Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References

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Reference Search Results You searched for 6EXT

Angus, Ian. 2017. "Is Capitalism Killing Our Climate?" Radio Interview on Planet Haliburton from Climate Capitalism. 18 August.

Angus, Ian. 2017. Facing the Anthropocene: Fossil Capitalism and the Crisis of the Earth System. Monthly Review Press, New York. [summary] [related podcast "Is Capitalism Killing Our Climate?" on Climate Capitalism] [related video presentation by author] [related (text) interview with author]

Araújo, Miguel B. 1999. "Distribution Patterns of Biodiversity and the Design of a Representative Reserve Network in Portugal." Diversity and Distributions 5:151-163. [PDF]

Barnosky, Anthony D., Nicholas Matzke, Susumu Tomiya, Guinevere O.U. Wogan, Brian Swartz, Tiago B. Quental, Charles Marshall, Jenny L. McGuire, Emily L. Lindsey, Kaitlin C. Maguire, Ben Mersey, and Elizabeth A. Ferrer. 2011. "Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived?" Nature 471:51-57. [PDF]

Benton, Michael. 2005. When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinction of All Time. Thames & Hudson, London.

Bierregaard, Richard 0., Thomas E. Lovejoy, Valerie Kapos, Angelo Augusto dos Santos, and Roger W. Hutchings. 1992. "The Biological Dynamics of Tropical Rainforest Fragments: A prospective comparison of fragments and continuous forest." BioScience 42(11):859-866. [PDF]

"A mosaic of small forest remnants would suffer significant alteration by edge effects and would lose species." (p.859)

Blench, Roger. 1998. "Biodiversity Conservation and its Opponents." Natural Resource Perspectives 32. [PDF]

Brook, Barry W., Corey J.A. Bradshaw, Lian Pin Koh, and Navjot S. Sodhi. 2006. "Momentum Drives the Crash: Mass Extinction in the Tropics." Biotropica 38(3):302-305. [related debate summary by R. Butler from Mongabay.com]

Brooks, Thomas M., Stuart L. Pimm, and Joseph O. Oyugi. 1999. "Time Lag between Deforestation and Bird Extinction in Tropical Forest Fragments." Conservation Biology 13(5):1140-1150. [PDF]

Brummitt, Neil A., Steven P. Bachman, Janine Griffiths-Lee, Maiko Lutz, Justin F. Moat, Aljos Farjon, John S. Donaldson, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Thomas R. Meagher, Sara Albuquerque, Elina Aletrari, A. Kei Andrews, Guy Atchison, Elisabeth Baloch, Barbara Barlozzini, Alice Brunazzi, Julia Carretero, Marco Celesti, Helen Chadburn, Eduardo Cianfoni, Chris Cockel, Vanessa Coldwell, Benedetta Concetti, Sara Contu, Vicki Crook, Philippa Dyson, Lauren Gardiner, Nadia Ghanim, Hannah Greene, and others. 2015. "Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants." PLoS ONE 10(8):e0135152.

"More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources."

Butchart, Stuart H.M., Alison J. Stattersfield, Leon A. Bennun, Sue M. Shutes, H. Resit Akçakaya, Jonathan E.M. Baillie, Simon N. Stuart, Craig Hilton-Taylor, and Georgina M. Mace. 2004. "Measuring Global Trends in the Status of Biodiversity: Red List Indices for Birds." PLoS Biology 2(12):e383.  [PDF]

Butchart, Stuart H.M., Matt Walpole, Ben Collen, Arco van Strien, Jörn P.W. Scharlemann, Rosamunde E.A. Almond, Jonathan E.M. Baillie, Bastian Bomhard, Claire Brown, John Bruno, Kent E. Carpenter, Geneviève M. Carr, Janice Chanson, Anna M. Chenery, Jorge Csirke, Nick C. Davidson, Frank Dentener, Matt Foster, Alessandro Galli, James N. Galloway, Piero Genovesi, Richard D. Gregory, Marc Hockings, Valerie Kapos, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Fiona Leverington, Jonathan Loh, Melodie A. McGeoch, Louise McRae, Anahit Minasyan, Monica Hernández Morcillo, Thomasina E.E. Oldfield, Daniel Pauly, Suhel Quader, Carmen Revenga, John R. Sauer, Benjamin Skolnik, Dian Spear, Damon Stanwell-Smith, Simon N. Stuart, Andy Symes, Megan Tierney, Tristan D. Tyrrell, Jean-Christophe Vié, and Reg Watson. 2010. "Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines." Science 328(5982):1164-1168.  [PDF]   [supplemental research materials (PDF)]   [related report from the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2010)]  

Butler, Rhett A. 2007. "Deforestation causes species extinction in Madagascar. Lack of lemur dung may contribute to demise of some beetles." mongabay.com, 7 March.

Cardinale, Bradley J. 2013. "Towards a general theory of biodiversity for the Anthropocene." Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. [PDF] [related video]

Ceballos, Gerardo, Anne H. Ehrlich, and Paul R., Ehrlich. 2015. The Annihilation of Nature: Human Extinction of Birds and Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Ceballos, Gerardo, Paul R. Ehrlich, and Rodolfo Dirzo. 2017. "Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 23 May.

Ceballos, Gerardo, Paul R. Ehrlich, Anthony D. Barnosky, Andrés García, Robert M. Pringle, and Todd M. Palmer. 2015. "Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction." Science Advances 1(5):e1400253. [summay in ScienceDaily] [news video]

Chen, Jim. 2005. "Across the Apocalypse on Horseback: Imperfect Legal Responses to Biodiversity Loss." Washington University Journal of Law & Policy 17:13-35. 

Chivian, Eric and Aaron Bernstein (eds.). 2008. Sustaining Life: How Human Health Depends on Biodiversity. Oxford University Press, New York. [summary (PDF)] [related video lecture by E. Chivian]

Courtillot, V. and Y. Gaudemer. 1996. "Effects of Mass Extinctions on Biodiversity." Nature 381:146-148.  [abstract] [PDF]

Cushman, Samuel A. 2006. "Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: A review and prospectus." Biological Conservation 128:231-240. [PDF]

Díaz, Sandra, Joseph Fargione, F. Stuart Chapin III, and David Tilman. 2006. "Biodiversity Loss Threatens Human Well-being." PLoS Biology 4(8):e277.

DeWeerdt, Sarah. 2002. "What Really is an Evolutionarily Significant Unit? The Debate over Integrating Genetics and Ecology in Conservation Biology." Conservation in Practice 3(1):10-19. [PDF]

Diamond, Jared M. 1975. "The island dilemma: lessons of modern biogeographic studies for the design of nature reserves." Biological Conservation 7(2):129-146. [abstract

Dirzo, Rodolfo, Hillary S. Young, Mauro Galetti, Gerardo Ceballos, Nick J.B. Isaac, and Ben Collen. 2015. "Defaunation in the Anthropocene." Science 345(6195):401-406. [press release from Stanford University] [news story

Donlan, Josh, Harry W. Greene, Joel Berger, Carl E. Bock, Jane H. Bock, David A. Burney, James A. Estes, Dave Foreman, Paul S. Martin, Gary W. Roemer, Felisa A. Smith, and Michael E. Soulé. 2005. "Re-wilding North America." Nature 436(18 August):913-914. [related website] [critical review by Rubenstein et al. (PDF)]

Dunn, Robert R., Nyeema C. Harris, Robert K. Colwell, Lian Pin Koh, and Navjot S. Sodhi. 2009. "The Sixth Mass Coextinction: Are most Endangered Species Parasites and Mutualists?" Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276(1670):3037-3045.

Dunne, Jennifer A. and Richard J. Williams. 2009. "Cascading Extinctions and Community Collapse in Model Food Webs." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364(1524):1711-1723.

Eckholm, Erik. 1978. "The age of extinction." The Futurist 12(5):289-300.

Ehrlich, Paul R. 1982. "Human Carrying Capacity, Extinctions, and Nature Reserves." Bioscience 32(5):331-333. [PDF] [related video]

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich. 1981. Extinction. Random House, New York.

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Edward O. Wilson. 1991. "Biodiversity Studies: Science and Policy." Science 253(5021):758-762. [PDF

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Harold A. Mooney. 1983. "Extinction, Substitutions and Ecosystem Services." Bioscience 33(4):248-254. [abstract]

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Robert M. Pringle. 2008. "Where Does Biodiversity Go from here? A Grim Business-as-usual Forecast and a Hopeful Portfolio of Partial Solutions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(Suppl):11579-11586.

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne Ehrlich. 2013. "The Invisible Ruin." Dimensions 9 January. [related video] [PDF (scroll to page 8)]

Erwin, Douglas H. 2008. "Extinction as the Loss of Evolutionary History." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(Supplement 1):11520-11527. [PDF]

Estes, James A., John Terborgh, Justin S. Brashares, Mary E. Power, Joel Berger, William J. Bond, Stephen R. Carpenter, Timothy E. Essington, Robert D. Holt, Jeremy B.C. Jackson, Robert J. Marquis, Lauri Oksanen, Tarja Oksanen, Robert T. Paine, Ellen K. Pikitch, William J. Ripple, Stuart A. Sandin, Marten Scheffer, Thomas W. Schoener, Jonathan B. Shurin, Anthony R.E. Sinclair, Michael E. Soulé, Risto Virtanen, and David A. Wardle. 2011. "Trophic Downgrading of Planet Earth." Science 333(6040):301-306. [PDF] [news article]

Fahrig, Lenore. 2003. "Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Biodiversity." Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 34:487-515. 

Fargione, Joseph E., Thomas R. Cooper, David J. Flaspohler, Jason Hill, Clarence Lehman, Tim McCoy, Scott McLeod, Erik J. Nelson, Karen S. Oberhauser, and David Tilman. 2009. "Bioenergy and Wildlife: Threats and Opportunities for Grassland Conservation." BioScience 59(9):767-777.

Foley, Jonathan A., Ruth DeFries, Gregory P. Asner, Carol Barford, Gordon Bonan, Stephen R. Carpenter, F. Stuart Chapin, Michael T. Coe, Gretchen C. Daily, Holly K. Gibbs, Joseph H. Helkowski, Tracy Holloway, Erica A. Howard, Christopher J. Kucharik, Chad Monfreda, Jonathan A. Patz, I. Colin Prentice, Navin Ramankutty, and Peter K. Snyder. 2005. "Global Consequences of Land Use." Science 309(5734):570-574. [abstract] [PDF] [related article] [TED video]

Foreman, Dave. 2004. Rewilding North America: A Vision for Conservation in the 21st Century. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [related website] [critical review by D. Rubenstein et al. (PDF)]

Fowler, Cary and Patrick R. Mooney. 1990. Shattering: Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. [excerpts on EcoBooks]

Freese, Curtis H. 1997b. "The ‘Use it or Lose it’ Debate: Issues of a Conservation Paradox." Pages 1-48 in C.H. Freese (ed.), Harvesting Wild Species: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Gade, Daniel W. 1969. "Vanishing Crops of Traditional Agriculture: The Case of Tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) in the Andes." Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers 1:47-51. [abstract ]

Galindo-Leal, Carlos and Ibsen de Gusmão Câmara. 2003. The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, Washington, D.C. [Portuguese edition]

Gaston, Kevin J. 2000a. "Biodiversity: Higher Taxon Richness." Progress in Physical Geography 24(1):117-127. [introduction] [PDF]

Gaston, Kevin J. 2000b. "Global Patterns in Biodiversity." Nature 405(11 MAY): 220-227. 

Gaston, Kevin J. 2005. "Biodiversity and Extinction: Species and People." Progress in Physical Geography 29(2):239-247. [PDF]

Gaston, Kevin J. 2006. "Biodiversity and Extinction: Macroecological Patterns and People." Progress in Physical Geography 30(2):258-269. [introduction] [PDF]

Gaston, Kevin J. 2008. "Biodiversity and Extinction: The Importance of Being Common." Progress in Physical Geography 32(1):73-79. [introduction] [PDF]

Gibson, Luke, Antony J. Lynam, Corey J. A. Bradshaw, Fangliang He, David P. Bickford, David S. Woodruff, Sara Bumrungsri, and William F. Laurance. 2013. "Near-complete Extinction of Native Small Mammal Fauna 25 Years after Forest Fragmentation." Nature 341(6153):1508-1510. [news story in ScienceDaily]

Glavin, Terry. 2007. The Sixth Extinction: Journeys Among the Lost and Left Behind. Thomas Dunne Books, New York.

Harris, Larry D. 1984. The Fragmented Forest: Island Biogeography Theory and the Preservation of Biotic Diversity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

He, Fangliang and Stephen P. Hubbell. 2011. "Species–area relationships always overestimate extinction rates from habitat loss." Nature 473:368-371. [PDF]  

Heywood, Vernon H. (ed.). 1995. Global Biodiversity Assessment. UNEP, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Heywood, Vernon H., G.M. Mace, R.M. May, and S.N. Stuart. 1994. "Uncertainties in Extinction Rates." Nature 368:105.

Hughes, Jennifer B., Gretchen C. Daily, and Paul R. Ehrlich. 1997. "Population Diversity: Its Extent and Extinction." Science 278(5338):689-692. [PDF]

Jenkins, Clinton N., Kyle S. Van Houtan, Stuart L. Pimm, and Joseph O. Sexton. 2015. "US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(16):5081-5086. [news story in Audubon]

Joppa, Lucas N., D.L. Roberts, and Stuart L. Pimm. 2011. "How many Species of Flowering Plants Are there?" Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B., Biological Sciences 278:554-559. [PDF]  

Kermath, Brian M. 2008. "Why Go Native? Landscaping for Biodiversity and Sustainability Education." Pages 221-231 in W. Simpson (ed.), The Green Campus: Meeting the Challenge of Environmental Sustainability, APPA, Alexandria. (Published in 2007 in the International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 8(2):210-223.)

  • "One way is to alter key elements of the human landscape in strategic places, because they are physical expressions of our cultures. How we procure food, recreate, and manage our urban areas, for example, all have landscape expressions that reveal our worldviews, values, and past judgments. When biodiversity and natural heritage matter more deeply to us, we will see our urban landscapes with more ecologically complex assemblages of native plants that are more wildlife friendly and reliant on natural processes than the ecologically simple, capital intensive, and environmentally toxic industrial landscapes we consume everywhere today. The landscape aesthetic too will shift, so that it is no longer determined by the physical end-product alone, but also by weighing in the environmental costs of production and management. When this happens, a truer sense-of-place that is deeply rooted in a genuine respect and appreciation for Earth's life-giving processes will sprout literally from our yards. The 'garden of the month' award will no longer go to the mere prettiest garden in the community, but rather to the prettiest garden that best maintains ecological integrity."
  • "...most colleges have not been as connected to the solutions as they could be, which is not surprising considering that a majority of campus administrators have been shown to lack an adequate understanding of sustainability. On the curricular side, campus environmental roles historically have been to train technicians in the maintenance of the status quo and to appease well-intentioned environmentalists with activities that fall short of what is needed. On the management side, their roles largely have been to comply with regulations. Of course, we need technicians to fix and improve existing systems and we should comply with regulations, but it is also important to challenge and move beyond conventional thought and practices. True progress does not come about without challenging the orthodoxy and exploring the options. Such advice routinely rings from campus halls everywhere. It is past time to add substance to the rhetoric." (pp. 228-229)

Kerr, Jeremy T., Alana Pindar, Paul Galpern, Laurence Packer, Simon G. Potts, Stuart M. Roberts, Pierre Rasmont, Oliver Schweiger, Sheila R. Colla, Leif L. Richardson, David L. Wagner, Lawrence F. Gall, Derek S. Sikes, and Alberto Pantoja. 2015. "Climate change impacts on bumblebees converge across continents." Science 349(6244):177-180. [summary in ScienceDaily]

Kerr, Jeremy T. and Tormod V. Burkey. 2002. "Endemism, Diversity, and the Threat of Tropical Moist Forest Extinctions." Biodiversity and Conservation 11(4): 695-704. [PDF]

Laurance, William F., José L.C. Camargo, Regina C.C. Luizãoa, Susan G. Laurance, Stuart L. Pimm, Emilio M. Bruna, Philip C. Stouffer, G. Bruce Williamson, Julieta Benítez-Malvido, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Kyle S. Van Houtan, Charles E. Zartman, Sarah A. Boyle, Raphael K. Didham, Ana Andrade, and Thomas E. Lovejoy. 2011. "The fate of Amazonian forest fragments: A 32-year investigation." Biological Conservation 144:56-67. [PDF]

Laurance, William F. et al. 2012. "Averting Biodiversity Collapse in Tropical Forest Protected Areas." Nature 489:290-294. [PDF

Leakey, Richard E. and Roger Lewin. 1995. The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Mankind. Doubleday, New York. [Chapter 13] [review]

Lorimer, Jamie. 2015. Wildlife in the Anthropocene: Conservation after Nature. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. [Introduction (PDF)]

Lovejoy, Thomas E. 1976. "We must Decide which Species Will Go Forever." Smithsonian July:52-58.

Lovejoy, Thomas E. and Lee Hannah (eds.). 2005. Climate Change and Biodiversity. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Lovejoy, Thomas. 2012. "The Greatest Challenge of Our Species." The New York Times 5 April. 

Mace, Georgina M. and Jonathan E.M. Baillie. 2007. "The 2010 Biodiversity Indicators: Challenges for Science and Policy." Conservation Biology 21(6):1406-1413. [abstract]

Mace, Georgina M., Belinda Reyers, Rob Alkemade, Reinette Biggs, F. Stuart Chapin III, Sarah E. Cornell, Sandra Díaz, Simon Jennings, Paul Leadley, Peter J. Mumby, Andy Purvis, Robert J. Scholes, Alistair W.R. Seddon, Martin Solan, Will Steffen, and Guy Woodward. 2014. "Approaches to defining a planetary boundary for biodiversity." Global Environmental Change 28:289-297. 

McLaughlin, John F., Jessica J. Hellmann, Carol L. Boggs, and Paul R. Ehrlich. 2002. "Climate Change Hastens Population Extinctions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(9):6070-6074.

Miasek, Meryl A. and Charles R. Long. Endangered Plant Species of the World and their Endangered Habitats: A Compilation of the Literature. The Council on Botanical and Horticultural Libraries, Inc., New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. [PDF

Miller, Gifford H., Marilyn L. Fogel, John W. Magee, Michael K. Gagan, Simon J. Clarke, and Beverly J. Johnson. 2005. "Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction." Science 309(8 July):287-290. [PDF]

Milner-Gulland, E.J. and E.L. Bennett. 2003. "Wild meat: the bigger picture." Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18:351-357. 

Monbiot, George. 2013. "For More Wonder, Rewild the World." TED Talks.

Myers, Norman and Andrew H. Knoll. 2001. "The Biotic Crisis and the Future of Evolution." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98(10):5389-5392.

Myers, Norman, Russell A. Mittermeier, Cristina G. Mittermeier, Gustavo A.B. da Fonseca, and Jennifer Kent. 2000. "Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities." Nature 403:853-858.

Myers, Norman. 1979. The Sinking Ark: A New Look at the Problem of Disappearing Species. Pergamon Press, New York.

Myers, Norman. 1983. A Wealth of Wild Species: Storehouse for Human Welfare. Westview Press, Boulder.

Myers, Norman. 1987a. "The Extinction Spasm Impending: Synergisms at Work." Conservation Biology 1(1):14-21. [abstract] [PDF]

Myers, Norman. 1988. "Threatened Biotas: 'Hot Spots' in Tropical Forests." Environmentalist 8(3):187-208. [PDF]

Myers, Norman. 1990. "The Biodiversity Challenge: Expanded Hot-Spots Analysis." Environmentalist 10(4):243-256. [PDF]

Myers, Norman. 1993. "Questions of Mass Extinction." Biodiversity and Conservation 2(1):2-17. [PDF]

Myers, Norman. 1996. "The biodiversity crisis and the future of evolution." The Environmentalist 16:37-47. [PDF]

Myers, Norman. 2001. "The biodiversity crisis and the future of evolution." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98(10):5389-5392.

Naeem, Shahid. 2002. "Ecosystem consequences of biodiversity loss: the evolution of a paradigm." Ecology 83.6: 1537-1552. [PDF] [related video]

Nasi, R., A. Taber, and N. Van Vliet. 2011. "Empty forests, empty stomachs?" Bushmeat and livelihoods in the Congo and Amazon Basins." International Forestry Review 13(3):355-368. [PDF]

Noss, Reed F. 1991. "From Endangered Species to Biodiversity." Pages 230-246 in Kathryn Kohm (ed.), Balancing on the Brink of Extinction: The Endangered Species Act and Lessons for the Future. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 

O’Riordan, Tim and Susanne Stoll-Kleemann (eds.). 2002. Biodiversity, Sustainability and Human Communities: Protecting beyond the Protected. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 

Pimm, Stuart L. and Lucas N. Joppa. 2015. “How Many Plant Species are There, Where are They, and at What Rate are They Going Extinct?” Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 170-176. [PDF]   

Pimm, Stuart L. and Peter H. Raven. 2000. "Biodiversity: Extinction by Numbers." Nature 403:843-845.

Pimm, Stuart L. and Thomas M. Brooks. 2000. "The Sixth Extinction: How Large, How Soon, and Where?" Pages 46-62 in Peter H. Raven (ed.), Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. [related brief paper by S. Pimm]

Pimm, Stuart L., Clinton N. Jenkins, Lucas N. Joppa, David L. Roberts, and Gareth J. Russell. 2010. "How Many Endangered Species Remain to Be Discovered in Brazil?" Natureza & Conservação 8(1):71-77. [PDF

Pimm, Stuart L., Gareth J. Russell, John L. Gittleman, and Thomas M. Brooks. 1995. "The Future of Biodiversity." Science 269(5222):347-350. [PDF]

Pimm, Stuart L., M. Ayres, A. Balmford, G. Branch, K. Brandon, T. Brooks, R. Bustamante, R. Costanza, R. Cowling, L.M. Curran, A. Dobson, S. Farber, G.A. da Fonseca, C. Gascon, R. Kitching, J. McNeely, T. Lovejoy, R.A. Mittermeier, N. Myers, J.A. Patz, B. Raffle, D. Rapport, P. Raven, C. Roberts, J.P. Rodriguez, A.B. Rylands, C. Tucker, C. Safina, C. Samper, M.L. Stiassny, J. Supriatna, D.H. Wall, and D. Wilcove. 2001. "Can We Defy Nature's End?" Science 293(5537):2207-2208. [PDF] [supplementary materials]

Pimm, Stuart L., C.N. Jenkins, R. Abell, T.M. Brooks, J.L. Gittleman, L.N. Joppa, P.H. Raven, C.M. Roberts, and J.O. Sexton. 2014. "The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection." Science 344(6187):1246752. [PDF] [news story]  

Prance, Ghillean T. and Thomas S. Elias (eds.). 1977. Extinction Is Forever: Threatened and Endangered Species of Plants in the Americas and Their Significance in Ecosystems Today and in the Future. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Status of Threatened and Endangered Plants of the Americas. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.

Proença, Vânia and Henrique Miguel Pereira. 2013. "Comparing Extinction Rates: Past, Present, and Future." Pages 167-176 in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Volume 2. Elsevier, Amsterdam. [PDF]

Raven, Peter H. 1976. "Ethics and Attitudes." Pages 155-179 in J.B. Simmons et al. (eds.), Conservation of Threatened Plants: Proceedings of a conference on the functions of living plant collections in conservation-oriented research and public education. Kew, England, 1975. Plenum Press, New York.

Raven, Peter H. 1983. "The importance of preserving species." Fremontia 11(1):9-12. 

Raven, Peter H. 1990. "The Politics of Preserving Biodiversity." Bioscience 40:769-774.

Raven, Peter H. 2007. "An Interview with Dr. Peter Raven, director of the Missouri Botanical Garden: Biodiversity extinction crisis looms says renowned biologist." Interviewed by Rhett A. Butler, mongabay.com, 12 March. 

Reaka-Kudla, Marjorie L., Don E. Wilson, and Edward O. Wilson (eds.). 1997. Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C.

Redford, Kent H. 1992. "The Empty Forest: Many large animals are already ecologically extinct in vast areas of neotropical forest where the vegetation still appears intact." BioScience 42(6):412-422.

Reid, Walter V. 1992. "How many Species Will there Be?" Pages 55-73 in T.C. Whitmore and J.A. Sayer (eds.), Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction. Chapman and Hall, London.

Rubenstein, Dustin R. Daniel I. Rubensteinb, Paul W. Shermana, and Thomas A. Gavin. 2006. "Pleistocene Park: Does Re-wilding North America Represent Sound Conservation for the 21st Century?" Biological Conservation 132 :232-238. [PDF]

Rudbach, Lucy T. 1992. "Strategy to Preserve Biological Diversity: Marble Mountain Audubon Society v. Rice." Public Land and Resources Law Review 13:193-208. [PDF

Saunders, Denis A., Richard J. Hobbs, and Chris Margules. 1991. "Biological Consequences of Ecosystem Fragmentation: A Review." Conservation Biology 5(1):18-32. [PDF

Schlesinger, William H. 2006. "Global Change Ecology." Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21(6):348-351. [PDF]

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010. Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. United Nations Environment Program, Montreal. [news story] [related paper by Butchart et al. (2010) in Science] [related video]

Simberloff, Daniel S. 1974. "Equilibrium Theory of Island Biogeography and Ecology." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5:161-182. [PDF]

Sisk, Thomas D., Alan E. Launer, Kathy R. Switky, and Paul R. Ehrlich. 1994. "Identifying Extinction Threats: Global Analyses of the Distribution of Biodiversity and the Expansion of the Human Enterprise." BioScience 44(9):592-604. [PDF]

Smith, Nigel J.H. and Richard Evans Schultes. 1990. "Deforestation and Shrinking Crop Gene-pools in Amazonia." Environmental Conservation 17(3):227-234. [PDF]

Soulé, Michael and Reed Noss. 1998. "Rewilding and Biodiversity: Complementary Goals for Continental Conservation." Wild Earth 8(3):18-28.

Soulé, Michael E. 1980. "Thresholds for Survival: Maintaining Fitness and Evolutionary Potential." Pages 151-170 in M.E. Soulé and B.A. Wilcox (eds.), Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-ecological Perspective, Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Stuart, S.N., Edward O. Wilson, J.A. McNeely, R.A. Mittermeier, and J.P. Rodríguez. 2010. "The barometer of life." Science 328:177. [PDF]

Teitel, Martin and Jeremy Rifkin. 1992. Rain Forest in Your Kitchen: The Hidden Connection between Extinction and your Supermarket. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Terborgh, John. 1999. Requiem for Nature. Shearwater Books, Washington, D.C. [review by Bill McKibben in The New York Times] [review by Kathryn Michaud]

Voosen, Paul. 2013. "Who Is Conservation for?" The Chronicle of Higher Education 10 November.

Waldman, John. 2010. "The Natural World Vanishes: How Species Cease to Matter." Yale Environment 360 8 April.

Waples, Robin S. 1995. "Evolutionarily Significant Units and the Conservation of Biological Diversity under the Endangered Species Act." Pages 8-27 in J. Nielsen (ed.), Evolution and the Aquatic Ecosystem, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda. [PDF] [reply to Pennock and Dimmick (PDF)

Ward, Peter D. 1995. The End of Evolution: A Journey in Search of Clues to the Third Mass Extinction Facing Planet Earth. Bantam Books, New York.  

Ward, Peter D. 2007. Under a Green Sky: Global Warming, the Mass Extinctions of the Past, and what they Can Tell Us about Our Future. Collins, New York. [related essay by author]

Western, David. 2001. "Human-modified Ecosystems and Future Evolution." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98(10):5458-5465.

Wilkie, David S., Elizabeth L. Bennett, Carlos A. Peres, and Andrew A. Cunningham. "The empty forest revisited." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1223:120-128. 

Williams, Paul H., David Gibbons, Chris Margules, Anthony Rebelo, Chris Humphries, and Robert Pressey. 1996. "A Comparison of Richness Hotspots, Rarity Hotspots, and Complementary Areas for Conserving Diversity of British Birds." Conservation Biology 10(1):155-174. [abstract]

Wilson, Edward O. 2013. The Social Conquest of Earth. Liveright, New York. 

Wilson, Edward O. 2014. The Meaning of Human Existence. Liveright, New York. [review

Wilson, Edward O. 2016. Half Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Life. Liveright, New York. [related essay by Wilson] [related essay on the subject by Tony Hiss in the Smithsonian Magazine] [discussion in Audubon] [interview in The New York Times] [podcast interview on Science Friday] [commentary by Brian Czech]

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