Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References

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Reference Search Results You searched for cognition

Ahmed, Nafeez Mosaddeq. 2010d. A User's Guide to the Crisis of Civilization and How to Save It. Pluto Press, London. [related article 1 by author]  [related article 2 by author]

Allison, Graham. 2015. "The Thucydides Trap: Are the U.S. and China Headed for War? In 12 of 16 past cases in which a rising power has confronted a ruling power, the result has been bloodshed." The Atlantic 24 September. [author interview] [commentary by Greg Myre on Wisconsin Public Radio]

Allison, Graham. 2017. Destined for War: Can America and China Escape Thucydides’s Trap? Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York. [author interview] [related paper by author in The Atlantic] [commentary by Greg Myre on National Public Radio] [Thucydides Trap Forum at the Belfer Center with author (video) (transcript PDF)]

Andersen, Kurt. 2017. Fantasyland: How America Went Haywire: A 500-Year History. Random House, New York. [interview] [interview by Charlie Rose] [related article "How America Lost Its Mind" in The Atlantic]

Anderson, E.N. 1997. "Traditional Medical Values of Food." Pages 80-91 in Carole Counihan and Penny Van Esterik (eds.), Food and Culture: A Reader. Routledge, London.

Applebaum, Barbara. 2010. Being White, Being Good: White Complicity, White Moral Responsibility, and Social Justice Pedagogy. Lexington Books, New York. [review]

  • "What does it mean to claim that white people are complicit in the reproduction of racist systems despite their good intentions and even when they might want to renounce the privileges they accrue because of their whiteness? How can white people be responsible for their complicity if they cannot choose to be not white? Even if white people are well intended, even if they consider themselves to be paragons of anti-racism, how might they still be unwittingly complicit in sustaining an unjust system they claim to want to dismantle?" (p. 3)
  • "Often white students refuse to even engage with the possibility that they are complicit. ... Denials of complicity go deep and are maintained ... by certain conceptions of responsibility." (p. 4)
  • "... [many] white people are implicated in an unjust racial system from which they gain systemic benefit and that they reinscribe (most often unwittingly) existing power relations… ." (p. 148)

  • From the review: "She [Applebaum] suggests further research should be done to understand how complicity also plays a role in other oppressions, which may include Islamaphobia, heterosexism or classism."

  • Note: Extending the idea of blind complicity further, I would argue that self-identified progressives who are not educated on neoliberalism are easily swayed to advance solutions through market mechanisms and voluntary individual behavior change at the expense of policy that could bring the sweeping changes that are need to avoid collapse of at a minimum painful adjustments to cascading systems.

Arbuthnott, Katherine D. and Brett Dolter. 2013. "Escalation of commitment to fossil fuels." Ecological Economics 89:7-13.

Armelagos, George J. 1987. "Biocultural Aspects of Food Choice." Pages 579-594 in Marvin Harris and Eric B. Ross (eds.), Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Human Food Habits. Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

Armelagos, George J. 2010. "The omnivore’s dilemma: The evolution of the brain and the determinants of food choice." Journal of Anthropological Research 66(2):161-186. [PDF]

Arrow, Kenneth J. 1951. Social Choice and Individual Values. John Wiley, New York. [PDF]

  • "In a capitalist democracy there are essentially two methods by which social choices can be made: voting, typically used to make 'political' decisions, and the market mechanism, typically used to make 'economic' decisions. In the emerging democracies with mixed economic systems, Great Britain, France, and Scandinavia, the same two modes of making social choices prevail, though more scope is given to the method of voting and decisions based directly or indirectly on it and less to the rule of the price mechanism." (p. 1)

Avena, Nicole M., Pedro Rada, and Bartley G. Hoebel. 2008. "Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake." Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews 32(1):20–39.

Barham, Bradford L., Jean-Paul Chavas, and Oliver T. Coomes. 1998. "Sunk Costs and the Natural Resource Extraction Sector: Analytical Models and Historical Examples of Hysteresis and Strategic Behavior in the Americas." Land Economics 74:429-448. [abstract]

Barthes, Roland. 1997. "Toward a Psychosociology of Contemporary Food Consumption." Pages 20-27 in Carole Counihan and Penny Van Esterik (eds.), Food and Culture: A Reader. Routledge, London.

Bastiat, Frédéric. 1845. Economic Sophisms (Second Series, Chapter 1, "Physiology of Plunder"). The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc., Irvington-on-Hudson.

  • "When plunder becomes a way of life for a group of men in a society, over the course of time they create for themselves a legal system that authorizes it and a moral code that glorifies it." (II.1.11)
  • Note: In the modern context, Neoliberalism has done all of this, and popular culture has become blindly complicit in the glorification of the paradigm even when the expressions and actions of that paradigm do not serve the masses or the common good.

BBC News (Poll). 2010. "Climate Skepticism 'On the Rise', BBC Poll Shows." BBC News 7 February.  [full poll (PDF)]

Beddoe, Rachael, Robert Costanza, Joshua Farley, Eric Garza, Jennifer Kent, Ida Kubiszewski, Luz Martinez, Tracy McCowen, Kathleen Murphy, Norman Myers, Zach Ogden, Kevin Stapleton, and John Woodward. 2009. "Overcoming Systemic Roadblocks to Sustainability: The Evolutionary Redesign of Worldviews, Institutions, and Technologies." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(8):2483-2489.

  • "Many governments worldwide have long-standing policies that promote growth in market goods at the expense of non-market public goods generated by healthy ecosystems. These include (i) over $2 trillion in annual subsidies for market activities and externalities that degrade the environment (i.e., perverse subsidies) (Myers and Kent 2001); (ii) reduced protection or privatization of the commons (Barnes 2006); and (iii) inadequate regulations and inadequate enforcement of existing regulations against environmental externalities (Brown 2007)." (p. 2486)
  • "Economies have weathered innumerable financial crises. However, the current financial crisis pales in comparison to the biophysical crisis. Yet these more critical crises are pushed off the front page by the financial crisis and the dominant worldview of continued economic growth and consumption. Not only do our current institutions and instruments fail to address the real crisis, they accomplish mutually reinforcing goals that move us in the wrong direction. No attention is given to the relationship between the biophysical crises and the market economy, although continuous economic growth in the wealthy countries is actually a major cause of the biophysical crises." (interpreted from Daly 2007, p. 2486)

Bell, David and Gill Valentine. 1997. Consuming Geographies: We Are where we Eat. Routledge, London.

Binder, M. and A.-K. Blankenberg. 2017. "Green lifestyles and subjective well-being: More about self-image than actual behavior." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 137:304-323.

  • "…this boost in life satisfaction is mostly due to self-image (i.e. one's own assessment of how environmentally-friendly one's behavior is) but not due to concrete pro-environmental behaviors such as conserving water, recycling and so on. We further show that green self-image increases the extent and intensity of green behavior yet even the greenest (self-identified) individuals do not consistently exhibit all pro-environmental behaviors."

Birch, Kean. 2015. "Neoliberalism: The whys and wherefores ... and future directions." Sociology Compass 9(7):571-584. [PDF] [alternative PDF]

  • "…most scholars agree on is that neoliberalism can be broadly defined as the extension and installation of competitive markets into all areas of life, including the economy, politics, and society... .  Furthermore, neoliberalism is usually associated with a number of influential thinkers, politicians, and policymakers from the last century, including Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman, James Buchanan, Margaret Thatcher, Ronald Reagan, and Alan Greenspan. These neoliberals claim that the market is the most efficient and moral institution for organizing human life, meaning that it should replace all other institutions (e.g. family, state, community, and society) as the main mechanism for creating, promoting, and maintaining social order – in particular, it should replace socialism and collectivist planning… ."  (p. 572)
  •  "…neoliberalism entails both positive assumptions (i.e. the market is more efficient than other institutions) and normative assumptions (i.e. the market should replace other institutions because it is both more efficient and liberating)." (p. 572)

Birch, Leann L. and Jennifer A Fisher. 1996. "The Role of Experience in the Development of Children's Eating Behavior." Pages 113-141 in E.D. Capaldi (ed.), Why We Eat what We Eat: The Psychology of Eating. American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Blackwater, Bill. 2012. "The Denialism of Progressive Environmentalists." Monthly Review 64(2).

Blanchard, Keith. 2014. "Why you should stop believing in evolution. You don't believe in it – you either understand it or you don't." The Week 4 August.

Bonini, Sheila and Jeremy Oppenheim. 2008. "Cultivating the Green Consumer." Stanford Social Innovation Review Fall:56-61.

Bopp, Michael and Judie Bopp. 2011. Recreating the World: A practical guide to building sustainable communities, third edition. Four Worlds press, Alberta. [PDF]

  • A model with four pillars is illustrated: 1) Social, 2) Cultural, 3) Political/Ideological, and 4) Economic/Ecological. Two of the pillars combine two pillars each from other models. Subcomponents of each pillar are also presented that also include pillars from other models including Spiritual. At its core, the model includes the following four elements: 1) Emotional (under Social), 2), Spiritual (under Cultural), 3) Mental (under (under Political/Ideological), and 4) Physical (under Economic/Ecological). (p. 34)

Boroditsky, Lera. 2011. "How Language Shapes Thought. The languages we speak affect our perceptions of the world." Scientific American February. [earlier related paper by Boroditsky]

Borrelli, Belinda, Rashelle B. Hayes, Shira Dunsiger, and Joseph L. Fava. 2010. Risk perception and smoking behavior in medically ill smokers: a prospective study. 105:1100-1108. [PDF

Boucher, Jean Léon. 2017. "Culture, Carbon, and Climate Change: A Class Analysis of Climate Change Belief, Lifestyle Lock-In, and Personal Carbon Footprint." Socijalna ekologija: Zeitschrift für Umweltgedanken und Soziologische Forschung (Journal for Environmental Thought and Sociological Research) 25(1-2):53-80. 

  • Abstract. "Global climate change is arguably the defining issue of the present age, and high carbon emissions are the major cause of this change. Prior research has shown that carbon emissions are strongly positively associated with household incomes – both in a given nation and between nations. Scholars explain that one of the root causes of this “income-carbon” relationship is lifestyle lock-in: the inability of individuals to change their consumption habits—due to institutionalized structures, contexts, and norms. Using a United States nationally representative dataset (N=2107), I test whether climate change beliefs moderate the income-carbon relationship (emissions were only examined for personal mobility and dietary carbon footprints). I found a significant positive correlation between climate change beliefs and personal carbon footprints only among one segment of the public—those who are most concerned about climate change (18% of the sample). I also reaffirm the significant positive correlation between household income and carbon emissions—income was the most dominant predictor variable in my analyses. I call for taxes and limits on both income and carbon emissions." (p. 53)

Boucher, Jean Léon. 2017. "The logics of frugality: Reproducing tastes of necessity among auent climate change activists." Energy Research & Social Science 31:223-232.

  • "Though frugality may be a practice of some affluent climate change activists, its capacity to reduce human impacts on the environment is questionable and deserves more attention." (p. 223)
  • "Finally, when returning to my interest in how the affluent might make sense of the potential contradictions between their climate change beliefs and their lifestyles—an interest which was not the specific focus of this paper, there is the possibility of an absolving frugality: one, like an exchange, that releases or frees an individual from the potential guilt of a high consuming lifestyle. This is only speculative, but in earlier research [70], I did find precursory evidence for a carbon conscience—a practice where individuals seemed to adopt lower carbon behaviors in one area of their lives in exchange for higher carbon behaviors in another." (p. 231)

    "Frugality, then, in accord with individuals and conditions, can be distributed into a taxonomy of logics; it can be constrained or habitual or nostalgic—and even people of affluence can preserve behaviors that seem to contradict their economic status. Frugality may even reduce one’s carbon footprint, but I would question such a finding, especially among the affluent: I question the environmental relief that would follow from such a seemingly individualized and internal project." (p. 231)

Bowers, Chet A. 1997. The Culture of Denial: Why the Environmental Movement Needs a Strategy for Reforming Universities and Public Schools. State University of New York Press, Albany. [review]

Boykoff, Maxwell T., and Jules M. Boykoff. 2004. "Balance as bias: global warming and the US prestige press." Global environmental change 14.2: 125-136. [PDF] [related video]

Bratman, Gregory N., Gretchen C. Daily, Benjamin J. Levy, and James J. Gross. 2015. "The benefits of nature experience: Improved affect and cognition." Landscape and Urban Planning 138:41-50. [related news story and video]

Brockner, Joel. 1992. "The Escalation of Commitment to a Failing Course of Action: Toward Theoretical Progress." Academy of Management Review 17(1):39-61. [abstract] [PDF]

Brooks, C. and J. Manza. 2013. "A Broken Public? Americans' Responses to the Great Recession." American Sociological Review 78(5):727-748. [story in ScienceDaily]

Burkeman, Oliver. 2015. "We’re all climate change deniers at heart. The G7 goal to phase out fossil fuels by the end of the century matters – because as individuals we’re hardwired to shirk existential challenges." The Guardian 8 June.  

Butterfield, Stephen. 1999. Amway: The Cult of Free Enterprise. South End Press, New York. 

Byrd, John and Kent Hickman. 2012. "Behavioral Economics and Corporate Sustainability." The Sustainability Review 3(3).

Cairns, John, Jr. 2004b. "Is Human Society in Denial Regarding the Tough Questions about Sustainability?" Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 53-63. [PDF]

  • "The following few illustrative examples show that problems with denial do exist. 1) Cigarette smoking does not cause cancer or other adverse health effects. 2) Global warming is a myth not based on scientific evidence. 3) Biotic impoverishment (species extinction) will not affect human society. 4) Every environmental problem has a technological solution. 5) The human population can keep expanding indefinitely. 6) Resources are not limiting."

Capaldi, Elizabeth D. (ed.). 1996. Why We Eat what We Eat: The Psychology of Eating. American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C. [overview]

Capaldi, Elizabeth D. 1996b. "Conditioned Food Preferences." Pages 53-80 in E.D. Capaldi (ed.), Why We Eat what We Eat: The Psychology of Eating. American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Capra, Fritjof. 2002. The Hidden Connections: Integrating the Biological, Cognitive, and Social Dimensions of Life into a Science of Sustainability. Doubleday, New York. [review] [summary (PDF)]

  • "In addition to its economic instability, the current form of global capitalism is ecologically and socially unsustainable, and hence not viable in the long run. Resentment against globalization is growing rapidly in all parts of the world. The fate of global capitalism may well be, as Manuel Castells puts it ‘the social, cultural, and political rejection by large numbers of people around the world of an Automaton whose logic either ignores or devalues their humanity.’ As we shall see, that rejection may already have begun." (p. 157)

Catton, William R., Jr. 1994. "The Problem of Denial." Environment and Society.

Cerin, Pontus. 2003. "Sustainability Hijacked by the Sociological Wall of Self-evidence." Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 10(4):175-185. [PDF]

Chefurka, Paul. 2009. "The Neuropsychology of Climate Change." Approaching the Limits of Growth 1 December.

Churchill, Ward. 2001. A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492 to the Present. City Lights Publishers, San Francisco.

Cook, John. 2010. The Scientific Guide to Global Warming Skepticism. SkepticalScience.org. [PDF] [related video]

Coontz, Stephanie. 2016. The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap, Revised Edition. Basic Books, New York. [review in L.A. Times]

Corner, Adam, Ezra Markowitz, and Nick Pidgeon. 2014. "Public engagement with climate change: the role of human values." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. [PDF]

Costanza, Robert. 1984. "The Nuclear Arms Race and the Theory of Social Traps." Journal of Peace Research 21(1):79-86. [abstract]

Costanza, Robert. 1987. "Social Traps and Environmental Policy: Why Do Problems Persist when there Are Technical Solutions Available?" BioScience 37(6):407-412. [PDF]

Damasio, Antonio R. 1994. "Descartes’ Error and the Future of Human Life." Scientific American October. [PDF]

Dardozzi, Jeff. 2008. "The spector of Jevon’s Paradox." Stanford University Press, Stanford. [PDF]

Dawkins, Richard. 1976. The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [wikipedia summary] [PDF]

Dawkins, Richard. 2006. The God Delusion. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York. [review 1] [review 2] [review 3] [related Ted Talk by author]

Dawkins, Richard. 2009. The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution. Free Press, New York. [author interview]  [review 1]  [review 2] [related discussion, "We are all Africans"]

De Simone, Deborah M. 2001. "The Consequences of Democratizing Knowledge: Reconsidering Richard Hofstadter and the History of Education." The History Teacher 34(3).

DeAngelis, Tori. 2004. "Consumerism and its discontents: Materialistic values may stem from early insecurities and are linked to lower life satisfaction, psychologists find. Accruing more wealth may provide only a partial fix." American Psychological Association 35(6).

Dennett, Daniel C. and Robert Winston. 2008. "Is Religion a Threat to Rationality and Science?" The Guardian 22 April. [related Ted Talk video]

Dunlap, Riley E. 2013. "Climate change skepticism and denial: An introduction." American behavioral scientist: 0002764213477097. [PDF]

Dunning, David. 2014. "We Are All Confident Idiots. The trouble with ignorance is that it feels so much like expertise. A leading researcher on the psychology of human wrongness sets us straight." Pacific Standard 27 Oct.

Edwards, Andrés R. 2005. The Sustainability Revolution: Portrait of a Paradigm Shift. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia.

Ehrlich, Paul R. 2009. "Ecoethics: Now Central to All Ethics." Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6(4):417-436. [PDF]

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich. 1996. Betrayal of Science and Reason: How Anti-environmental Rhetoric Threatens Our Future. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [review by Mike Hudak]

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich. 2004. One With Nineveh: Politics, Consumption, and the Human Future. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [video lecture by P. Ehrlich] [review by Herman Daly in BioScience (PDF)]

  • "Nothing less is needed than a rapid ethical evolution toward readjusting our relationship with nature so that the preservation of biodiversity becomes akin to a religious duty." (p. 270)

Ehrlich, Paul R., G. Wolff, G. Daily, J. Hughes, S. Daily, M. Dalton, and M. Goulder. 1999. "Knowledge and the Environment." Ecological Economics 30:267-284. [PDF]

Evans, Tina Lynn. 2012. Occupy Education: Living, and Learning Sustainability. Peter Lang, New York. [review by Mark Seis in the Journal of Sustainability Education] ["Afterword" by Richard Kahn]

Fassbinder, Samuel Day, Anthony J. Nocella II, and Richard Kahn (eds.). 2012. Greening the Academy: Ecopedagogy through the Liberal Arts. Sense Publishers, Rotterdam. [introduction

Fisher, Janet A., et al. 2014. "Understanding the relationships between ecosystem services and poverty alleviation: A conceptual framework." Ecosystem Services 7: 34-45.

Foley Hein, Jayni. 2012. "The Climate Misinformation Nation." The Berkeley Blog 16 May.

Frank, Thomas. 2016. "Millions of ordinary Americans support Donald Trump. Here's why." The Guardian 7 March. 

Fricker, Alan. 1998. "Measuring up to Sustainability." Futures 30(4):367-375.

Fromm, Erich. 1973. The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. Holt, Reinhart & Winston, New York. 

Gastil, John, Don Braman, Dan Kahan, and Paul Slovic. 2011. "The Cultural Orientation of Mass Political Opinion." PS: Political Science & Politics 44(4):711-714. [PDF]

Gibney, Bruce Cannon. 2017. A Generation of Sociopaths: How the Baby Boomers Betrayed America. Hachette Books, New York. [author interview on WPR] [review in The Washington Post] [brief review in Salon]

Giroux, Henry A. 2010. "Business Culture and the Death of Public Education: The Triumph of Management Over Leadership." Truthout 12 November.

  • "Business management of the market fundamentalist stripe now trumps any trace of a democratic social vision, while corporate and private interests take the place of public values and notions of the collective good. Unfortunately, the real story here is not about outsiders from the business world with little classroom or educational experience being appointed to positions of leadership in public schools systems. On the contrary, it represents the rise of a market-driven culture and apparatus of power that fills the void in a society in which informed memory is under siege and neoliberal pedagogy permeates every aspect of the cultural apparatus."
  • My note: In other words, our culture is so steeped in neoliberal ideology that unwitting "progressives" are unaware that they are advancing neoliberal ideals, effectively doing the work of the neoliberals.

Giroux, Henry A. 2012. Education and the crisis of public values. Peter Lang, New York. [abstract] [related video]

Giroux, Henry A. 2015. "Neoliberalism, Violence and Resistance: A Discussion on Forthright Radio." Truthout 24 August. (podcast 19 August)

  • "Neoliberalism is not merely an economic system, but also a cultural apparatus and pedagogy that are instrumental in forming a new mass sensibility, a new condition for the widespread acceptance of the capitalist system, even the general belief in its eternity. Seeking to hide its ideological and constructed nature, neoliberal ideology attempts through its massive cultural apparatuses to produce an unquestioned common sense that hides its basic assumptions so as to prevent them from being questioned."
  • My note: In other words, our culture is so steeped in neoliberal ideology that unwitting "progressives" are unaware that they are advancing the neoliberal agenda.

Giroux, Henry. 2015. "Where is the Outrage? Critical Pedagogy in Dark Times." The Distinguished Scholar Speaker Series in Critical Pedagogy, McMaster University.

  • "The culture of education is synonymous with the culture of business." (17:48) 
  • Note: this is why sustainability curricula in the liberal arts often resemble sustainability curricula in business programs.
  • "We've lost the common vision. The neoliberal ethic has crept into the university and created these divisions in which the only thing that exists is shared fears rather than shared responsibilities--a shared sense of what it means to make the university a political space that matters--one in which pedagogy can be talked about." (29:04)

Gomez, Carlos Mario and Carlos Gutierrez. 2011. "Enhancing Irrigation Efficiency but Increasing Water Use: The Jevons' Paradox." EAAE 2011 Congress Change and Uncertainty Challenges. [PDF]

Goodell, Jeff. 2013. "Global Warming Is Very Real. Scientists are fighting deniers with irrefutable proof the planet is headed for catastrophe." Rolling Stone 12 September.  

Gorman, James. 2010. "A Perk of Our Evolution: Pleasure in Pain of Chilies." New York Times 20 September.

Greer, Charles R. and Gregory K. Stephens. 2001. "Escalation of commitment: a comparison of differences between Mexican and U.S. decision-makers." Journal of Management 27:51-78. [PDF]

Gunia, Brian C., Niro Sivanathan, and Adam D. Galinsky. 2009. "Vicarious Entrapment: Your Sunk Costs, My Escalation of Commitment." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45(6):1238-1244. [abstract w/PDF download link]

Hagens, Nathan J. 2009. "The Psychological and Evolutionary Roots of Resource Overconsumption Revisited." The Oil Drum 25 June.

Hagens, Nathan J. 2013. "What if the Future is Real?" Earth Week Keynote Presentation, 24 April, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh. [Q&A response video]

Haidt, Jonathan. 2001. "The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment." Psychological Review 108:814-834. [PDF]

Haines, Christopher. 2013. "Reclaiming Progress by Limiting Economic Growth. Journal of Sustainability Education 27 June. 

Hamilton, Clive. 2010. Requiem for a Species: Why We Resist the Truth about Climate Change. Earthscan, New York. [excerpt in The Guardian] [extract in Geographical] [review 1] [review 2] [Wikipedia summary]

Hedges, Chris. 2016. "The Revenge of the Lower Classes and the Rise of American Fascism." Truth Dig 2 March.

Hedges, Chris. 2017. Stop Fascism: Chris Hedges in Portland, Oregon. A KBOO radio benefit, published on YouTube 7 June. [Part Two: Hedges talks with Joe Sacco]

Henderson, Alex. 2015. "9 basic concepts Americans fail to grasp. A lack of worldliness is clouding our vision on everything from sex to economics, and the proof is in our policies." Salon 28 March. 

Herman, Edward S. and Noam Chomsky. 2002. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. Pantheon, New York. [PDF] [video lecture by Chomsky, part 1, part 2] [key points]

Heylighen, Francis. 1992. "A Cognitive-systemic reconstruction of Maslow's theory of self-actualization." Behavioral Science 37:39-57. [PDF]

Hibbing, John R., Kevin B. Smith, and John R. Alford. 2014. "Differences in negativity bias underlie variations in political ideology." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37(3):297-307. [news story by Chris Mooney

Hofstadter, Richard. 1963. Anti-intellectualism in American life. Knopf, New York. [review]

Hornsey, Matthew J., Emily A. Harris, Paul G. Bain, and Kelly S. Fielding. 2016. "Meta-analyses of the determinants and outcomes of belief in climate change." Nature Climate Change 22 February. [PDF] [news summary in Grist]

Jacques, Peter J. 2006. "How Should Corporations Deal with Environmental Scepticism?" Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 13(1):25-36. [PDF]

Janssen, Marco A, T.A. Kohler, and Marten Scheffer. 2003. "Sunk-cost Effects and Vulnerability to Collapse in Ancient Societies." Current Anthropology 44(5):722-728.

Janssen, Marco A. and Marten Scheffer. 2004. "Overexploitation of Renewable Resources by Ancient Societies and the Role of Sunk-cost Effects." Ecology and Society 9(1):6.

Johnson, Steven. 2013. "Behaviour Change is a Journey: What Sustainability Can Learn From Public Health." Eco-opportunity.net 5 April.

Johnston, David Cay. 2016. The Making of Donald Trump. Melville House Publishing, Brooklyn. [author presentation (video)] [author interview at Alternet] [review by Kathy Kiely in Moyers & Company] [review by David Bromwich in The Guardian] [review by M. Kakutani in The New York Times] [interview by Chris Hedges]

Johnston, David Cay. 2018. It’s even Worse than You Think: What the Trump Administration Is Doing to America. Simon and Schuster, New York. [podcast with Robert Scheer]

Jones, Josh (with Noam Chomsky). 2017. "Noam Chomsky Explains the Best Way for Ordinary People to Make Change in the World, Even When It Seems Daunting." Open Culture 17 August. [key points of Manufacturing Consent]

Kahan, Dan M., Ellen Peters, Maggie Wittlin, Paul Slovic, Lisa Larrimore Ouellette, Donald Braman, and Gregory Mandel. 2012. "The polarizing impact of science literacy and numeracy on perceived climate change risks." Nature Climate Change 2:732-735. [related commentary by Kahan in Nature]

Kaplan, Robert D. 2005. "How We Would Fight China." The Atlantic Monthly June. [related 2007 editorial by Kaplan]

  • "The Middle East is just a blip. The American military contest with China in the Pacific will define the twenty-first century. And China will be a more formidable adversary than Russia ever was."

Kaplan, Robert D. 2012. The Revenge of Geography: What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate. Random House, New York. [review] [review in The New York Times] [related paper by author in Foreign Policy (PDF)] [podcast interview on NPR] [author presentation on BookTV]

Keeney, Ralph L. 2008. "Personal Decisions Are the Leading Cause of Death." Operations Research 56:1335-1347. [discussion with access to full article and responses]

Kellstedt, Paul M., Sammy Zahran, and Arnold Vedlitz. 2008. "Personal Efficacy, the Information Environment, and Attitudes Toward Global Warming and Climate Change in the United States." Risk Analysis 28(1):113-126.

Kinzer, Stephen. 2015. "The world of threats to the US is an illusion." Boston Globe 12 April. 

Klein, Naomi. 2007. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Metropolitan Books, New York. [review 1, review 2] [related news story by Jason Mark in Salon] [related essay on hurricane Harvey] [related short video presentation by author] [related long video be author] [Wikipedia summary]

Klein, Naomi. 2017. No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump's Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need. Haymarket Books, Chicago.

  • "Trump is extreme, but he's not a Martian," writes Klein. "On the contrary, he is the logical conclusion to many of the most dangerous trends of the past half century. He is the personification of the merger of humans and corporations—a one-man megabrand, with wife and children as spin-off brands."
  • “four decades of corporate, neoliberal policies and privatization, deregulation, free trade, and austerity" produced ongoing economic pain and in turn, the rise of a con-man populist like Trump.
  • "If we want to defend against the likes of Donald Trump—and every country has their own Trump—we must urgently confront and battle racism and misogyny in our culture, in our movements, and in ourselves. This cannot be an afterthought, it cannot be an add-on. It is central to how someone like Trump can rise to power."

Klemfuss, Nola, William Prinzmetal, and Richard B. Ivry. 2012. "How Does Language Change Perception: A Cautionary Note. Frontiers in Psychology 3(article 78):1-6.

  • "No doubt, the words we speak simultaneously reinforce and compete with the dynamic world we perceive and experience." (p. 5)

Kruse, Kevin M. 2015. One Nation Under God. How Corporate America Invented Christian America. [related essay by author] [author podcast interview] [related lecture by author] [review 1] [review 2]

Kuklinski, James H., Paul J. Quirk, Jennifer Jerit, David Schwieder, and Robert F. Rich. 2000. "Misinformation and the Currency of Democratic Citizenship." The Journal of Politics 62(3):790-816. [PDF]

Lakoff, George. 2011. "The New Centrism" and Its Discontents." Truthout 25 January.

Lappé, Frances Moore. 2011. EcoMind: Changing the Way We Think, to Create the World We Want. Nation Books, New York. [related article by author]

Lappé, Frances Moore. 2013. "Scarcity-mind or Eco-mind: Where Do They Lead?" Solutions 4(2).

Le Foll, Bernard, Alexandra Gallo, Yann Le Strat, Lin Lu, and Philip Gorwood. "Genetics of dopamine receptors and drug addiction: A comprehensive review." Behavioural Pharmacology 20(1):1-17. [abstract]

Lee, Christina. 1989. "Perceptions of immunity to disease in adult smokers." Journal of Behavioral Medicine 12:267-277. [abstract]

Leiserowitz, Anthony A., Robert W. Kates, and Thomas M. Parris. 2005. "Do Global Attitudes and Behaviors Support Sustainable Development?" Environment 47(9):22-38. [PDF]

Lemann, Nicholas. 2014. "The Tea Party is timeless: Richard Hofstadter’s Anti-Intellectualism in American Life reviewed." Columbia Journalism Review Sept-Oct.

Lewandowsky, Stephan, John Cook, Klaus Oberauer, Scott Brophy, Elisabeth A. Lloyd, and Michael Marriott. 2015. "Recurrent Fury: Conspiratorial Discourse in the Blogosphere Triggered by Research on the Role of Conspiracist Ideation in Climate Denial." Journal of Social and Political Psychology 3(1):8 July. [news story]

Lewis, Tyson and Richard Kahn. 2010. Education Out of Bounds: Reimagining Cultural Studies for a Posthuman Age. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. [related piece by Kahn et al.] [related piece by Kahn]

Lippmann, Walter. 1997. Public Opinion. Free Press, New York. 

Lombrozo, Tania. 2013. "Can Science Deliver the Benefits of Religion?" Boston Review 7 August.

Lunenburg, Fred C. 2010. "Escalation of Commitment: Patterns of Retrospective Rationality." International Journal of management, Business, and Adminsitration 13(1). [PDF]

Maniates, Michael F. 2001. "Individualization: Plant a tree, buy a bike, save the world?." Global Environmental Politics 1:31-52. [PDF]

  • "...the individually responsible consumer is encouraged to purchase a vast array of 'green' or 'eco-friendly' products on the promise that the more such products are purchased and consumed, the healthier the planet's ecological processes will become. 'Living lightly on the planet' and 'reducing your environmental impact' becomes, paradoxically, a consumer-product growth industry."
  • "A theory of social change that embraced the image of consumers voting with their pocketbook soon took root. Almost overnight, the responsibility for fundamental change in American consumption and production landed squarely on the backs of individual consumers—not on government (which was to be trimmed) or corporations (which were cast as victims of government meddling, and willing servants to consumer sovereignty)."

Mark, Jason. 2013. "Naomi Klein: Green groups may be more damaging than climate change deniers. The "No Logo" author explains how environmentalists may be more damaging to their cause than climate change deniers." Salon 5 September.

Marshall, George. 2009. "Why We Find it so Hard to Act Against Climate Change." Yes Magazine 1 December.

Marshall, George. 2014. Don't Even Think About It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change. Bloomsbury, New York. [book review by Ethan Goffman] [book review] [related article by author] [video lecture by author]

Maslow, Abraham H. 1943. "A Theory of Human Motivation." Psychological Review 50:370-396. [related contemporary paper by Douglas Kenrick]

McAdams, Dan P. 2016. "The Mind of Donald Trump. Narcissism, disagreeableness, grandiosity—a psychologist investigates how Trump’s extraordinary personality might shape his possible presidency." The Atlantic June.

McCright, Aaron M. and Riley E. Dunlap. 2011. "Cool dudes: The denial of climate change among conservative white males in the United States." Global Environmental Change 21(4):1163-1172. [PDF] Conservative white males are more likely than other Americans to report climate change denial. Conservative white males who self-report understanding global warming very well are even more likely. Climate change denial is an example of identity-protective cognition. System-justifying tendencies lead to climate change denial. Climate change denial increased from 2001 to 2010.

Meigs, A. 1997. "Food as a Cultural Construction." Pages 95-106 in C. Counihan and P. van Esterik (eds.), Food and Culture: A Reader, Routledge, New York.

Meijers, Marijn H.C. and Bastiaan T. Rutjens. 2014. "The social psychology of climate change Affirming belief in scientific progress reduces environmentally friendly behavior." European Journal of Social Psychology 44:487-495. [PDF] [story by Piercarlo Valdesolo in Scientific American]

  • "…portraying science as rapidly progressing—and thus enabling society to control problems related to the natural environment and human health in the not-too-distant future—is detrimental to environmentally friendly behaviour because such a frame affirms perceptions of an orderly (vs chaotic) world. This in turn negatively affects the likelihood of engaging in environmentally friendly behaviour. Simultaneously, communication that questions (vs affirms) scientific progress leads to lower perceptions of order and consequential increases in environmentally friendly behaviour. These findings show that when the aim is to promote environmentally friendly attitudes and behaviour, it helps to not overstate scientific progress." (p. 487)

Mennella, Julie A. and Gary K. Beauchamp. 1996. "The Early Development of Human Flavor Preferences." Pages 83-112 in E.D. Capaldi (ed.), Why We Eat what We Eat: The Psychology of Eating. American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Monbiot, George. 2006b. "The Denial Industry." Guardian Unlimited 19 September.

Monbiot, George. 2014. "Deviant and Proud. Do you feel left out? Perhaps it’s because you refuse to succumb to the competition, envy and fear neoliberalism breeds." The Guardian 6 August. 

Monbiot, George. 2017. "Too right it's Black Friday: our relentless consumption is trashing the planet." The Guardian 22 November. [republished on Monbiot’s blog as "Everything must go."]

  • "I know people who recycle meticulously, save their plastic bags, carefully measure the water in their kettles, then take their holidays in the Caribbean, cancelling any environmental savings a hundredfold. I’ve come to believe that the recycling licences their long-haul flights. It persuades people they’ve gone green, enabling them to overlook their greater impacts."

Mooney, Chris and Sheril Kirshenbaum. 2009. Unscientific America: How Scientific Illiteracy Threatens our Future. Basic Books, New York.

Mooney, Chris. 2005. The Republican War on Science. Basic Books, New York. [review 1] [review 2]

Mooney, Chris. 2011. "The Science of Why We Don't Believe Science. How our brains fool us on climate, creationism, and the vaccine-autism link." Mother Jones 18 April.

Mooney, Chris. 2012. The Republican Brain: The Science of Why They Deny Science - and Reality. Wiley, New York. [related article by Mooney in Mother Jones] [relted article by Mooney in AlterNet] [review in The Daily Kos] [review in SkepticBlog]

Moreno, Jonathan D. 2011. The Body Politic: The Battle over Science in America. Bellevue Literary Press, New York. 

Moser, Stephanie and Silke Kleinhückelkotten. 2017. "Good Intents, but Low Impacts: Diverging Importance of Motivational and Socioeconomic Determinants Explaining Pro-Environmental Behavior, Energy Use, and Carbon Footprint." Environment and Behavior 9 June. [related news column by George Monbiot in The Guardian]

Moxley, Mitch. 2014. "Can Language Influence Our Perception of Reality? New research suggests that subtle linguistic differences can frame our approaches to difficult problems—and even affect our views on space and time." Slate.

Myers, David G. 2000. "The funds, friends, and faith of happy people." American Psychologist 55(1):56-67. [PDF]

Nair, Yasmin. 2017. "The Dangerous Academic is an Extinct Species. If these ever existed at all, they are now deader than dodos. Current Affairs 18 April.

  • "If anything, the university has only gotten less dangerous in recent years. Campuses like Berkeley were once centers of political dissent. There was open confrontation between students and the state. In May of 1970, the Ohio National Guard killed four students at Kent State. Ten days later, police at the historically black Jackson State University fired into a crowd of students, killing two. At Cornell in 1969, armed black students took over the student union building in a demand for recognition and reform, part of a pattern of serious upheaval. But over the years the university became corporatized. It became a job training center rather than an educational institution. Academic research became progressively more specialized, narrow, technical, and obscure. (The most successful scholarship is that which seems to be engaged with serious social questions, but does not actually reach any conclusions that would force the Professor to leave his office.)"

Nestle, Marion. 2007. Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. [review] [related video lecture by Nestle]

Nestle, Marion. 2018. Unsavory Truth: How Food Companies Skew the Science of What We Eat. Basic Books, New York.

Norgaard, Richard B. 1988. "Sustainable Development: A Co-Evolutionary View." Futures 20(6):606-620. [abstract] [PDF]

  • Advocates for a radical change in the collective worldview.

Norton, Bryan G., Robert Costanza, and R.C. Bishop. 1998. "The Evolution of Preferences. Why 'Sovereign' Preferences May not Lead to Sustainable Policies and what to Do about it." Ecological Economics 24:193-211. [PDF]

O'Brien, Karen, and Linda Sygna. 2013. "Responding to climate change: The three spheres of transformation." Proceedings of Transformation in a Changing Climate. [PDF] [related video]

Oreskes, Naomi and Erik M. Conway. 2010. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. Bloomsbury Press, New York. [review 1] [review 2] [video by author]

Oreskes, Naomi and Erik M. Conway. 2013. "The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View from the Future." Dædalus, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences 142(1):41-58. [PDF]

Oreskes, Naomi. 2004. "The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change." Science 306(5702):1686. [related expanded book chapter (PDF)]

Orr, David W. and David Ehrenfeld. 1995. "None so Blind: The Problem of Ecological Denial." Conservation Biology 9:985-987. [introduction]

Oskamp, Stuart. 2000b. "Psychological Contributions to Achieving an Ecologically Sustainable Future for Humanity." Journal of Social Issues 56(3):373-390. [PDF]

Otto, Shawn Lawrence. 2011. Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America. Rodale, New York. 

Piff, Paul K., Daniel M. Stancato, Stéphane Côté, Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton, and Dacher Keltner. 2012. "Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 27 February. [critique by Francis in PNAS] [reply by Piff et al.] [related video]

Platt, John. 1973. "Social Traps." American Psychologist 28:642-651.

Pooley, Eric. 2010. The Climate War: True Believers, Power Brokers, and the Fight to Save the Earth. Hyperion, New York. [chapter 1 in the New York Times]

Prinz, Jesse J. 2012. Beyond Human Nature: How Culture and Experience Shape Our Lives. Allen Lane, London. [review by Simon Blackburn]

Quinn, Daniel. 1995. Ishmael. Bantam Books, New York. [wiki summary]

Rammel, Christian and Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh. 2003. "Evolutionary Policies for Sustainable Development: Adaptive Flexibility and Risk Minimizing." Ecological Economics 47:121-133. [PDF]

Raven, Peter H. 1976. "Ethics and Attitudes." Pages 155-179 in J.B. Simmons et al. (eds.), Conservation of Threatened Plants: Proceedings of a conference on the functions of living plant collections in conservation-oriented research and public education. Kew, England, 1975. Plenum Press, New York.

Rees, William E. 2010. "The Human Nature of Unsustainability." Post Carbon Institute, Santa Rosa, California. [PDF]

Rees, William E. 2010b. "What’s Blocking Sustainability? Human Nature, Cognition, and Denial." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 6(2):13-25. 

Rees, William E. 2012. "The Way Forward: Survival 2100." Solutions 3(3). [related article] [related video]

Ritzer, George. 1995. The McDonaldization of Society: An Investigation into the Changing Character of Contemporary Social Life (Revised edition). Pine Forge Press, London. [discussion 1 by Ashley Crossman] [discussion 2

  • From Crossman: "McDonaldization is a concept developed by American sociologist George Ritzer which refers to the particular kind of rationalization of production, work, and consumption that rose to prominence in the late twentieth century. The basic idea is that these elements have been adapted based on the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant—efficiency, calculability, predictability and standardization, and control—and that this adaptation has ripple effects throughout all aspects of society."
  • From Crossman: "Sociologists observe the characteristics of McDonaldization in other areas of life, like education and media too, with a clear shift from quality to quantifiable measures over time, standardization and efficiency playing significant roles in both, and control too."

Robinson, Ken. 2006. "Ken Robinson says schools kill creativity." TED Talk video.

Rozin, Paul. 1996. "Sociocultural Influences on Human Food Selections." Pages 233-263 in E.D. Capaldi (ed.), Why We Eat what We Eat: The Psychology of Eating. American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Schafe, Glenn E. and Ilene L. Bernstein. 1996. "Taste Aversion Learning." Pages 31-51 in E.D. Capaldi (ed.), Why we Eat what we Eat: The Psychology of Eating. American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Scheffer, Marten, F. Westley, and W. Brock. 2003. "Slow Response of Society to New Problems: Causes and Costs." Ecosystems 6:493-502. [PDF]

Shellenberger, Michael and Ted Nordhaus. 2011. "Why Climate Science Divides Us but Energy Technology Unites Us." The Breakthrough Insitute 6 January. 

Shepardson, David. "Federal Communications Commission votes to repeal net neutrality rules." AOL News 14 December.

  • "The approval of FCC Chairman Ajit Pai's proposal marks a victory for internet service providers like AT&T Inc, Comcast Corp and Verizon Communications Inc and hands them power over what content consumers can access."

Shepperd, James A., William M.P. Klein, Erika A. Waters, and Neil D. Weinstein. 2013. "Taking Stock of Unrealistic Optimism." Perspectives on Psychological Science 8(4):395-411. [PDF]

Shiva, Vandana. 1989. Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development. Zed Books, London.

  • "Feminism as the affirmation of women and women’s work allows a redefinition of growth and productivity as categories linked to the production, not the destruction, of life. It is thus simultaneously an ecological and a feminist political project that legitimizes the ways of knowing and being that create wealth by enhancing life and diversity, and which delegitimizes the knowledge and practice of a culture of death as the basis for capital accumulation." (p. 13)
  • "In contemporary times, Third World women, whose minds have not yet been dispossessed or colonized, are in a privileged position to make visible the invisible oppositional categories that they are custodians of." (p. 46)

Sibbel, Anne. 2009. "Pathways towards sustainability through higher education." International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 10(1):68-82. [PDF

Smith, Alison Dalton. 2010. "Too Much of a Good Thing: The Relationship between Money and Happiness in a Post-Industrial Society." The Sustainability Review 7 March.

Spangenberg, Joachim H. 2016. "The world we see shapes the world we create:how the underlying worldviews lead to different recommendations from environmental and ecological economics – the green economy example." International Journal of Sustainable Development 19(2):127-146.

  • "The ability of neoclassical economics to survive in the political arena despite its flaws and the economic disasters caused by relying on it is not due to its predictive capabilities or mathematical rigour, but rather due to its function as legitimation science – power supports the science legitimising power. The capitalist accumulation regime and its inherent growth tendency, along with the limited ability to distribute the wealth created are legitimised by a world view explaining that this is as the world must be. Alternatives are declared to be rather unthinkable (illusionary, day dreams, unrealistic, castles in the air etc. are terms used to discredit suggestions for change)." (p. 142)

Spies, Chris F.J. 2006. "Resolutionary Change: The Art of Awakening Dormant Faculties in Others." Social Change and Conflict Transformation: Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation 5:49-60. [PDF]

Stam, Erik, and Jan Lambooy. 2012. "Entrepreneurship, Knowledge, Space, and Place: Evolutionary Economic Geography meets Austrian Economics." Pages 81-103 in David Emanuel Andersson (ed.) The Spatial Market Process (Advances in Austrian Economics, Volume 16), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, U.K. [PDF] [related article (PDF)

Sunstein, Cass R. 2009. On Rumors: How Falsehoods Spread, Why We Believe Them, What Can Be Done. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York. 

Sustainability Science "probes interactions between global, social, and human systems, the complex mechanisms that lead to degradation of these systems, and concomitant risks to human well-being. The journal provides a platform for building sustainability science as a new academic discipline which can point the way to a sustainable global society by facing challenges that existing disciplines have not addressed. These include endeavors to simultaneously understand phenomena and solve problems, uncertainty and application of the precautionary principle, the co-evolution of knowledge and recognition of problems, and trade-offs between global and local problem solving.

The journal promotes science-based predictions and impact assessments of global change, and seeks ways to ensure that these can be understood and accepted by society. Sustainability Science creates a transdisciplinary academic structure and discovery process that fuses the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. 

  • Definition: "Sustainability is defined as dynamic stability in global, social, and human systems and their interactions over time. Sustainable science is characterized by two important objectives. One is to integrate the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities by means of a holistic approach. And the second is to address pressing global challenges such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and poverty issues, particularly in developing countries."

Tabi, Andrea. 2013. "Does pro-environmental behaviour affect carbon emissions?" Energy Policy 63:972-981.

  • "Results of the data analysis show that no significant difference is found between the impacts of environmentally aware and environmentally unaware consumers, i.e. both 'Brown' and 'Supergreen' consumers consume approximately the same amount of energy and produce approximately the same amount of carbon emissions because the motivation-driven activities of 'Supergreens' are offset by structural factors." (p. 972)

Tarnoff, Ben. 2016. "Neoliberalism turned our world into a business. And there are two big winners. Fearmongering Donald Trump and optimistic Silicon Valley seem to epitomize opposing ideologies. But the two have far more in common than you think." The Guardian 13 December.

Taub, Amanda. 2016. "The rise of American authoritarianism. A niche group of political scientists may have uncovered what's driving Donald Trump’s ascent. What they found has implications that go well beyond 2016." Vox 1 March.

Taylor, Jill Bolte. 2008. "Jill Bolte Taylor's stroke of insight." TED Talk video.

Thaler, Richard H. and Cass R. Sunstein 2008. Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. Yale University Press, New Haven. [related article]

Thierry, Guillaume. 2016. "Neurolinguistic Relativity: How Language Flexes Human Perception and Cognition." Language Learning 66(3):690-713. 

Truelove, Heather Barnes, Amanda R. Carrico, Elke U. Weber, Kaitlin Toner Raimi, and Michael P. Vandenbergh. 2014. "Positive and negative spillover of pro-environmental behavior: An integrative review and theoretical framework." Global Environmental Change 29:127-138. [PDF]

  • "The evidence evaluating these spillover effects has been mixed, with some studies finding evidence for positive spillover (i.e., one pro-environmental behavior increases the likelihood of performing additional pro-environmental behaviors) and others finding negative spillover (i.e., one pro-environmental behavior decreases the likelihood of additional pro-environmental behaviors)." (p. 127)

Truelove, Heather Barnes, Kam Leung Yeung, Amanda R. Carrico, Ashley J. Gilles, and Kaitlin Toner Raimi. 2016. "From plastic bottle recycling to policy support: An experimental test of pro-environmental spillover." Journal of Environmental Psychology 46:55-66.

  • "This result provides initial support for Wagner's (2011) argument that performance of easy PEBs may undermine policy support, though this effect was moderated by political party affiliation."
  • "...we found that Democrats displayed negative spillover between recycling and policy support."

Tversky, Amos & Daniel Kahneman. 1981. "The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice." Science 211(4481):453-58. [PDF

UCS. 2013. A Climate of Corporate Control: How Corporations Have Influenced the U.S. Dialogue on Climate Science and Policy. The Scientific Integrity Program of the Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [PDF]

van Gelder, Sarah (ed.). 2015. Sustainable Happiness: Live Simply, Live Well, Make a Difference. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Oakland. [video lecture by van Gelder] [related essay by van Gelder]

van Hecke. Madeleine L. 2007. Blind Spots: Why Smart People do Dumb Things. Prometheus, New York.

Varki, Ajit and Danny Brower. 2013. Denial: Self-Deception, False Beliefs, and the Origins of the Human Mind. Hachette Book Group, New York. [summary]

Vergragt, Philip J. and Halina Szejnwald Brown. 2016. Fostering and Communicating Sustainable Lifestyles: Principles and Emerging Practices. United Nations Environment Programme - Sustainable Lifestyles, Cities and Industry Branch (UN Environment). [PDF]

"The rich body of literature on communication and lifestyle-related initiatives and policies shows an evolution of the problem framing. Several approaches from the past have been shown to be overly simplistic, ineffective or altogether misplaced. 27 Some of these 'debunked assumptions' include:

·         The assumption of ‘consumer-choice’ - that individuals are rational decisionmakers guided by price signals and information. Linked to that is the assumption that appealing to people’s self-interest in the most effective method of changing behaviours. We now know that while price signals and information are important factors for many people and in many situations, they are not universal and not always the most important motivators of behaviour.

·         The assumption that individuals can change their consumption behaviours by deciding to do so. We now know that individual consumption choices are conditioned by culture, life experiences, and market forces and are constrained by infrastructure, social practices, and institutions. These often result in “lock-ins” into highly consuming lifestyles.

·         The assumption that all we need to do to change individual’s behaviours is to foster a change in values and attitudes. This assumption has led to the discovery of the so-called ‘value-action gap,’ in which people’s attitudes don’t match their behaviours, and has led research and practice to explore the role of emotions, habits, and structures in shaping behaviour. There is also a growing recognition that values and attitudes are very hard to change because they are closely linked to a dominant culture.

·         The assumption that “green consumption” is the best way to achieve a sustainable lifestyle. This assumption has been challenged by accumulating evidence that green products and simple acts such as waste recycling have no impact on reducing energy consumption either on an individual or societal level, and that technological solutions are mitigated through rebound effects."

Verhaeghe, Paul. 2014. What About Me? The struggle for identity in a market-based society. Scribe, London. [related paper by George Monbiot]

Vitek, Bill and Wes Jackson (ed.). 2008. The virtues of ignorance: Complexity, sustainability, and the limits of knowledge. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington. 

Wagner, Gernot. 2011. "Going Green but Getting Nowhere." The New York Times 7 September. [related video lecture by Gernot]

  • "The reality is that we cannot overcome the global threats posed by greenhouse gases without speaking the ultimate inconvenient truth: getting people excited about making individual environmental sacrifices is doomed to fail."

Wagner, Gernot. 2011. But Will the Planet Notice? How Smart Economics Can Save the World. Hill and Wang, New York. [related essay by author in The New York Times: "Going Green but Getting Nowhere"] [related video presentatio by author]

  • General takeaway: individual behavior is fine, but sweeping policies are needed for real progress.
  • "A 5% gasoline price increase leads to a 3% consumption reduction in the U.S." (from video lecture)
  • From video: benefits of clean air act exceeded costs 30 to 1.
  • From video: "Starting next year flying in Europe at least will no longer be socialized. With the CO2 pollution costs paid by society and it won’t be up to a few volunteers paying a few bucks extra for the flight, everyone will be doing it. That’s the kind of policy change that really makes a difference." (24:14) [By socialized, he means dumping the costs of negative externalities on the larger society.]

Wals, Arjen E.J. and Bob Jickling. 2002. “Sustainability in higher education: From doublethink and newspeak to critical thinking and meaningful learning." International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 3(3):221-232. [PDF] [related article (PDF)]

Weatherford, Jack. 1988. Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World. Crown, New York.

Weatherford, Jack. 1992. Native Roots: How the Indians Enriched America. Ballantine, New York.

Werfel, Seth H. 2017. "Household behaviour crowds out support for climate change policy when sufficient progress is perceived." Nature Climate Change 12 June. [story in Scientific American by Knvul Sheikh]

  • "…household behaviour may crowd out public support for government action by creating the perception of sufficient progress."
  • "...study in Japan finds that after people unplug appliances and turn down the A-C, they are more resistant to nationwide climate change measures." (Sheikh, Scientific American 21 June)

Whybrow, Peter C. 2015. The Well-Tuned Brain: Neuroscience and the Life Well Lived. Norton, New York. [excerpt] [reveiw] [discussion with author]

Wiek, Arnim, Lauren Withycombe, Charles Redman, and Sarah Banas Mills. 2011. "Moving forward on competence in sustainability research and problem solving." Environment 53(2):3-13. [PDF]

Wilk, Richard. 2010. "Consumption Embedded in Culture and Language: Implications for Finding Sustainability." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 6(2):38-48. [PDF]

Wilk, Richard. 2013. "Green Consumerism Is No Solution." HuffPost, The Blog 14 June (updated 14 August).

  • "Goodness and moral values have been privatized in our post-Reagan-Thatcher neoliberal world. 'Green' consumer goods promise...that we can change the world without sacrifice, or any more effort than smarter shopping."
  • "Those of us concerned with the real impacts of global consumer culture are stuck in the territory between cynicism and tokenism, trying to think more productively about the kinds of strategies that can make a symbolic and material difference. We hope that the passive activism of green (or greenish) consumption can connect with more overtly political activities…" [My note: unfortunately it mostly does not.]

Williams, Ray. 2014. "The cult of ignorance in the United States: Anti-intellectualism and the dumbing down of America." Psychology Today 7 June.

Wilson, Edward O. 2013. The Social Conquest of Earth. Liveright, New York. 

Wilson, Edward O. 2014. The Meaning of Human Existence. Liveright, New York. [review

Wilson, Kris. 2012. "Ideology Trumps Meteorology: Why Many Television Weathercasters Remain Unconvinced of Human-Caused Global Warming." Electronic News 6(4):208-228. [PDF

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