Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References

  • To search the entire database by keyword, enter a term or terms in the "keywords" box and leave the "category" tab at the default setting of blank, then click the "search" button.
  • To search by keyword within a category, select a "category" from the drop-down menu, then enter terms in the "keywords" box, then click "search."
  • To browse within a single category, select the desired category, but leave the "keywords" box blank, then click "search."

Reference Search Results You searched for SocJust

Acemoğlu, Daron and James Robinson. 2012. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. Random House, New York. [review] [news article] [author video] [slide presentation (PDF)

Adger, W. Neil, Jouni Paavola, Saleemul Huq, and M.J. Mace (eds.). 2006. Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge.

Afxentiou, Panayiotis C. 1990. "Basic needs: A survey of the literature." Canadian Journal of Development Studies 11(2):241-257. [abstract]

Agarwal, Bina. 2002. "Gender Inequality, Cooperation, and Environmental Sustainability." Working Paper #02-10-058, Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico. [PDF] [related video]

Agyeman, Julian, Robert Bullard, and Bob Evans. 2003. Just Sustainabilities: Development in an Unequal World. London, Earthscan. [synopsis]

Allen, Will with Charles Wilson, 2012. The Good Food Revolution: Growing Healthy Food, People, and Communities. Gotham Books, New York. 

Applebaum, Barbara. 2010. Being White, Being Good: White Complicity, White Moral Responsibility, and Social Justice Pedagogy. Lexington Books, New York. [review]

  • "What does it mean to claim that white people are complicit in the reproduction of racist systems despite their good intentions and even when they might want to renounce the privileges they accrue because of their whiteness? How can white people be responsible for their complicity if they cannot choose to be not white? Even if white people are well intended, even if they consider themselves to be paragons of anti-racism, how might they still be unwittingly complicit in sustaining an unjust system they claim to want to dismantle?" (p. 3)
  • "Often white students refuse to even engage with the possibility that they are complicit. ... Denials of complicity go deep and are maintained ... by certain conceptions of responsibility." (p. 4)
  • "... [many] white people are implicated in an unjust racial system from which they gain systemic benefit and that they reinscribe (most often unwittingly) existing power relations… ." (p. 148)

  • From the review: "She [Applebaum] suggests further research should be done to understand how complicity also plays a role in other oppressions, which may include Islamaphobia, heterosexism or classism."

  • Note: Extending the idea of blind complicity further, I would argue that self-identified progressives who are not educated on neoliberalism are easily swayed to advance solutions through market mechanisms and voluntary individual behavior change at the expense of policy that could bring the sweeping changes that are need to avoid collapse of at a minimum painful adjustments to cascading systems.

Arndt, H.W. 1993. "Sustainable Development and the Discount Rate." Economic Development and Cultural Change 41(3):651-661. [introduction]

Ashley, C., C. Boyd, and H. Goodwin. 2000. "Pro-poor Tourism: Putting Poverty at the Heart of the Tourism Agenda." Natural Resource Perspectives 51:1-6. [PDF]

Athanasiou, Tom. 1996. Divided Planet: The Ecology of Rich and Poor. University of Georgia Press, Athens. [abstract] [related video]

Bales, Kevin. 2007. Ending Slavery: How We Free Today's Slaves. University of California Press, Berkeley. [chapter one] [related TED Talk video] [related video]

Ballvé, Marcelo. 2006. "The Silent Revolution." Orion July/August. [PDF]

Beddoe, Rachael, Robert Costanza, Joshua Farley, Eric Garza, Jennifer Kent, Ida Kubiszewski, Luz Martinez, Tracy McCowen, Kathleen Murphy, Norman Myers, Zach Ogden, Kevin Stapleton, and John Woodward. 2009. "Overcoming Systemic Roadblocks to Sustainability: The Evolutionary Redesign of Worldviews, Institutions, and Technologies." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(8):2483-2489.

  • "Many governments worldwide have long-standing policies that promote growth in market goods at the expense of non-market public goods generated by healthy ecosystems. These include (i) over $2 trillion in annual subsidies for market activities and externalities that degrade the environment (i.e., perverse subsidies) (Myers and Kent 2001); (ii) reduced protection or privatization of the commons (Barnes 2006); and (iii) inadequate regulations and inadequate enforcement of existing regulations against environmental externalities (Brown 2007)." (p. 2486)
  • "Economies have weathered innumerable financial crises. However, the current financial crisis pales in comparison to the biophysical crisis. Yet these more critical crises are pushed off the front page by the financial crisis and the dominant worldview of continued economic growth and consumption. Not only do our current institutions and instruments fail to address the real crisis, they accomplish mutually reinforcing goals that move us in the wrong direction. No attention is given to the relationship between the biophysical crises and the market economy, although continuous economic growth in the wealthy countries is actually a major cause of the biophysical crises." (interpreted from Daly 2007, p. 2486)

Beder, Sharon. 2000. "Costing the Earth: Equity, Sustainable Development and Environmental Economics." New Zealand Journal of Environmental Law 4:227-243. [PDF] [related video]

Beitz, Charles. 2009. The Idea of Human Rights. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [review (PDF)]

Belser, Patrick. 2005. "Forced Labor and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits." Working Paper #42, International Labour Office, Geneva. [PDF]

Berg, Joel. 2008. All You Can Eat: How Hungry Is America? Seven Stories, New York. [review by Michael Pollan in New York Review of Books]

Berle, Adolf A. 1968. "What GNP doesn’t tell us." Saturday Review 31 August.

  • "… let us take the existing economic record at face. Work was done, things were created, and both were paid for. The total price paid this year wil be $850 billion. But, unrecorded, not included and rarely mentioned are some companion results. Undisposed-of junk piles, garbage, waste, air and water pollution come into being. … Besides our annual calculation of 'gross' national product, it is time we had some idea of Gross National Disproduct."
  • "... only a generation ago scholars assumed nothing could be done to alleviate the impact of assumedly blind economic forces let alone guide them. We know better today; rudimentary capacity to control and steer these forces already exists; the so-called New Economics increasingly guides their use. Similar thinking and similar tools can provide material on which social policy can be based. Combined with economic tools currently being forged, social objectives might be brought out of dreamland into range of practical achievement."

  • Note: Berle’s contributions: (1) illuminating a range of negative externalities (or "disproducts") that have implications for nature, human health, and matters of social justice including crime and poverty, (2) highlighting the need for alternative economic and development indicators that account for negative externalities, and (3) stressing that basic human needs must include access to healthy food, clean air and water, adequate housing, aesthetic cities and towns, advanced education (beyond elementary), good health, enjoyment of the arts, security, a political economy that values science, and recreation in nature should be accessible to all human beings.

Berle, Adolf A. and Gardiner Means. 1932. The Modern Corporation and Private Property. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

  • "The rise of the modern corporation has brought a concentration of economic power which can compete on equal terms with the modern state - economic power versus political power, each strong in its own field. The state seeks in some aspects to regulate the corporation, while the corporation, steadily becoming more powerful, makes every effort to avoid such regulation... The future may see the economic organism, now typified by the corporation, not only on an equal plane with the state, but possibly even superseding it as the dominant form of social organization. The law of corporations, accordingly, might well be considered as a potential constitutional law for the new economic state, while business practice is increasingly assuming the aspect of economic statesmanship." (p. 313)
  • Note: A glimpse into the future of a world governed through inverted totalitarianism.

Berliner, L.S. and N.J. Kenworthy. 2017. "Producing a worthy illness: Personal crowdfunding amidst financial crisis." Social Science & Medicine 187:233-242. [abstract]

  • Abstract. "For Americans experiencing illnesses and disabilities, crowdfunding has become a popular strategy for addressing the extraordinary costs of health care. The political, social, and health consequences of austerity--along with fallout from the 2008 financial collapse and the shortcomings of the Affordable Care Act (ACA)--are made evident in websites like GoFundMe. Here, patients and caregivers create campaigns to solicit donations for medical care, hoping that they will spread widely through social networks. As competition increases among campaigns, patients and their loved ones are obliged to produce compelling and sophisticated appeals. Despite the growing popularity of crowdfunding, little research has explored the usage, impacts, or consequences of the increasing reliance on it for health in the U.S. or abroad. This paper analyzes data from a mixed-methods study conducted from March-September 2016 of 200 GoFundMe campaigns, identified through randomized selection. In addition to presenting exploratory quantitative data on the characteristics and relative success of these campaigns, a more in-depth textual analysis examines how crowdfunders construct narratives about illness and financial need, and attempt to demonstrate their own deservingness. Concerns with the financial burdens of illness, combined with a high proportion of campaigns in states without ACA Medicaid expansion, underscored the importance of crowdfunding as a response to contexts of austerity. Successful crowdfunding requires that campaigners master medical and media literacies; as such, we argue that crowdfunding has the potential to deepen social and health inequities in the U.S. by promoting forms of individualized charity that rely on unequally-distributed literacies to demonstrate deservingness and worth. Crowdfunding narratives also distract from crises of healthcare funding and gaping holes in the social safety net by encouraging hyper-individualized accounts of suffering on media platforms where precarity is portrayed as the result of inadequate self-marketing, rather than the inevitable consequences of structural conditions of austerity." (p. 233)

Berthoud, Gérald. 2010. "Market." Pages 74-94 in Wolfgang Sachs (ed.), The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, 2nd Edition. Zed Books, New York & London. [complete book (PDF)]

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1995. "Trade Liberalisation and 'Fair Trade' Demands: Addressing the Environmental and Labour Standards Issues." World Economy 18(6):745-759. [PDF

Birkbeck, Chris. 1978. "Self-employed Proletarians in an Informal Factory: The Case of Cali's Garbage Dump." World Development 6(9-10):1173-1185. [PDF]

Bon Appétit Management Company Foundation and United Farm Workers. 2011. Inventory of Farm Worker Issues and Protections in the United States. Bon Appétit Management Foundation and the United Farm Workers. [PDF]  [news article in Grist by Tom Philpott]

Borrini-Feyerabend, Grazia, Ashish Kothari, and Gonzalo Oviedo. 2004. Indigenous and Local Communities and Protected Areas: Towards Equity and Enhanced Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. [PDF]

Boström, Magnus. 2012. "A missing pillar? Challenges in theorizing and practicing social sustainability: introduction to the special issue." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 8(1):3-14.

Brechin, Steven R., Peyer R. Wilshusen, Crystal L. Fortwangler, and Patrick C. West (eds.). 2003. Contested Nature: Promoting International Biodiversity and Social Justice in the Twenty-first Century. State University of New York Press, Albany. 

Bremmer, Ian. 2018. Us vs. Them: The Failure of Globalism. Portfolio/Penguin, New York.

Brown-Weiss, Edith. 1990. "Our Rights and Obligations to Future Generations for the Environment." American Journal of International Law 84:198-207. [PDF]

Brown, K. and S. Rosendo. 2000. "Environmentalists, Rubber Tappers and Empowerment: The Politics and Economics of Extractive Reserves." Development and Change 31:201-227. [abstract]

Buckley, Chris. 2013. "China Takes Aim at Western Ideas." New York Times 19 August. 

Buckrell, Jon, Ricardo Carrere, Emily Caruso, Marcus Colchester, Simon Counsell, Liz Chidley, Tom Griffiths, Korinna Horta, Jutta Kill, Ben Pearson, Ravi Repprabagada, and Bhanu Kalluri. 2004. Broken Promises: How World Bank Group Policies and Practice Fail to Protect Forests and Forest Peoples’ Rights. Forest Peoples Programme, Rainforest Foundation U.K., Environmental Defense, Global Witness, SinksWatch, CDM Watch, Samata, Down to Earth, World Rainforest Movement. [PDF]

Bullard, Robert D. and Beverly Wright (eds.). 2009. Race, Place, and Environmental Justice after Hurricane Katrina. Westview Press, Boulder. 

Cavanagh, John and Robin Broad. 2010. "Local Dreams: Finding Rootedness in the Age of Vulnerability." Yes Magazine 6 December. [related video]

Chappell, Michael Jahi and Liliana A. LaValle. 2009. "Food Security and Biodiversity: Can We Have Both? An Agroecological Analysis." Agriculture and Human Values. [PDF]

Chetty, Raj, David Grusky, Maximilian Hell, Nathaniel Hendren, Robert Manduca, and Jimmy Narang. 2017. "The fading American dream: Trends in absolute income mobility since 1940." Science 24 April:eaal4617. [related website "The Equality of Opportunity Project" with lots of data, graphs, and maps]

Chomsky, Noam. 2017. "The Future of Humanity." Video interview before the Association of American Geographers, 6 April. [Full Interview] [related article with excerpts]

  • "Take a look at the cabinet. The cabinet was designed that way. Every cabinet official was chosen to destroy anything of human significance in that part of the government. It’s so systematic that it can’t be unplanned. I doubt that Trump planned it. My impression is that his only ideology is 'me'. But whoever is working on it is doing a pretty effective job, and the Democrats are cooperating – cooperating in a very striking way."
  • "Basically letting the Bannon-Trump group control what’s presented to the public, crazy things about wiretapping, ‘Did Susan Rice commit a crime?’, whatever tomorrow’s will be, meanwhile the parts of the governmental structure that are beneficial to human beings and to future generations are being systematically destroyed, and with very little attention."

  • "Take, say climate change. I think that a pretty good argument can be made that the fundamental principles of capitalist society and market societies are simply inconsistent with human survival. So in that respect, there is a need to make radical changes, but you can’t just say let’s make radical changes. I mean radical changes in the structure of society can come about when the large mass of the population is convinced that what exists is not going to be responsive to its just needs and demands, so therefore we’ll change what exists." (1:37:29)

Clayton, Susan. 2000. "Models of Justice in the Environmental Debate." Journal of Social Issues 56(3):459-474. [PDF]

Climate Vulnerable Forum. 2010. Climate Vulnerability Monitor: The State of the Climate Crisis. DARA, Madrid. [PDF] [news story]

Collins, Chuck and Josh Hoxie. 2017. Billionaire Bonanza: The Forbes 400 and the Rest of Us. Institute for Policy Studies, Washington, D.C. [PDF] [story in Forbes]

Corbett, Michael and Judy Corbett. 1999. Designing Sustainable Communities: Learning from Village Homes. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Costanza, Robert and Carl Folke. 1997. "Valuing Ecosystem Services with Efficiency, Fairness and Sustainability as Goals." Pages 49-70 in G. Daily (ed.), Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Cowen, Tyler. 2013. Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation. Penguin, New York. [podcast interview on Wisconsin Public Radio]

Crabapple, Molly (artwork) and Bryan Stevenson (naration). 2015. "Slavery to Mass Incarceration." Equal Justice Initiative, Montgomery, Alabama. (video) 

Crawford, Susan P. 2013. Captive Audience: The Telecom Industry and Monopoly Power in the New Gilded Age. Yale University Press, New Haven. [review] [interview by Diane Rehm] [interview] [video interview] [Crawford's blog] [video presentation on Book TV]

Credit Suisse. 2016. Global Wealth Databook 2016. Credit Suisse, Switzerland. [PDF]

  • "…the bottom half of the global population own less than 1% of total wealth. In sharp contrast, the richest decile hold 89% of the world’s wealth, and the top percentile alone account for 50% of global assets." (p. 104)
  • Note: and the situation is getting worse not better. Relying on the corupt system to fix the problems is futile. 

Dauvergne, Peter and Genevieve LeBaron. 2014. Protest Inc.: The Corporatization of Activism. Polity, Press, Malden, Massachusetts. [interview with LeBaron]

Deaton, Angus. 2013. The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 

Demaria, Federico and Ashish Kothari. 2017. "The Post-Development Dictionary agenda: paths to the pluriverse." Third World Quarterly 38(12):2588-2599. [The predecessor: The Development Dictionary (PDF)]

> One sentence critique of sustainability: "Everything must change in order to remain the same." From Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa 1958 novel, The Leopard. (p. 2590)

> "Among the flaws or weaknesses of the GE (Green Economy)/ Sustainable development (SD) approach as articulated thus far in various UN or UN-sponsored documents, including the declaration for Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, are the following:

  • Absence of an analysis of the historical and structural roots of poverty, hunger, unsustainability and inequities, which include centralisation of state power and capitalist monopolies;
  • Inadequate focus on direct democratic governance (decision-making by citizens and communities in face-to-face settings), beyond the stress on accountability and transparency;
  • Inability to recognise the biophysical limits to economic growth;
  • Continued subservience to private capital, and inability or unwillingness to democratise the economy;
  • Modern science and technology held up as panacea, ignoring their limits and marginalising other forms of knowledge;
  • Culture, ethics and spirituality side-lined;
  • Unbridled consumerism not tackled head-on;
  • Global relations built on localisation and self-reliance missing; and,
  • No new architecture of global governance, with a continued reliance on the centrality of nation-states, denying true democratisation." (pp. 2591-2592)

> I would add continued over-emphasis on relying on the responsibilities of individuals and individual firms/organizations.

  • "This approach rests on the following intersecting spheres: ecological wisdom and sustainability, social well-being and justice, economic democracy, direct political democracy, and cultural diversity. Fundamental to it is a set of values that include diversity, autonomy, cooperation and solidarity, rights with responsibilities, equity and justice, inclusion, simplicity and sufficiency, respect for all life, non-violence, interconnectedness, dignity of labour, and others." (p. 2594)

Dempsey, Nicola, Glen Bramley, Sinéad Power, and Caroline Brown. 2011. "The social dimension of sustainable development: defining urban social sustainability." Sustainable Development 19(5):289-300.

DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Jessica C. Smith. 2010. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Report P60-238, U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau, Wasjhington, D.C.  [PDF] [news report]

Dwyer, Rachel S. 2007. "Expanding Homes and Increasing Inequalities: U.S. Housing Development and the Residential Segregation of the Affluent." Social Problems 54(1):23-46. [PDF]

Dwyer. Rachel E. ‌2010. "Poverty, Prosperity, and Place: The Shape of Class Segregation in the Age of Extremes." Social Problems 57(1):114-137.

Ehrlich, Paul R. and John P. Holdren. 1971. "Technology and De-development." Saturday Review 3 July:46-47.

Ehrlich, Paul R., Peter M. Kareiva, and Gretchen C. Daily. 2012. "Securing Natural Capital and Expanding Equity to Rescale Civilization." Nature 486:68-73. [PDF]

  • "In biophysical terms, humanity has never been moving faster nor further from sustainability than it is now. Our increasing population size and per capita impacts are severely testing the ability of Earth to provide for peoples’ most basic needs." (p. 68)

Esteva, Gustavo. 2010. "Development." Pages 1-24 in Wolfgang Sachs (ed.), The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, 2nd Edition. Zed Books, New York & London. [complete book (PDF)]

  • "Pragmatic attention also began to be given to the internal or external factors that seemed to be the current cause of underdevelopment: terms of trade, unequal exchange, dependency, protectionism, imperfections of the market, corruption, lack of democracy or entrepreneurship.
  • In Latin America, the Peace Corps, the Point Four Program, the War on Poverty, and the Alliance for Progress contributed to root the notion of underdevelopment in popular perception and to deepen the disability created by such perception. But none of those campaigns is comparable to what was achieved, in the same sense, by Latin American dependency theorists and other leftist intellectuals dedicated to criticizing all and every one of the development strategies that the North Americans successively put into fashion." (p. 7)

Fisher, Eleanor and Hannah Sheppard. 2012. "Pushing the Boundaries of the Social: Private Agri-food Standards and the Governance of Fair Trade in European Public Procurement." International Journal of Sociology Agriculture and Food 20(1):31-49. [PDF]

Florida, Richard. 2017. "The Unaffordable Urban Paradise. Tech startups helped turn a handful of metro areas into megastars. Now they’re tearing those cities apart. MIT Technology Review 20 June. 

  • "For years, economists, mayors, and urbanists believed that high-tech development was an unalloyed good thing, and that more high-tech startups and more venture capital investment would 'lift all boats.' But the reality is that high-tech development has ushered in a new phase of what I call winner-take-all urbanism, where a relatively small number of metro areas, and a small number of neighborhoods within them, capture most of the benefits."

Florida, Richard. 2017. The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class—and What We Can Do About It. Basic Books, New York. [NPR podcast] [review by Amy Liu] [review essay by Sam Wetherell]

Foer, Jonathan Safran. Eating Animals. Little, Brown, and Company, Boston. [review by Michael Pollan in New York Review of Books]

Foley, Julie (ed.). 2004. Sustainability and Social Justice. Institute for Public Policy Research, London. [PDF]

Freire, Paulo. 1970 (1968). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Seabury Press, New York. (First published in Portuguese as Pedagogia do Oprimido, Paz e Terra, Rio de Janeiro, 1968.)

  • Note: The oppressed need to have the space for public discourse, dissent, and civil disobedience to become empowered on the path to more equity and justice in their lives. Preventing dialogue dehumanizes the oppressed and supports the dominant class. Preventing dialogue can happen by overt intimidation, but also through more subtle means.

Fridell, Gavin, Daniel Jaffee, and Laura Raynolds. 2009. "Dissecting the Boom: Is Fair Trade growing its way out of its roots?" Historical Materialism 17:237-299. 

Fridell, Mara, Ian Hudson, and Mark Hudson. 2008. "With Friends Like These: The Corporate Response to Fair Trade Coffee." Review of Radical Political Economics 40:8-34. [PDF]

Gasper, Des. 2011. "Pioneering the Human Development Revolution: Analysing the Trajectory of Mahbub ul Haq (Review Essay)." Journal of Human Development and Capabilities: A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development 12(3):433-456. [PDF]

George, Henry. 1879. Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth: The Remedy. Appleton, New York. [related resources from the Henry George Institute]

Giroux, Henry A. 2015. "Where is the Outrage? Critical Pedagogy in Dark Times." The Distinguished Scholar Speaker Series in Critical Pedagogy, McMaster University.

  • "The culture of education is synonymous with the culture of business." (17:48) 
  • Note: this is why sustainability curricula in the liberal arts often resemble sustainability curricula in business programs.
  • "We've lost the common vision. The neoliberal ethic has crept into the university and created these divisions in which the only thing that exists is shared fears rather than shared responsibilities--a shared sense of what it means to make the university a political space that matters--one in which pedagogy can be talked about." (29:04)

Glaude, Eddie. 2015. Democracy in Black: How Race Still Enslaves the American Soul. Crown, New York. [interview in Salon] [discussion on Book TV (video)]

Gould, Kenneth A., Adam S. Weinberg, and Allan Schnaiberg. 1993. "Legitimating Impotence: Pyrrhic Victories of the Modern Environmental Movement." Qualitative Sociology 16(3):207-246. 

Griggs, David, Mark Stafford-Smith, Owen Gaffney, Johan Rockström, Marcus C. Öhman, Priya Shyamsundar, Will Steffen, Gisbert Glaser, Norichika Kanie, and Ian Noble. 2013. "Sustainable development goals for people and planet. Planetary stability must be integrated with United Nations targets to fight poverty and secure human well-being." Nature 495:305-307. [PDF] [supplementary materials (PDF)] [news story by Andrew Revkin] [related blog post]

Haq,  K. and U.  Kirdar (eds.). 1986. Human  Development: The  Neglected  Dimension. North  South Roundtable, Islamabad.

Haq, Mahbub ul. 1976. The Poverty Curtain: Choices for the Third World. Columbia University Press, New York. [related review essay by Des Gasper (PDF)

Haq, Mahbub ul. 1977. "Toward a Just Society." Ch.18 in K. Haq (ed.), Equality of Opportunity within and Among Nations. Praeger, New York.

Hardoon, Deborah. 2017. An Economy for the 99%: It’s time to build a human economy that benefits everyone, not just the privileged few. Briefing Paper, 16 January, Oxfam, London. [news story in the Guardian]

Hartmann, Thom. 2006. Screwed: The Undeclared War against the Middle Class - And what We Can Do about It. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco. [Introduction (PDF)] [video presentation by Hartmann]

Hedges, Chris. 2013. The world as it is: dispatches on the myth of human progress, revised edition. Nation Books, New York. [author interview] [related essay] [essay related to the media] [author podcast] [podcast 2 with Q&A]

Hedges, Chris. 2017. "Fight the Disease, Not the Symptoms." TruthDig 12 November.

Jackson, Ben. 2005. "The Conceptual History of Social Justice." Political Studies Review 3:356-373. 

Kaplan, Robert D. 1994. "The Coming Anarchy: How Scarcity, Crime, Overpopulation, Tribalism, and Disease Are Rapidly Destroying the Social Fabric of Our Planet." The Atlantic Monthly 273(2):44-76. [related academic article by Thomas Homer-Dixon (PDF)]

  • "Much of the Arab world, however, will undergo alteration, as Islam spreads across artificial frontiers, fueled by mass migrations into the cities and a soaring birth rate of more than 3.2 percent. Seventy percent of the Arab population has been born since 1970—youths with little historical memory of anticolonial independence struggles, postcolonial attempts at nation-building, or any of the Arab-Israeli wars. The most distant recollection of these youths will be the West’s humiliation of colonially invented Iraq in 1991. Today seventeen out of twenty-two Arab states have a declining gross national product; in the next twenty years, at current growth rates, the population of many Arab countries will double. These states, like most African ones, will be ungovernable through conventional secular ideologies. The Middle East analyst Christine M. Helms explains, 'Declaring Arab nationalism 'bankrupt,' the political 'disinherited' are not rationalizing the failure of Arabism . . . or reformulating it. Alternative solutions are not contemplated. They have simply opted for the political paradigm at the other end of the political spectrum with which they are familiar—Islam.'
  • Like the borders of West Africa, the colonial borders of Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Algeria, and other Arab states are often contrary to cultural and political reality. As state control mechanisms wither in the face of environmental and demographic stress, 'hard' Islamic city-states or shantytown-states are likely to emerge. The fiction that the impoverished city of Algiers, on the Mediterranean, controls Tamanrasset, deep in the Algerian Sahara, cannot obtain forever. Whatever the outcome of the peace process, Israel is destined to be a Jewish ethnic fortress amid a vast and volatile realm of Islam. In that realm, the violent youth culture of the Gaza shantytowns may be indicative of the coming era."

Katz, Lawrence F. and Alan B. Krueger. 2017. "Documenting decline in U.S. economic mobility." Science 24 April:eaan3264.

  • "Median incomes stagnate as inequality increases."

Kaup, Brent Z. 2013. "In Spaces of Marginalization: Dispossession, Incorporation, and Resistance in Bolivia." Journal of World Systems Research 14(1):108-129. [PDF]

Keck, Margaret E. 1995. "Social Equity and Environmental Politics in Brazil: Lessons from the Rubber Tappers of Acre." Comparative Politics 27(4):409-424. [PDF]

Khanna, Madhu, Amy Whritenour Ando, and Farzad Taheripour. 2008. "Welfare Effects and Unintended Consequences of Ethanol Subsidies." Review of Agricultural Economics 30(3):411-421.

Kothari, Ashish,‎ Ariel Salleh,‎ Arturo Escobar,‎ Federico Demaria (eds.). 2018. The Post-Development Dictionary. Zed Books, New York & London. [related preview article by Demaria and Kothari (2017)] [review essay]

  • Rejects "sustainable development" and its derivative "sustainability" as an oxymoron and looks at alternatives to modernist development paradigms around what it means to be "ecologically wise" and "socially just."

>My note: "Alternatives to development" (as opposed to "alternative development") includes ideas of post-patriarchy, post-capitalism, post-sustainable development, and de-growth with a focus on well-being, justice, local democracy, food and energy sovereignty and security, solidarity, and a cultural political-economy. The ideas draw on the concepts of buen vivir (culture of good life), ecofeminism, swaraj (local ecological democracy involving local self-governance and self-reliance), and ubuntu (human mutuality).

Kozol, Jonathan. 1991. Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools . [Wikipedia summary]

Le Mare, Ann. 2008. "The Impact of Fair Trade on Social and Economic Development: A Review of the Literature." Geography Compass 2(6):1922-1942.

  • "Abstract. This article explores the outcomes of Fair Trade for producers, artisans and their organisations. It asks the question, ‘what happens to people who are involved in Fair Trade?’, and reviews the case studies and empirical research conducted on Fair Trade for a range of products in different countries. The article is organised around important aspects of development which Fair Trade seeks to influence, including market relations, institutional development, economic development and reductions in poverty, social development, gender equity and sustainable development. The outcomes are diverse and complex, though, most studies found significant impact on social and economic aspects of development, contributing to the capacity to improve and diversify livelihoods. Fostering sustainable commercial organisations is an important contribution of Fair Trade networks. However, there appears to be less success in achieving gender equality and dealing with issues of importance to women. Both the enactment of partnership and the achievement of development goals require continuous commitment, a variety of strategies and cooperation with other actors, such as government and non-governmental organisations."

Leissle, Kristy. 2013. "What’s Fairer than Fair Trade? Try Direct Trade with Cocoa Farmers. Fair trade is good, but it still leaves cocoa growers in poverty. Here’s how to do better." Yes Magazine 4 October. 

Levine, Adam Seth, Robert H. Frank, and Oege Dijk. 2010. "Expenditure Cascades." Social Science Research Network 13 September. [related paper by Frank & Levine (PDF)] [related story by Frank in Slate]

Linford, Andrew. 2011. "Global Inequality: Where is it Found?" Geo Currents 30 April. 

Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability "is a refereed journal that focuses on sustainability policy and politics in relation to theory, concepts and empirical studies at the nexus of justice and the environment. It is a forum for the critical examination, evaluation and discussion of environmental, social and economic policies, processes and strategies which will be needed in movement towards social justice and sustainability - 'Just Sustainability' - at local, regional, national and global scales."

Lyon, Sarah and Mark Moberg (eds.). 2010. Fair Trade and Social Justice Global Ethnographies. New York University Press, New York. [review by Ian Hussey]

Lyon, Sarah, Josefina Aranda Bezaury, and Tad Mutersbaugh. 2010. "Gender Equity in Fairtrade–Organic Coffee Producer Organizations: Cases from Mesoamerica." GeoForum 41(1):93-103. [abstract

Lyon, Sarah. 2010. Coffee and Community: Maya Farmers and Fair-Trade Markets. University Press of Colorado, Boulder. [Introduction (PDF)] [review]

Massey, Douglas and Nancy Denton. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. 

Max-Neef, Manfred A. 1991. Human Scale Development: Conception, Application and Further Reflections. Apex Press, New York. [PDF] [Spanish version (PDF)]

Table: Basic Needs for Human Development (adapted from Max-Neef 1982 and 1991).


Being (qualities)

Having (things)

Doing (actions)

Interacting (settings)







physical and mental health (wellness)

food, shelter, work, good land, clean environment

eat, clothe, rest, work

home space, social spaces, work place (everywhere)


care, adaptable, safe

social security, compensation, laws, healthcare, work

cooperate, plan, care for, assist



respect, sense of humor, generosity, sensuality

friends, family, relationships with nature

share, care for, make love, express emotions, procreate

privacy, intimate spaces of togetherness


critical capacity, curiosity, intuition

literature, teachers, policies, educational

analyze, study, meditate, investigate,

schools, families, universities, communities,


receptiveness, dedication, sense of humor

responsibilities, duties, work, rights

cooperate, dissent, express opinions

associations, parties, churches, neighborhoods


imagination, tranquility, spontaneity

games, parties, peace of mind

day-dream, remember, relax, have fun

landscapes, intimate spaces, places to be alone


imagination, boldness, inventiveness, curiosity

abilities, skills, work, techniques

invent, build, design, work, compose, interpret

spaces for expression, workshops, audiences


sense of belonging, self-esteem, consistency

language, religions, work, customs, values, norms

get to know oneself, grow, commit oneself

places one belongs to, everyday settings


autonomy, passion, self-esteem, open-mindedness

equal rights

dissent, choose, run risks, learn


Max-Neef, Manfred. 2010. "The World on a Collision Course and the Need for a New Economy." Ambio 39(3):200-210. [PDF]

Medina, Martín. 2000. "Scavenger Cooperatives in Asia and Latin America." Resources, Conservation and Recycling 31(1):51-69.

Mejia, Dagmara. 2008. "The Transnational Problem of Youth Gangs: From the United States to Central America. Development, public policy and best practices." Institute of Political Studies and International Relations, Jagiellonian University. 

Mendes, Chico. 1990. Fight for the Forest: Chico Mendes in His Own Words. Latin American Bureau, London.

Mercado, Jocelyn. 2017. "Buen Vivir: A New Era of Great Social Change." Pachamama Alliance 25 December.

  • "The idea of Buen Vivir is an alternative to this development-centered approach. Buen Vivir is based on the belief that true well-being ('the good life') is only possible as part of a community. The good of the community is placed above that of the individual. Furthermore, this is community in an expanded sense; it includes Nature, plants, animals, and the Earth. Nature itself must be cared for and respected as a valuable part of the community. The land cannot be owned; it should be honored and protected."

Merchant, Carolyn. 1990. "The realm of Social Relations: Production, Reproduction and Gender in Environmental Transformations." Pages 673-684 in B.L. Turner et al. (eds.), The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [PDF]

Missimer, M., K.-H. Robèrt, and G. Broman. 2016a. "A strategic approach to social sustainability–part 1: exploring the social system." Journal of Cleaner Production 140(1):32-41. [part 2]

Missimer, M., K.-H. Robèrt, and G. Broman. 2016b. "A strategic approach to social sustainability‒part 2: a principle-based definition." Journal of Cleaner Production 140(1)42-52. [part 1]

Moberg, Mark. 2014. "Certification and Neoliberal Governance: Moral Economies of Fair Trade in the Eastern Caribbean." American Anthropologist 116(1):8-22. 

  • "Abstract. Many consumers and food-justice activists regard Fair Trade as a moral alternative to markets dominated by corporate agribusiness. Fair Trade frames producer–consumer relationships in the language of reciprocity and justice rather than the impersonal logic of the market. Despite its moral economy discourse, the movement embodies neoliberal assumptions that regulation and development should occur through the realm of consumer choice rather than state intervention. To receive the higher prices that Fair Trade promises, farmers are subject to certification processes that heavily regulate their planting practices and development priorities. Here I explore the contrasting views of economic morality held by Fair Trade organizations and Caribbean banana farmers. Farmers do not view Fair Trade in terms of the lofty values of social justice and reciprocity animating the movement's discourse. Rather, they operate with a working definition of economic morality similar to those elucidated by E. P. Thompson, James Scott, Marc Edelman, and others who have examined peasant and worker responses to injustice. From farmers’ points of view, compliance with Fair Trade certification should at least enable them to persist in agriculture. As Fair Trade prices have fallen while surveillance of their working lives has increased, many regard this notion of economic morality as increasingly violated."

Moore, Jason W. 2014. "Cheap Food & Bad Climate: From Surplus Value to Negative-Value in the Capitalist World-Ecology." Essay, Department of Sociology and Fernand Braudel Center, Binghamton University. [PDF] [related podcast interview

Moore, Jason W. 2014. "The End of Cheap Nature. Or How I Learned to Stop Worrying about “The” Environment and Love the Crisis of Capitalism." Essay, Department of Sociology and Fernand Braudel Center, Binghamton University. [PDF] [related podcast interview

Murphy, Kevin. 2012. "The Social Pillar of Sustainable Development: A Literature Review and Framework for Policy Analysis." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 8(1):15-29. [PDF]

New Economics Institute. "Wealth Inequality in America." New Economics Institute, Cambridge.

O'Riordan, Timothy J. 2012. "On Social Sustainability in a World of Limits Facing Prolonged Austerity." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 8(1). [PDF

  • "It is likely that prolonged suffering from human-induced hazards and dangerously increased inequality will lead to social strife, to profound physical and mental-health crises, to deepening violence and criminality, and to a whole 'lost generation'." (p. 2)

Oosterveer, Peter, Gabriëlle Rossing, Astrid Hendriksen, and Keete Voerman. 2014. "Mainstreaming fair trade: the role of retailers." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 10(2):4-13.  

Pacione, Laura, Toby Measham, Rachel Kronick, Francesca Meloni, Alexandra Ricard-Guay, Cécile Rousseau, and Monica Ruiz-Casares. 2012. "The mental health of children facing collective adversity: poverty, homelessness, war and displacement." Chapter J.4 in J.M. Rey (ed.), IACAPAP Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions, Geneva. [PDF]

Patel, Raj. 2008. Stuffed and Starved: The Hidden Battle for the World Food System. Melville House, Brooklyn. [excerpt] [video interview on Democracy Now] [author video presentation]

Petrini, Carlo. Terra Madre: Forging a New Global Network of Sustainable Food Communities. Chelsea Green, White River Junction, Vermont. [review by Michael Pollan in New York Review of Books]

Poe, Abigail and Adam Isacson. 2009. "Ecuador’s Humanitarian Emergency: The Spillover of Colombia’s Conflict." International Policy Report, April 2009, Center for International Policy, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Pogge, Thomas (ed.). 2001. Global Justice: Seminal Essays. Blackwell, Oxford. 

Portney, Paul R. and John P. Weyant (eds). 1999. Discounting and Intergenerational Equity. Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. [brief description] [Chapter 1]

Raworth, Kate. 2012. "Can we live inside the doughnut? Why the world needs planetary and social boundaries." Oxfam.org. 

Reich, Robert B. 2015. Saving Capitalism: For the Many, Not the Few. Knopf, New York. [video lecture]

Revkin, Andrew C. 1990. The Burning Season: The Murder of Chico Mendes and the Fight for the Amazon Rain Forest. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Rice, Robert A. 1999. "A Place Unbecoming: The Coffee Farm of Northern Latin America." Geographical Review 89(4):554-579.

Roberts, J. Timmons and Bradley C. Parks. 2007. A Climate of Injustice: Global Inequality, North-South Politics, and Climate Policy. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge.

Rodriguez, Antonio and Carlyn Ramlogan. 2007. "Corruption, privatisation and the distribution of income in Latin America." Development Research Working Paper Series #9/2007. Institute for Advanced Development Studies, La Paz. 

Rottenberg, Catherine. 2013. "The Rise of neoliberal feminism." Cultural Studies 28(3):418-437. [abstract]

Sachs, Jeffrey D., Andrew D. Mellinger, and John L. Gallup. 2001. "The Geography of Poverty and Wealth." Scientific American March.  [PDF]

Sachs, Wolfgang. 1999. "Globalization and Sustainability." Development Research Series Working Paper #71, Institut for Historie, Internationale Studier og Samfundsforhold, Aalborg Universitet, Aalborg. [PDF

Sandberg, Sheryl. 2013. Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead. Knopf, New York.

Seers, Dudley. 1969. "The Meaning of Development." International Development Review 11:2-6. [PDF]

Seghezzo, Lucas. 2009. "The five dimensions of sustainability." Environmental Politics 18(4):539-556. [PDF]

  • Three dimensions in "space," a 4th as "time," and the 5th is the "person."

Sen, Amartya. 1981. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Clarendon Press, Oxford. [PDF]

Sen, Amartya. 1983. "Poor, Relatively Speaking." Oxford Economic Papers 35(2):153-169. [PDF]

Sen, Jai and Peter Waterman, with Madhuresh Kumar. 2003. "The World Social Bibliography: A Bibliography on the World Social Forum and the Global Solidarity and Justice Movement." Choike: A Portal on Southern Civil Societies, The Third World Institute, Montevideo. [PDF]

Shepardson, David. "Federal Communications Commission votes to repeal net neutrality rules." AOL News 14 December.

  • "The approval of FCC Chairman Ajit Pai's proposal marks a victory for internet service providers like AT&T Inc, Comcast Corp and Verizon Communications Inc and hands them power over what content consumers can access."

Shiva, Vandana. 1989. Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development. Zed Books, London.

  • "Feminism as the affirmation of women and women’s work allows a redefinition of growth and productivity as categories linked to the production, not the destruction, of life. It is thus simultaneously an ecological and a feminist political project that legitimizes the ways of knowing and being that create wealth by enhancing life and diversity, and which delegitimizes the knowledge and practice of a culture of death as the basis for capital accumulation." (p. 13)
  • "In contemporary times, Third World women, whose minds have not yet been dispossessed or colonized, are in a privileged position to make visible the invisible oppositional categories that they are custodians of." (p. 46)

Shiva, Vandana. 2013. "How economic growth has become anti-life. An obsession with growth has eclipsed our concern for sustainability, justice and human dignity. But people are not disposable – the value of life lies outside economic development." The Guardian 1 November.

Singh, Susheela, Jacqueline E. Darroch, Lori S. Ashford, and Michael Vlassoff. 2010. Adding It Up: The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Family Planning and Maternal and Newborn Health. Guttmacher Institute, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Slaughter, Anne-Marie. 2012. "Why Women Still Can’t Have It All. It’s time to stop fooling ourselves, says a woman who left a position of power: the women who have managed to be both mothers and top professionals are superhuman, rich, or self-employed. If we truly believe in equal opportunity for all women, here’s what has to change." The Atlantic July/August.

Smith, Adam. 1790 (1759). The Theory of Moral Sentiments. A. Millar, London. 

  • "How many people ruin themselves by laying out money on trinkets of frivolous utility? What pleases these lovers of toys is not so much the utility, as the aptness of the machines which are fitted to promote it. All their pockets are stuffed with little conveniences. They contrive new pockets, unknown in the clothes of other people, in order to carry a greater number. They walk about loaded with a multitude of baubles, … some of which may sometimes be of some little use, but all of which … the whole utility is certainly not worth the fatigue of bearing the burden." (Part 4, Section IV.I.6)

  • "The produce of the soil maintains at all times nearly that number of inhabitants which it is capable of maintaining. The rich only select from the heap what is most precious and agreeable. They consume little more than the poor, and in spite of their natural selfishness and rapacity, … they divide with the poor the produce of all their improvements. They are led by an invisible hand to make nearly the same distribution of the necessaries of life, which would have been made, had the earth been divided into equal portions among all its inhabitants, and thus ..., advance the interest of the society. When Providence divided the earth among a few lordly masters, it neither forgot nor abandoned those who seemed to have been left out in the partition.  … In ease of body and peace of mind, all the different ranks of life are nearly upon a level, and the beggar, who suns himself by the side of the highway, possesses that security which kings are fighting for." (Part 4, Section IV.I.10)

Smith, Adam. 1904 (1776). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Methuen & Co., Ltd., London. [Original 1776 version of Volume 2 from Google Books (downloadable PDF available)] [complete 2007 reprint by ΜεταLibri (PDF)]

  • "I have never known much good done by those who affected to trade for the public good." (Vol. 2, p. 35)

  • "The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state. The expense of government to the individuals of a great nation, is like the expense of management to the joint tenants of a great estate, who are all obliged to contribute in proportion to their respective interests in the estate." (Vol. 2, p. 423)

Smith, Alison Dalton. 2010. "Too Much of a Good Thing: The Relationship between Money and Happiness in a Post-Industrial Society." The Sustainability Review 7 March.

Smith, Philip B. and Manfred Max-Neef. 2011. Economics Unmasked: From Power and Greed to Compassion and the Common Good. Green Books, Devon, U.K. [Chapter 9, "The World on a Collision Course and the Need for a New Economy"] [related paper by Max-Neef (PDF)] [related paper by Max-Neef and others in Cuadernos de Lanki (PDF)

Smolin, David M. 2006. "Child Laundering: How the Intercountry Adoption System Legitimizes and Incentivizes the Practices of Buying, Trafficking, Kidnapping, and Stealing Children." Wayne Law Review 52:113-200. [PDF]

Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2002b. "Globalism's Discontents." The American Prospect 13(1):A16-A21. [PDF]

Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2009. "Capitalist Fools." Vanity Fair January.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2015. The Great Divide: Unequal Societies and What We Can Do About Them. Norton, New York. [video lecture at the World Bank] [video discussion with Robert Reich]

Streeten, P. 1979. "A Basic-Needs Approach to Economic Development." In K.P. Jameson and C.K. Wilber (eds.), Directions in Economic Development. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.

Streeten, P. 1988. "From Growth to Basic Needs." Finance and Development 25(3):28-31. [abstract]

Streeten, P. 1995. Thinking about Development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Stuart, Diana and Michelle R. Worosz. 2013. "The Myth of Efficiency: Technology and Ethics in Industrial Food Production." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26(1):231-256.

Thompson, Hans. 2006. "Chadian Oil: Avoiding the Resource Curse." Oshkosh Scholar 1(May). 

Tim-adical Writing Collective. 2017. "Vulnerabilities, complicities and injustices: 'Tim-adical' actions for change in the neoliberal academy." ephemera: theory & politics in organization 7(3):221-234. [PDF

  • "What this illustrates, to us at least, is that we need to engage as much with justice inside the university as outside it. To do this requires that we change the university along with ourselves. If our aim is justice, our means are our research, our teaching and our service – we must combine these aims and means or we lose the critical, yet mundane meaning of justice we wish to support. The university is not lost to neoliberalism just yet. There is still room to reclaim it as a space of hope and change, as demonstrated by recent calls for radical provocations against the university that begin as a struggle from within. To do so requires that we face up to and challenge the vulnerabilities, hierarchies and complicities we are implicated in. We must also remember that we are not alone. The more neoliberal thought tries to separate, individualize and weaken us as self-seeking individuals, the more we have to remember our greatest strength is our ability to forge connections and work together." (pp. 231-232)

Unger, Roberto Mangabeira. 2013. "Deep freedom: Why the left should abandon equality." Juncture (quarterly journal of IPPR) 24 October:20(2).

Vallance, Suzanne, Harvey C. Perkins, and Jennifer E. Dixon. 2011. "What is social sustainability? A clarification of concepts." Geoforum 42(3):342-348. 

Vivero, Jose Luis. 2013. "Food as a public good: the last frontier in the civic claim of the commons." Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, 14 April. [abstract with link to PDF] [abridged version]

Walker-Rodriguez, Amanda and Rodney Hill. 2011. "Human Sex Trafficking." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Washington, D.C. [PDF

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 2004. "After Developmentalism and Globalization, What?" Keynote address at the Development Challenges for the 21st Century Conference, Cornell University, Ithaca, 1 October. [PDF]

Warren, Karen J. 1993. "Introduction to Ecofeminism." Pages 253-267 in Michael E. Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John Clark (eds.), Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Welford, Richard (ed.). 1997. Hijacking Environmentalism: Corporate Responses to Sustainable Development. Earthscan, London. [review by J. Ulhøi (PDF)]

Welford, Richard. 2002. "Globalization, Corporate Social Responsibility and Human Rights." Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 9:1-7. [abstract] [PDF]

Wheeler, Stephen. 2004. Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable and Ecological Communities. Routledge, London.

Wilkinson, Richard and Kate Pickett. 2009. The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger. Bloomsbury, New York. [excerpt][review] [presentation by Wilkinson on TedTalks]

Wise, Timothy A. 2009. Agricultural Dumping Under NAFTA: Estimating the Costs of U.S. Agricultural Policies to Mexican Producers. Report #7, December, Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts. [PDF] [related short video]

Wolpin, Miles. 1997. "Fair Trade Standards, Economic Well-being and Human Rights as Costs of Free Trade." International Journal of Peace Studies 2(1).

Wood, Charles H. and Marianne Schmink. 1978. "Blaming the Victim: Small Farmer Production in an Amazon Colonization Project." Studies in Third World Societies 7:77-93.

Woodward, Richard T. 2000. "Sustainability as Intergenerational Fairness: Efficiency, Uncertainty, and Numerical Methods." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 82(3):581-593. [abstract]

  • In presenting an economic model of sustainability, Woodward shows "that a sustainability obligation is met only if there is the expectation of economic growth." (p. 581)

Zinn, Howard. 2010. "The citizens among us: science, the public, and social change." In Anthony J. Nocella II, Steven Best, and Peter McLaren (eds.), Academic Repression:  Reflections from the Academic Industrial Complex. AK Press, Edinburgh. [book review by Antero García] [author interview by G.M. Schivone]

  • "Our education system is geared to prepare young people to become successful within the confines of the present society. It doesn’t prepare them to question this present society, to ask if fundamental change is needed." (p. 466)
  • "...I believe the most important thing education can do is to take the students out of this narrow concern with learning what they need to be successful in their profession and make them aware that the most important thing they can do in their lives is to play a role in creating a better society, whether it’s stopping war, or ending racial inequality, or ending economic inequality. This is the most important thing that education can do. And I think our most wise of educators—our philosophers of education, like John Dewey—have recognized this as the critical problem of education." [from interview]

Log In