginia

Witt, Ulrich. The dynamics of consumer behavior and the transition to sustainable consumption patterns. No. 1103. Papers on economics and evolution, 2011. [PDF] [related video

Wolpin, Miles. 1997. "Fair Trade Standards, Economic Well-being and Human Rights as Costs of Free Trade." International Journal of Peace Studies 2(1).

Works, Martha A. 1990. "Continuity and Conservation of House Gardens in Western Amazonia." Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, Yearbook 52:31-64.

Worldwatch Institute (Erik Assadourian and Michael Renner, eds.). 2012. State of the World 2012: Moving toward Sustainable Prosperity. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Wright, Lawrence, Simon Kemp, and Ian Williams. 2011. "'Carbon footprinting': towards a universally accepted definition." Carbon Management 2(1):61-72. [abstract] [related presentation by authors (PDF)]

Xue, X., and A.E. Landis. 2010. Eutro-phication potential of food consumption patterns. Environmental Science & Technology. [News Story]

Yang, Ailun and Yiyun Cui. 2012. "Global Coal Risk Assessment: Data Analysis and Market Research." WRI Working Paper. World Resources Institute, Washington DC. [PDF]

Yes Magazine. 2012. "Curriculum & Resources: Sugar Consumption Infographic." Yes Magazine 15 October.

York, R. 2006. "Ecological Paradoxes: William Stanley Jevons and the Paperless Office." Human Ecology Review 13:143-147. [PDF] [related video]

Zehner, Ozzie. 2012. Green Illusions: The Dirty Secrets of Clean Energy and the Future of Environmentalism. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. [author interview in Truthout] [review by Tom Zeller] [introduction (PDF)] [author video presentation]

  • "Building a heavy box with wheels and then shoving it thousands of miles down a road requires a lot of energy. There's no physical way around that. Electric car companies haven't found a way around the physics. But they've created an illusion that they have." (from interview in Truthout)
  • "Finally, there's the influence of media, which I spend a whole chapter dissecting in Green Illusions. Green media has become a war of press releases—a contest of half-baked models and glorified science fair experiments. It doesn't have to be this way. We can change it all if we are willing to think and inquire differently as concerned citizens." (from Truthout interview)
  • "Subsidies for electric cars are ultimately a subsidy to car culture and the infrastructure that goes with it. Car culture is not sustainable within the limits we face to growth." (from Truthout interview)

Zhao, Jing (ed.). 2009. "China Energy Efficiency." Energy Policy (Special Issue) 37(6):2053-2464. [introduction

Zimmerer, Karl S. 1991. "The Regional Biogeography of Native Potato Cultivars in Highland Peru." Journal of Biogeography 18:165-178. [abstract]

Zimmerer, Karl S. 1992. "The Loss and Maintenance of Native Crops in Mountain Agriculture." GeoJournal 27(1):61-72.

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