Understanding Sustainability

Sustainability References



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UNDP. 1990. Human Development Report 1990. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

"Human development is a process of enlarging people's choices. The most critical of these wide-ranging choices are to live a long and healthy life, to be educated and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. Additional choices include political freedom, guaranteed human rights and personal self-respect."

"Development enables people to have these choices. No one can guarantee human happiness, and the choices people make are their own concern. But the process of development should at least create a conducive environment for people, individually and collectively, to develop their full potential and to have a reasonable chance of leading productive and creative lives in accord with their needs and interests."

UNDP. 2013. Human Development Report 2013 – The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. United Nations Development Program (UNDP), New York. [PDF] [summary (PDF)]

UNEP. 2002. "Human Vulnerability to Environmental Change." Pages 301-317 in UNEP, Global Environmental Outlook 3. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), London. [PDF

UNEP. 2012. Policy Implications of Warming Permafrost. United Nations Environment Program, Nairobi. [PDF]  [news article]            

UNESCO and UNEP. 2003. Cultural diversity and biodiversity for sustainable development. UNESCO and UNEP high-level Roundtable, World Summit on Sustainable Development, 3 September 2002, Johannesburg. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and United nations Environment Program (UNEP), Nairobi. [PDF]

  • "…culture will gradually take its place as the fourth pillar of sustainable development alongside economics, the environment and social concerns." (p. 26)

UNESCO. 2008. Reinventing Higher Education: Toward Participatory and Sustainable Development. Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Bangkok. [PDF

Unger, Roberto Mangabeira. 2013. "Deep freedom: Why the left should abandon equality." Juncture (quarterly journal of IPPR) 24 October:20(2).

UNH. n.d. "An introduction to the global carbon cycle." University of New Hampshire. [PDF]

Union of Concerned Scientists. "UCS was founded in 1969 by scientists and students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. That year, the Vietnam War was at its height and Cleveland’s heavily polluted Cuyahoga River had caught fire. Appalled at how the U.S. government was misusing science, the UCS founders drafted a statement calling for scientific research to be directed away from military technologies and toward solving pressing environmental and social problems."

Union of Concerned Scientists. 2003. "Scientists and Experts' Call to Action on Invasive Species." Action statement, UCS, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  • "Ten years ago, the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress detailed the destruction caused by invasive species and recommended a number of solutions. Since then, the damage has become even starker. Invasive species threaten the productivity of the soils and waters upon which we—and our economies—depend. They endanger the conservation gains of the past century. And they imperil the native species that make this country unique. In sum, the devastation caused by non-native, invasive organisms is one of the most serious and least-recognized tragedies of our time."

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