Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References

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Reference Search Results You searched for ENVSRV

Alcamo, J., D. van Vuuren, C. Ringler, W. Cramer, T. Masui, J. Alder, and K. Schulze. 2005. "Changes in Nature's Balance Sheet: Model-based Estimates of Future Worldwide Ecosystem Services." Ecology and Society 10(2):19.

Alix-García, J., A. de Janvry, and E. Sadoulet. 2003. "Payments for Environmental Services: To Whom, Where and How Much?" INE/CONAFOR/World Bank, Guadalajara, Mexico. [PDF]

Alix-Garcia, Jennifer M., Elizabeth N. Shapiro, and Katharine R.E. Sims. 2010. "Forest Conservation and Slippage: Evidence from Mexico’s National Payment for Ecosystem Services Program." Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Staff Paper #548, University of Wisconsin Madison.  

Aylward, Bruce. 2002. "Market Mechanisms and Environmental Services: A Conceptual Approach and Review of International Experience." Proyecto MIRNA, Guatemala City. [PDF]

Balmford, Andrew, Aaron Bruner, Philip Cooper, Robert Costanza, Stephen Farber, Rhys E. Green, Martin Jenkins, Paul Jefferiss, Valma Jessamy, Joah Madden, Kat Munro, Norman Myers, Shahid Naeem, Jouni Paavola, Matthew Rayment, Sergio Rosendo, Joan Roughgarden, Kate Trumper, and R. Kerry Turner. 2002. "Economic Reasons for Conserving Wild Nature." Science 297:950-953. [PDF]

Bennett, Elena M., Garry D. Peterson, and Line J. Gordon. 2009. "Understanding relationships among multiple ecosystem services." Ecology Letters 12(12):1394-1404. [PDF]

Boreux, V., C.G. Kushalappa, P. Vaast, and J. Ghazoul. 2013. "Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(21):8387-8392.

Boyd, James and Spencer Banzhaf. 2007. "What are ecosystem services? The need for standardized environmental accounting units." Ecological Economics 63(2-3):616-626. [related paper by authors from Resources for the Future (PDF)]

Boyd, James. 2007. "Nonmarket benefits of nature: What should be counted in green GDP?" Ecological Economics 61(4):716-723.

Boyd, James. 2011. "Economic Valuation, Ecosystem Services, and Conservation Strategy." Pages 178-189 in Seminar 3, Valuation of Ecosystem Services. Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, California. [PDF]

Braat, Leon C. and Rudolf de Groot. 2012. "The ecosystem services agenda: bridging the worlds of natural science and economics, conservation and development, and public and private policy." Ecosystem Services 1(1):4-15.

Carpenter, Stephen R., Harold A. Mooney, John Agard, Doris Capistrano, Ruth S. DeFries, Sandra Díaz, Thomas Dietz, Anantha K. Duraiappah, Alfred Oteng-Yeboah, Henrique Miguel Pereira, Charles Perrings, Walter V. Reid, José Sarukhan, Robert J. Scholes, and Anne Whyte. 2009. "Science for Managing Ecosystem Services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(5):1305-1312.

Chan, Kai M.A., Lara Hoshizaki, and Brian Klinkenberg. 2011. "Ecosystem Services in Conservation Planning: Targeted Benefits vs. Co-Benefits or Costs?" PLoS ONE 6(9):e24378.

Clough, Yann, Jan Barkmann, Jana Juhrbandt, Michael Kessler, Thomas Cherico Wanger, Alam Anshary, Damayanti Buchori, Daniele Cicuzza, Kevin Darras, Dadang Dwi Putra, Stefan Erasmi, Ramadhanil Pitopang, Carsten Schmidt, Christian H. Schulze, Dominik Seidel, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Kathrin Stenchly, Stefan Vidal, Maria Weist, Arno Christian Wielgoss, and Teja Tscharntke. 2011. "Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2 May. 

Colby, Michael E. 1991. "Environmental Management in Development: The Evolution of Paradigms." Ecological Economics 3:193-213. [PDF]

Conservation International. 2011. Green Economy: Challenges and Opportunities. Política Ambiental 8(June):Entire Issue. [PDF]

Cooley, David and Lydia Olander. 2012. "Stacking Ecosystem Services Payments: Risks and Solutions." Environmental Law Reporter 42(2). [PDF]

Costanza, Robert and Carl Folke. 1997. "Valuing Ecosystem Services with Efficiency, Fairness and Sustainability as Goals." Pages 49-70 in G. Daily (ed.), Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Costanza, Robert and Herman E. Daly. 1992. "Natural Capital and Sustainable Development." Conservation Biology 6:37-46. [PDF]

  • "Improvement in human welfare can come about by pushing more matter-energy through the economy or by squeezing more human want satisfaction out of each unit of matter-energy that passes through. These two processes are so different in their effect on the environment that we must stop conflating them. It is better to refer to throughput increase as growth, and efficiency increase as development. Growth is destructive of natural capital and beyond some point will cost us more than it is worth-that is, sacrificed natural capital will be worth more than the extra man-made capital whose production necessitated the sacrifice. At this point growth has become anti-economic, impoverishing rather than enriching. Development that is qualitative improvement does not occur at the expense of natural capital. There are clear economic limits to growth, but not to development. This is not to assert that there are no limits to development, only that they are not so clear as the limits to growth, and consequently there is room for a wide range of opinion on how far we can go in increasing human welfare without increasing resource throughput. How far can development substitute for growth? This is the relevant question, not how far can human-made capital substitute for natural capital, the answer to which, as we have seen, is 'hardly at all'." (p. 43)
  • "Technological progress for sustainable development should be efficiency-increasing rather than throughput-increasing. Limiting the scale of resource throughput by high resource taxes would induce this technological shift, as discussed further below." (p. 44)

Costanza, Robert, David Stern, Brendan Fisher, Lining He, and Chunbo Ma. 2004. "Influential Publications in Ecological Economics: A Citation Analysis." Ecological Economics 50:261-292. [PDF] [related new paper (PDF)]

Costanza, Robert, R. d'Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, S. Naeem, K. Limburg, J. Paruelo, R.V. O'Neill, R. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt. 1997. "The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital." Nature 387:253-260. [PDF] [2014 update

Costanza, Robert, Richard B. Norgaard, Herman Daly, Robert Goodland, and John H. Cumberland. 2007. An Introduction to Ecological Economics. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.

Costanza, Robert, Rudolf de Groot, Paul Sutton, Sander van der Ploeg, Sharolyn J. Anderson, Ida Kubiszewski, Stephen Farber, and R. Kerry Turner. 2014. "Changes in the global value of ecosystem services." Global Environmental Change 26:152-158. [PDF] [related first estimation (PDF)]

Daily, Gretchen C. (ed.). 1997. Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Daily, Gretchen C. and Pamela A. Matson. 2008. "Ecosystem Services: From Theory to Implementation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(28):9455-9456.

Daily, Gretchen C., T. Soderqvist, S. Aniyar, Ken Arrow, P. Dasgupta, Paul R. Ehrlich, Carl Folke, A. Jansson, B.O. Jansson, N. Kautsky, S. Levin, Jane Lubchenco, K.-G. Maler, D. Simpson, D. Starrett, D. Tilman, and B. Walker. 2000. "The Value of Nature and the Nature of Value." Science 289:395-396. [PDF]

Dasmann, Raymond, J.R. Milton, and R.H. Freeman. 1973. Ecological Principles for Economic Development. John Wiley, London.

de Groot, Rudolf, Luke Brander, Sander van der Ploeg, Robert Costanza, Florence Bernard, Leon Braat, Mike Christie, Neville Crossman, Andrea Ghermandi, Lars Hein, Salman Hussain, Pushpam Kumar, Alistair McVittie, Rosimeiry Portela, Luis C. Rodriguez, Patrick ten Brink, and Pieter van Beukering. 2012. "Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units." Ecosystem Services 1(1):50-61. 

de Groot, Rudolph S., Matthew A. Wilson, and Roelof M.J. Boumans. 2002. "A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem function, goods and services." Ecological Economics 41:393-408.

Ecological Economics "is concerned with extending and integrating the study and management of nature's household (ecology) and humankind's household (economics). This integration is necessary because conceptual and professional isolation have led to economic and environmental policies which are mutually destructive rather than reinforcing in the long term. The journal is transdisciplinary in spirit and methodologically open."

Ecosystem Services "is an international, interdisciplinary journal that deals with the science, policy and practice of Ecosystem Services in the following disciplines: ecology and economics, institutions, planning and decision making, economic sectors such as agriculture, forestry and outdoor recreation, and all types of ecosystems."

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich. 1992. "The value of biodiversity." Ambio 21(3):219-226. 

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Harold A. Mooney. 1983. "Extinction, Substitutions and Ecosystem Services." Bioscience 33(4):248-254. [abstract]

Ehrlich, Paul R., Peter M. Kareiva, and Gretchen C. Daily. 2012. "Securing Natural Capital and Expanding Equity to Rescale Civilization." Nature 486:68-73. [PDF]

  • "In biophysical terms, humanity has never been moving faster nor further from sustainability than it is now. Our increasing population size and per capita impacts are severely testing the ability of Earth to provide for peoples’ most basic needs." (p. 68)

Farber, Stephen C., Robert Costanza, and Matthew A. Wilson. 2002. "Economic and ecological concepts for valuing ecosystem services." Ecological Economics 41(3):375-392. [PDF] [related article]

Fearnside, Philip M. 1997. "The Main Resources of Amazonia." Paper presented at the Latin American Studies Association (LASA), 20th International Congress, Guadalajara, Mexico, 17-19 April 1997. [PDF]

Fearnside, Philip M. 1997a. "Environmental Services as a Strategy for Sustainable Development in Rural Amazonia." Ecological Economics 20(1):53-70. [abstract] [related conference paper by Fearnside (PDF)]

Gabriel, Doreen, Steven M. Sait, Jenny A. Hodgson, Ulrich Schmutz, William E. Kunin, and Tim G. Benton. 2010. "Scale Matters: The Impact of Organic Farming on Biodiversity at Different Spatial Scales." Ecology Letters 13:858-869. 

Goldstein, Joshua H., Giorgio Caldarone, Thomas Kaeo Duarte, Driss Ennaanay, Neil Hannahs, Guillermo Mendoza, Stephen Polasky, Stacie Wolny, and Gretchen C. Daily. 2012. "Integrating ecosystem-service tradeoffs into land-use decisions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(19):7565-7570.

Haines-Young, Roy H. 2011. "Prioritisation of Ecosystem Services for Ecosystem Accounting." Prepared for discussion at the expert meeting on ecosystem accounting organised by the UNSD, the EEA and the World Bank, hosted by Defra and ONS, London, December, 2011. [PDF] [related slide presentationby author (PDF)]

Hall, Jaclyn M., Tracy Van Holt, Amy E. Daniels, Vincent Balthazar, and Eric F. Lambin. 2012. "Trade-offs between tree cover, carbon storage and floristic biodiversity in reforesting landscapes." Landscape Ecology 27:1135-1147. [PDF]

Hawken, Paul, Amory B. Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins 2005. Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution. Rocky Mountain Institute, Snowmass, Colorado.

Heal, Geoffrey. 1998. Valuing the Future: Economic Theory and Sustainability. Columbia University Press, New York.

Heal, Geoffrey. 2000. Nature and the Marketplace: Capturing the Value of Ecosystem Services. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 

Heal, Geoffrey. 2007. "Environmental accounting for ecosystems." Ecological Economics 61(4):693-694. 

Ikerd, John. 2013. "The Three Ecological Principles of Economic Sustainability." Mother Pelican: A Journal of Solidarity and Sustainability 9(3).

Jørgensen, Sven Erik. 2010. "Ecosystem services, sustainability and thermodynamic indicators." Ecological Complexity 7(3):311-313.

Jansson, Ann Marie, Monica Hammer, Carl Folke, and Robert Costanza (eds.). 1994. Investing in Natural Capital: The Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [Chapter 21: "Three General Policies" by R. Costanza]

Johnston, Robert J. and Marc Russell. 2011. "An operational structure for clarity in ecosystem service values." Ecological Economics 70(12):2243-2249. 

Juniper, Tony. 2013. What Has Nature Ever Done For Us?: How Money Really Does Grow On Trees. Profile Books, London. [author interview]

Lautenbach, Sven, Martin Volk, Michael Strauch, Gerald Whittaker, and Ralf Seppelt. 2013. "Optimization-based trade-off analysis of biodiesel crop production for managing an agricultural catchment." Environmental Modelling & Software 48:98-112.

Lovins, L. Hunter and Boyd Cohen. 2011. Climate Capitalism: Capitalism in the Age of Climate Change. Hill and Wang, New York. [video interview] [review by Gail Whiteman in Nature]

Ma, Chunbo and David I. Stern. 2006. "Environmental and ecological economics: A citation analysis." Ecological Economics 58:491-506. [PDF] [related older paper by authors (PDF)

May, Peter H. and Ronaldo Serôa da Motta (eds.). 2000. Pricing the Planet: Economic Analysis for Sustainable Development. Columbia University Press, New York.

McAfee, Kathleen and Elizabeth N. Shapiro. 2010. "Payments for Ecosystem Services in Mexico: Nature, Neoliberalism, Social Movements, and the State." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 100(3):1-21.

Medvigy, David, Robert L. Walko, Martin J. Otte, and Roni Avissar. 2013. "Simulated Changes in Northwest U.S. Climate in Response to Amazon Deforestation." Journal of Climate 26:9115-9136. [abstract] [news story]

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Board. 2005. Living Beyond Our Means: Natural Assets and Human Well-being. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Board, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Board. 2005f. Ecosystem Services and Human Well-being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Board, Washington, D.C.

Mitchard, Edward T.A., Ted R. Feldpausch, Roel J.W. Brienen, Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez, Abel Monteagudo, Timothy R. Baker, Simon L. Lewis, Jon Lloyd, Carlos A. Quesada, Manuel Gloor, Hans ter Steege, Patrick Meir, Esteban Alvarez, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, Luzmila Arroyo, Gerardo Aymard, Olaf Banki, Damien Bonal, Sandra Brown, Foster I. Brown, Carlos E. Cerón, Victor Chama Moscoso, Jerome Chave, James A. Comiskey, Fernando Cornejo, Massiel Corrales Medina, Lola Da Costa, Flavia R.C. Costa, Anthony Di Fiore, Tomas F. Domingues, Terry L. Erwin, Todd Frederickson, Niro Higuchi, Euridice N. Honorio Coronado, Tim J. Killeen, William F. Laurance, Carolina Levis, William E. Magnusson, Beatriz S. Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon Junior, Irina Mendoza Polo, Piyush Mishra, Marcelo T. Nascimento, David Neill, Mario P. Núñez Vargas, Walter A. Palacios, Alexander Parada, Guido Pardo Molina, Marielos Peña-Claros, Nigel Pitman, Carlos A. Peres, Lourens Poorter, Adriana Prieto, Hirma Ramirez-Angulo46, Zorayda Restrepo Correa11, Anand Roopsind, Katherine H. Roucoux, Agustin Rudas, Rafael P. Salomão, Juliana Schietti, Marcos Silveira, Priscila F. de Souza, Marc K. Steininger, Juliana Stropp, John Terborgh, Raquel Thomas, Marisol Toledo, Armando Torres-Lezama, Tinde R. van Andel, Geertje M.F. van der Heijden, Ima C.G. Vieira, Simone Vieira, Emilio Vilanova-Torre, Vincent A. Vos, Ophelia Wang, Charles E. Zartman, Yadvinder Malhi, and Oliver L. Phillips. 2014. "Markedly divergent estimates of Amazon forest carbon density from ground plots and satellites." Global Ecology and Biogeography 23(8):935-946. [summary in ScienceDaily]

Newcome, Jodi, Allan Provins, Helen Johns, Ece Ozdemiroglu, Jaboury Ghazoul, Diane Burgess, Kerry Turner. 2005. The Economic, Social and Ecological Value of Ecosystem Services: A Literature Review. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), and the Economics for the Environment Consultancy (eftec), London. [PDF]

Norberg, Jon. 1999. "Linking Nature's services to ecosystems: some general ecological concepts." Ecological Economics 29(2):183-202. 

Nunes, Paulo A.L.D. and C.J.M. van den Bergh. 2001. "Economic valuation of biodiversity: sense or nonsense?" Ecological Economics 39:203-222. [PDF]

Ojeda, Monica Ilija, Alex S. Mayer, and Barry D. Solomon. 2008. "Economic valuation of environmental services sustained by water flows in the Yaqui River Delta." Ecological Economics 65(1):155-166. 

Onaindia, Miren, Beatriz Fernandez de Manuel, Iosu Madariaga, and Gloria Rodríguez-Loinaz. 2013. "Co-benefits and trade-offs between biodiversity, carbon storage and water flow regulation." Forest Ecology and Management 289:1-9. [PDF]

Parks, Sarah and  John Gowdy. 2013. "What have economists learned about valuing nature? A review essay." Ecosystem Services 3:e1-e10. 

Perrings, Charles, Anantha Duraiappah, Anne Larigauderie, and Harold Mooney. 2011. "The Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Science-Policy Interface." Science 331(4 March):1139-1140. 

Perrings, Charles, S. Naeem, F. Ahrestani, D.E. Bunker, P. Burkill, G. Canziani, T. Elmqvist, R. Ferrati, J. Fuhrman, F. Jaksic, Z. Kawabata, A. Kinzig, G.M. Mace, F. Milano, H. Mooney, A.-H. Prieur-Richard, J. Tschirhart, W. Weisser. 2010. "Ecosystem Services for 2020." Science 330:323-324. [PFD]  

Polasky, Stephen, Erik Nelson, Derric Pennington, and Kris A. Johnson. 2011. "The Impact of Land-use Change on Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Returns to Landowners: A Case Study in the State of Minnesota." Environmental and Resource Economics 48(2):219-242. [PDF]

Polasky, Stephen, Erik Nelson, Jeff Camm, Blair Csuti, Paul Fackler, Eric Lonsdorf, Claire Montgomery, Denis White, Jeff Arthur, Brian Garber-Yonts, Robert Haight, Jimmy Kagan, Anthony Starfield, and Claudine Tobalske. 2008. "Where to Put Things? Spatial Land Management to Sustain Biodiversity and Economic Returns." Biological Conservation 141:1505-1524. [related paper by Polasky et al. (PDF)]

Potschin, Marion B. and Roy H. Haines-Young. 2011. "Ecosystem services : Exploring a geographical perspective." Progress in Physical Geography 35(5):575-594. [PDF] [related slide presentation by authors (PDF)]

Power, A.G. 2010. "Ecosystem services and agriculture: Tradeoffs and synergies." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365:2959-2971.

Qiu, Jiangxiao and Monica G. Turner. 2013. "Spatial interactions among ecosystem services in an urbanizing agricultural watershed." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1 July.

Raudsepp-Hearne, C., G.D. Peterson, and E.M. Bennett. 2010. "Ecosystem service bundles for analyzing tradeoffs in diverse landscapes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(11):5242-5247. [PDF]

Reid, Walter V., et al. 2006. "Nature: The many benefits of ecosystem services." Nature 443:749-750. [PDF]

Schröter, Matthias, Emma H. van der Zanden, Alexander P.E. van Oudenhoven, Roy P. Remme, Hector M. Serna-Chavez, Rudolf S. de Groot, and Paul Opdam. 2014. "Ecosystem services as a contested concept: a synthesis of critique and counter-arguments." Conservation Letters 17 February. [PDF]

Sedell, James, Mailand Sharpe, Diana Apple, Max Copenhagen, and Mike Furniss. 2000. Water and the Forest Service. Publication FS-660, USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C.  [PDF]

Seppelt, Ralf, Sven Lautenbach, and Martin Volk. 2013. "Identifying trade-offs between ecosystem services, land use, and biodiversity: a plea for combining scenario analysis and optimization on different spatial scales." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3 June.

Spangenberg, Joachim H. and Josef Settele. 2010. "Precisely Incorrect? Monetising the Value of Ecosystem Services." Ecological Complexity 7(3):327-337.

Spangenberg, Joachim H., Christoph Görg, Dao Thanh Truong, Vera Tekken, Jesus Victor Bustamante, and Josef Settele. 2014. "Provision of ecosystem services is determined by human agency, not ecosystem functions: Four case studies." International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 10(1):40-53. [abstract]

Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf, Michael Kessler, Jan Barkmann, Merijn M. Bos, Damayanti Buchori, Stefan Erasmi, Heiko Faust, Gerhard Gerold, Klaus Glenk, S. Robbert Gradstein, Edi Guhardja, Marieke Harteveld, Dietrich Hertel,Patrick Höhn, Martin Kappas, Stefan Köhler, Christoph Leuschner, Miet Maertens, Rainer Marggraf, Sonja Migge-Kleian, Johanis Mogea,Ramadhaniel Pitopang, Matthias Schaefer, Stefan Schwarze, Simone G. Sporn, Andrea Steingrebe, Sri S. Tjitrosoedirdjo, Soekisman Tjitrosoemito, André Twele, Robert Weber, Lars Woltmann, Manfred Zeller, and Teja Tscharntke. 2007. "Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(12):4973-4978. 

Tallis, Heather, Peter Kareiva, Michelle Marvier, and Amy Chang. 2008. "An ecosystem services framework to support both practical conservation and economic development." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(28):9457-9464. 

Tengberg, Anna, Susanne Fredholm, Ingegard Eliasson, Igor Knez, Katarina Saltzman, and  Ola Wetterberg. 2012. "Cultural ecosystem services provided by landscapes: Assessment of heritage values and identity." Ecosystem Services 2:14-26. 

Tianhong, L., L. Wenkai, and Q. Zhenghan. 2010. "Variations in ecosystem service value in response to land use changes in Shenzhen." Ecological Economics 69:1427-1435.

Tilman, David, Kenneth G. Cassman, Pamela A. Matson, Rosamond Naylor, and Stephen Polasky. 2002. "Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices." Nature 418:671-677. [PDF]

Turner, R. Kerry, Jouni Paavola, Philip Cooper, Stephen Farber, Valma Jessamy, and Stavros Georgiou. 2003. "Valuing nature: lessons learned and future research directions." Ecological Economics 46(3):493-510.

Vanbergen, Adam J. and the Insect Pollinators Initiative. 2013. "Threats to an Ecosystem Service: Pressures on Pollinators." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment April. [PDF] [story in ScienceDaily] [related news article]

Voosen, Paul. 2013. "Who Is Conservation for?" The Chronicle of Higher Education 10 November.

Weikard, Hans P. 2002. "Diversity Functions and the Value of Biodiversity." Land Economics 78(1):20-27. [PDF]

Wilson, Edward O. 1989. "The Value of Biodiversity." Scientific American September:108-116.

Winiwarter, Verena. 2010. "Biodiversity and ecosystem services in historical perspective." Presentation at: ATLER-Net Conference – Biodiversity and ecosystems services; what is the link between the two? Vienna, 3-4 Nov. 

World Resources Institute. n.d. What Are Ecosystem Services? World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.

Young, Carlos Eduardo Frickmann. 2013. "Green Economy Policies in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities." Revista del CESLA 16:261-277. [PDF]

Zhou, G., S. Liu, Z. Li, D. Zhang, X. Tang, C. Zhou, J. Yan, and J. Mo. 2006. "Old-Growth Forests Can Accumulate Carbon in Soils." Science 314(5804):1417. [PDF]

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