Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References



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Tokar, Brian. 2014. "The Myths of Green Capitalism." New Politics 14(4):56.

  • "By 1990, as environmentalists were gathering to celebrate the twentieth anniversary of the first Earth Day, a new kind of environmental politics was emerging from America's boardrooms, an overtly corporate environmentalism that extolled the virtues of the capitalist 'free market' and suggested that adjustments in personal lifestyles through 'green' consumerism were a better way to curtail pollution and further environmental goals while simultaneously increasing profits."

  • "To this day, market enthusiasts extol the EPA’s acid rain program as a successful example of how emissions trading can help lower the costs of environmental compliance. But in practice, it demonstrated some predictable features of an essentially artificial new commodity market, including overwhelming dominance by major players and distorting trade-offs between market behavior and regulatory compliance. In the end it confirmed that regulation remains a far more efficient means of achieving environmental goals."

  • "…carbon offsets allow corporations to postpone investments in necessary emissions reductions at home, and ultimately represent a gaping hole in any mandated 'cap' in carbon dioxide emissions. They are a means for polluting industries to continue business as usual while contributing, marginally at best, to overall emissions reductions."
  • Many argue "...that socially responsible investing and 'triple bottom lines' (monetary, social, and environmental) can sufficiently transform the business world. Environmental economists have come up with far more sophisticated measures of social and environmental costs and benefits, seeking to substitute more nuanced measures of 'genuine progress' for conventional GDP calculations. All these approaches, however, serve to obscure the inherently anti-ecological character of capitalism. A system that concentrates political and economic power in the hands of those who pursue the accumulation of capital without restraint is going to continue to demand expansion and growth, however skilled we may become at measuring our ecological footprint. The imperative to grow and accumulate in turn redoubles the economy’s impacts on the earth’s threatened ecosystems. While environmentalists continue to work toward feasible near-term solutions to pollution, biodiversity loss, and the destabilization of the climate, it is also essential to look forward toward a genuinely ecological and democratic alternative both in economics and politics."

Tolabc, Richard S.J., Maria Bohnd, Thomas E. Downinge, Marie-Laure Guillermineta, Eva Hizsnyikf, Roger Kaspersond, Kate Lonsdalee, Claire Maysg, Robert J. Nichollsh, Alexander A. Olsthoornb, Gabriele Pfeifleg, Marc Poumadereg, Ferenc L. Tothfi, Athanasios T. Vafeidisjk, Peter E. van der Werffb, and I. Hakan Yetkiner. 2006. "Adaptation to Five Metres of Sea Level Rise." Journal of Risk Research 9(5):467-482.

Tolbert, V.R. (ed.). 1998. "Environmental Effects of Biomass from Crop Production. What Do We Know? What Do We Need to Know?" Biomass and Bioenergy (Special Issue) 14(4).

Tolbert,V.R., F.C. Thornton, J.D. Joslin, B.R. Bock, W. Bandaranayake, A.E. Huston, D.D. Tyler, D.A. Mays, T.H. Green, and I. Petry. 2000. "Increasing Below-ground Carbon Sequestration with Conversion of Agricultural Lands to Production of Bioenergy Crops." New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 30(1/2):138-149.

Tollefson, Jeff. 2013. "Methane leaks erode green credentials of natural gas losses of up to 9% show need for broader data on US gas industry’s environmental impact." Nature 2 January.

Tollefson, Jeff. 2015. "Stopping deforestation: Battle for the Amazon. Brazil has waged a successful war on tropical deforestation, and other countries are trying to follow its lead." But victory remains fragile." Nature 1 April.

Toman, Michael A. 1992. "The Difficulty in Defining Sustainability." Resources 106(Winter):3-6. [summary]  [PDF]

Tomkiewicz, Micha. 2010. "On the Feasibility of a Timely Transition to a More Sustainable Energy Future." Sustainability 2:204-214. 

Toon, Owen B., Alan Robock, Richard P. Turco, Charles Bardeen, Luke Oman, Georgiy L. Stenchikov. 2007. "Consequences of Regional-scale Nuclear Conflicts." Science 315:1224-1225. [PDF]

Toor, Will, and Spenser Havlick. 2004. Transportation and sustainable campus communities: Issues, examples, solutions. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 

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