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Biology and Microbiology

Information

Information

S. Cooper, T. Kostman, Co-Chairpersons

Department Office: Halsey Science Center 142
Department Telephone: (920) 424-1102

Code 26 or BIOLOGY

Faculty

Faculty

Adler Matson
Bentivenga McDermott
Cooper Michalski
Dilkes Mueller-Spitz
Dorn Pillsbury
Holton Rainboth
Kallas Shors
Kleinheinz Stelzer
Kostman Vaughan
Lammers Wise

Degrees

Degrees

  • Undergraduate: A major in Biology or Microbiology can lead to the degree(s): Bachelor of Arts; Bachelor of Science; Bachelor of Science in Education.

  • Graduate: Students who complete a major in our department may want to continue in our graduate program, leading to the degree Master of Science.

For specifics, please see the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Graduate Bulletin.

Summary of Fields of Study

Summary of Fields of Study

  1. Goal(s)

    • See the department for a listing of their goal(s).

  2. The Major(s)

    • The Department offers four majors. These are: 1) Biology, 2) Environmental Health, 3) Microbiology, 4) Radiologic Science.

      • Students must choose an emphasis within the Biology major. These are:

        a) Liberal Arts,

        b) Secondary Education,

        c) Cell/Molecular Professional,

        d) Ecology and Organismal Biology,

        e) Healthcare-Science,

        f) Healthcare-Business.

      • Students wishing broad training in Biology should select the Liberal Arts emphasis.

  3. The Minor(s)

    • The Department offers two minors: 1) Biology, 2) Microbiology.

Admission/Graduation Requirements

Admission/Graduation Requirements

To be eligible for graduation, students must meet all requirements for the degree being sought in addition to earning a minimum grade point average of 2.00 in all courses required for the Biology, Environmental Health,  Microbiology and Radiologic Science majors and the Biology or Microbiology minor. Students seeking Wisconsin teacher certification must earn a minimum grade point average of 3.00 in all courses required for their majors and minors in order to meet requirements of the College of Education and Human Services.

Required Core Courses

Required Core Courses

For Biology Major only:

    • Biology

      • Biology 105 Biological Concepts-Unity 4 cr. OR Biology 108 Honors: Concepts in Biology-Unity 5 cr.

      • Biology 323 Introduction Molecular and Cell Biology 3 cr.

      • Biology 343 Genetics 4 cr.

      • Biology 491 Senior Survey 0 cr.

    • Chemistry

      • Chemistry 105 General Chemistry I

      • Chemistry 106 General Chemistry II

    • Mathematics As specified for College of Letters and Science (COLS) requirements for degree: (Unless specified otherwise, under emphasis.)

      • B.S. - either Math 171, Calculus I, or higher, statistics, computer science or symbolic logic

      • B.A. - no additional math requirement

      • B.S.E. - College Algebra, Math 104

The Major(s), with Emphases and/or Options

The Major(s), with Emphases and/or Options

1. Biology Major

A. Liberal Arts Emphasis

      • Recommended for students seeking a broad, general-purpose background in biology.
      • Required units (crs.): 48-49 minimum
      • Other Requirements: In addition to the Core Courses:
        • Biology 230
        • Biology 231
        • Biology 349
        • One of the following Courses: Biology 319, 345, 450.
      • Electives: Additional units (crs.) (9 or more units (crs.)) from: 300-/400 level Biology courses.

B. Secondary Education Emphasis

      • Recommended for students who plan to enter the Secondary Education Program in preparation for teaching high school Biology.
      • Required Units (crs.): 47-48 minimum

      • Other Requirements: In addition to the Core Courses:

        • Biology 230

        • Biology 231

        • Biology 349

        • One of the following courses: Biology 319, 345, 450

      • Electives: Additional units (crs.)  (11 or more units (crs.)) from: 300-/400 level Biology courses.

C. Cell/Molecular Professional Emphasis

      • Recommended for students who wish to prepare for careers in cell or molecular biology, genetics, physiology, biochemistry, biotechnology or many other biological and biomedical sciences. This emphasis is good preparation for graduate school in these fields. A Bachelor’s Degree is often sufficient for professional placement. See index for additional requirements that may be needed for certain pre-professional programs.
      • Required Units (crs.): 57 minimum
      • Other Requirements: In addition to the Core Courses:

        • Biology: 230 and 231 or 106

        • Biology 319 or 345 or 450

        • Biology 349 or 351

        • Biology 372

        • Biology 374 or 390

        • Biology 350, or 375 and 377, or 389 and 390, or 374 (if not used in above requirement)

        • Chemistry 234, 235, 303, 334, 335

      • Electives: At least two courses from these courses (if not used to fill preceding requirement):
        • Biology 306, 309, 315, 316, 321, 337, 350, 354, 375, 377, 389, 390
        • Chemistry 315

D. Ecology and Organismal Biology Emphasis

      • Required Units (crs.): 63 minimum
      • Other Requirements: In addition to the Core Courses:
        • Biology 230
        • Biology 231
        • Biology 349
        • Biology 319 or 345 or 450
        • Biology 325
        • Two courses from the following: Biology 326, 376, 386
        • Math 171 or Math 201 or Psychology 203 or Geography 385
      • Electives: 14 units (crs.) from these courses (if not used to fill preceding requirement):
        • Biology 300, 304, 308, 316, 321, 326, 327, 328, 330, 332, 335, 336, 338, 354, 355, 358, 367, 376, 386.

E. Healthcare-Science Emphasis

      • Recommended for students seeking a rigorous undergraduate program in the biological and social sciences related to Healthcare, particularly if graduate education is desired. The Honors version of any course may be substituted. See a Healthcare advisor for General Education recommendations in support of this Emphasis.
      • Required Units (crs.): 67 (includes at least 9 credits that contribute towards General Education)
      • Other Requirements: In addition to the Core Courses:
        • Biology 211 or 308
        • Biology 233 or 309
        • Biology 319
        • Chemistry 235 and 234, 334 and 335, 303
      • Electives: 10 units (crs.) from these courses (if not used to fill preceding requirement):
        • Biology 300, 301, 303, 306, 308, 309, 310,312, 313, 315, 316, 321, 338, 341, 344, 354, 372, 374, 389, 390, 446 (must be Healthcare related).
      • One course from the following list may be counted towards the 10 credits of electives, provided that its prerequisites are met:
        • Chemistry 304, 315
        • Kinesiology 348, 350, 375
        • Psychology 367, 383, 384, 456
      • Required Courses that contribute to General Education: (12-13 crs.)
        • Mathematics: Math 171 or any statistics course that meets Bachelor of Science General Education math requirement
        • Social Sciences: Psychology 101 or 102 plus one course from the following: Psychology 220, 271, 280, 291, 303, 310, 331, 338, 355, 390

    F. Healthcare-Business Emphasis

        • Recommended for students seeking a broad background in the biological sciences related to Healthcare, combined with business essentials. The Honors version of any course may be substituted. See a Healthcare advisor for General Education recommendations in support of this Emphasis.
        • Required Units (crs.): 72 (includes at least 6 crs. that contribute to General Education)
        • Other Requirements: In addition to the Core Courses:

          • Biology 211 or 308

          • Biology 212 or 319

          • Biology 233 or 309

          • Biology 349

          • Business 198, 204, 311, 351, 361; plus any two of the following courses: Business 320, 331, 341, 371; Economics 204. Note: A maximum of 6 Business credits per semester are allowed.

          • Chemistry 101 and 102 (with a grade of B or better in both courses), or Chemistry 105 and 106, (Note: Chemistry 101 and 102 are a terminal sequence and never substitutes for Chemistry 105 and 106 should additional Chemistry be desired)

        • Electives: 10 units (crs.) from these courses (if not used to fill preceding requirement):
          • Biology 300 (must be Healthcare-related), 301 (must be Healthcare-related), 303, 306, 308, 310, 312, 313, 315, 316, 321, 338, 341, 344, 354, 372, 374, 389, 390, 446 (must be Healthcare-related).
        • One course from the following list may be counted toward the 10 credits of electives, provided its prerequisites are met:
          • Kinesiology 348, 350, 375
          • Psychology 367, 383, 384, 455
        • Required Courses that contribute to General Education:
          • Mathematics: Math 204 and 206, or Math 171 or Psychology 203
          • Social Sciences: Psychology 101 or 102 plus one of the following: Psychology 205, 220, 271, 363

    2. Environmental Health Major

        • Required Units (crs.): 59 minimum
        • Required Courses:
          • Biology: Biology 105 or 108, 113, 300 or 301 or 302, 303, 309, 323, 338, 445, 491.
          • Chemistry: Chemistry 105, 106, 235, 335
          • Physics: Physics 107 or 109
          • Math: Math 201
        • Required General Education Courses
          • English 318
          • Environmental Studies 261
          • Nursing 215 or Psychology 271
          • Philosophy 205 or 311
          • Public Administration 221; 307 or 366
        • Electives: One course from at least two different areas (6 crs.)
          • Built Environment: Urban Planning 320
          • GIS: Geography 391
          • Hydrogeology: Geology 365
          • Soils: Geography 304, Urban Planning 317
          • Water and Wastewater: Geography 364
          • Vector Control: Biology 332, 354
        • Recommended Courses:
          • Math: Math 171
          • Economics: Economics 204, 206, 360. 

     

      3. Microbiology Major

          • Recommended for students who wish to prepare for careers in microbiology, biotechnology and allied health areas, for graduate study in Microbiology, Biochemistry and many other biological and biomedical sciences. A Bachelor’s degree is often sufficient for professional placement.
          • Required Units (crs.): 71 minimum
          • Required Courses:

            • Biology: Biology 105 or 108; Biology 111 or 112; Biology 106, 323, 327, 491

          • Other Required Courses: (26 units (crs.) minimum)
            • Chemistry: 21 units (crs.) from the following: Chemistry 105 or equivalent; Chemistry 106, 234, 235, 303, 334, 335
            • Mathematics: one term of calculus or higher
            • Physics: Physics/Astronomy 107 or 109
          • Additional Required Courses: (18 - 19 units (crs.))

            • Biology: Biology 309, 341, 375, 450, one of the following: Biology 313, 374, 377, 390

          • Electives: (7 or 8 units (crs.)) from the following: Biology 303, 312, 313, 315, 321, 338, 339, 343, 349, 354, 389, or the following if not used to fulfill requirement above: Biology 374, 377, 390.
          • Possible minor: A minor in chemistry would require ONLY Chemistry 221 in addition to the chemistry courses specified.

                   

      4. Radiologic Science Major

          • Required Units (crs.): 60 credits at UW Oshkosh; 60 credits from clinical training.
          • Required Courses:
            • Biology: Biology 105 or 108; 211, 212; 
            • Chemistry: Chemistry 101, 102;
            • Chemistry: Chemistry 105 and 106 or Physics 107 and 108;
            • Math: Math 104 and 106; or Math 108;
            • Math: Math 201 or 301 or Economics 210;
            • Kinesiology:  Kinesiology 170.
           

      The major consists for two distinct parts: courses taken at or transferred into UW Oshkosh that meet the curricular requirements above, plus all general education requirements required at UW Oshkosh in order to graduate with an A.A.S. After matriculation, students will then enter an accredited two-year clinical program in Radiologic Technology (which they applied to while finishing their coursework at UW Oshkosh). The clinical training will transfer into UW Oshkosh as the block courses Biology 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410. Biology 410 is the RT Registry Exam which must be passed in order to graduate and to practice as a Radiologic Technologist. After completion of the above requirements, students will be awarded a B.S. with a major in Radiologic Science. 

        The Minor(s)

        The Minor(s)

        1. Biology Minor

          Recommended for students who are interested in Biology. This minor can be pursued by students in any college of the University.

          • Required Units (crs.): 24 minimum

          • Required Courses:

            • Biology: Biology 105, 230, 231, 323, 349

          • Electives: (6 or more credits) 300 level classes from the offerings of the Department of Biology and Microbiology:

          • Note: Electives used to fulfill a Biology Minor may not be counted toward a Microbiology major or minor. Education majors are required to take an environmental/ecology course to meet DPI requirements. Biology 349 meets this requirement for Biology Education Majors.

        2. Microbiology Minor

          Recommended for students who are majoring in Biology, Chemistry, Medical Technology or other allied health fields.

          • Required Units (crs.): 23 minimum

          • Required Courses:

            • Biology: Biology 105 or 108, 309, 323

          • Electives: (11 credits to include at least one lab-only course) from the following:

            • Biology: 312, 315, 321, 327, 339, 341, 343, 350, 354, 375, 389, 450.

            • Biology Labs Only: 313, 374, 377, 390.

        Course Offering(s)

        Course Offering(s)

        Biology 104                                           1-4 (crs.)

        Ecosphere in Crisis (NS) (XL)

        Treats humans as biological organisms that interact with the living and nonliving world. Emphasis is given to how humans affect, and are affected by, their environment. Topics covered include basic ecology, global change, renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, air and water quality and biological diversity. Special course fees will be charged to cover the cost of transportation during local field trips. Special fees may apply. (3+3) (Fall/Spring)



        Biology 105                                           1-4 (crs.)

        Biological Concepts - Unity (NS) (XL)

        An introduction to the biological sciences. Addresses phenomena common to a diversity of life forms. Biological organization, cell biology, processing energy, genetics, evolution. (3+2) (Fall/Spring) Special fees may apply.


        Biology 106                                           4 (crs.)

        Biological Concepts - Diversity (NS) (XL)

        A non-majors course examining the diversity of life on Earth, including bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals. A central theme in the class is evolution as a process driving diversity. Emphasis is placed on how these organisms impact humans, and the role of humans in the ecosystem. A section on human biology is included. Laboratory exercises involve observation of specimens to illustrate in this diversity. Not for credit for the Biology or Microbiology major. Biology 106 is primarily for non-majors. Prerequisite: Biology 105. (3+2) (Fall/Spring) Special fees may apply.

         

        Biology 108                                           5 (crs.)

        Honors: Concepts in Biology - Unity (NS) (XL)

         An introduction to molecular, cellular and ecological aspects of biology, and how they relate to current societal issues. Emphasis on scientific method, fundamental cellular processes and formation and maintenance of biological populations. This course is designed for students who have had experience in biology and chemistry in high school. Majors and non-majors welcome. Prerequisites: Enrolled in good standing with the UW Oshkosh Honors program with prior or concurrent enrollment in HNRS 175. Students cannot earn credit in both an honors course and a non-honors course of the same title. Special fees may apply. (3+1+3) (Fall)

         

        Biology 111                                           2 (crs.)

        Biology Orientation

        An introduction to the cultural aspects of biological sciences for students declaring or considering a major in Biology or Microbiology. Discussion topics will include: current "hot" fields and employment opportunities; roles and responsibilities of scientists in society; professional ethics; scientific communication; planning (career choices, course selection, research experience); and an introduction to department faculty, staff and facilities. Students are encouraged to take this course as early as possible in their academic program. Students with 90 or more credits must obtain department consent to enroll. (Fall/Spring)



        Biology 112                                           2 (crs.)

        Healthcare Orientation

        An introduction to the cultural aspects of healthcare sciences for students declaring or considering a degree in any Healthcare-related program on campus. Topics will include: current "hot" fields and employment opportunities; roles and responsibilities of healthcare workers in society; professional ethics; scientific communications; planning (career choices, course selection, research experience, internships); and an introduction to campus faculty, staff and facilities. Students are encouraged to take this course as early as possible in their academic programs. Students with 90 or more credits must obtain department consent to enroll. (Fall/Spring)



        Biology 113                                           2 (crs.)

        Environmental Health Orientation

        An introduction to the Environmental Health profession and science, for students declaring or considering a degree in Environmental Health. Topics will include: current "hot" fields and employment opportunities; roles and responsibilities of environmental health professionals (Registered Sanitarians) in society; professional ethics; critical thinking; scientific communications; planning (career choices, course selection, research experience, internships); and an introduction to campus faculty, staff and facilities. Students are encouraged to take this course as early as possible in their academic programs. Students with 90 or more credits must obtain department consent to enroll. (Spring)



        Biology 117                                           3 (crs.)

        The Right and Wrong of Healthcare Science (XS) (SS)

        The average American trusts that ethical scientific reasoning is faithfully applied during the cradle-to-grave, life- or death- decision making of health care. Yet critics complain that "bad science" (BS) all too often betrays that trust, wasting money and risking lives. It takes years for doctors to learn their craft, so what can the average American possibly do? A lot, as it turns out. This class helps you develop your own critical thinking "BS meter" by examining claims about dietary supplements, alternative medicine, prescription drugs and more. These claims affect communities ranging from doctor and patient, to surgical team, to global modern medicine; so you'll learn to take multiple perspectives on a problem. You'll gain experience recognizing good ideas, and coming up with your own. Just enough biology will be taught for understanding arguments and evidence. By acquiring civic knowledge that applies to healthcare, you'll better understand how to ethically pursue a better quality of life in your community.



        Biology 211                                           4 (crs.)

        Human Anatomy (NS) (XL)

        A study of the fundamental structure and organization of the organs and systems of the human body. Prerequisite: "C" or better in Biology 105 or equivalent. (Primarily for physical education and nursing students). (2+2) (Fall/Spring) Special fees may apply.

         

        Biology 212                                           4 (crs.)

        Human Physiology (NS) (XL)

        Structure/function relationships of the healthy human body, on the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ-system levels. Primarily for students in secondary education, nursing, and physical education programs. Prerequisite: Biology 211 with a grade of C or better. (3+2) (Fall/Spring) Special fees may apply.



        Biology 230                                           4 (crs.)

        Biology of Animals (NS) (XL)

        An introductory, phylogenetic study of the Animal Kingdom considering anatomy, evolution and life histories of major groups. Prerequisite: Biology 105. (3+3) (Fall/Spring) Special fees may apply.



        Biology 231                                           4 (crs.)

        Biology of Plants and Microbes (NS) (XL)

        The biology of plants, fungi and microorganisms traditionally studied by botanists, with an emphasis on plants. Topics to be covered include taxonomy, evolution, ecology, physiology and life history traits. The impact of these organisms on human affairs will be stressed. Prerequisite: Biology 105.  (2+4) (Fall/Spring) Special fees may apply.

         

        Biology 233                                           1-4 (crs.)

        Microbial Survey (NS) (XL)

        A survey of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and some algae, fungi and invertebrates. Emphasis will be placed upon the health care applications of microbiology and transmission of infectious disease agents. Laboratory will focus on standard microbiologic techniques used in the allied health fields. This course is designed for those students interested in allied health fields, including biology, nursing and medical technology majors. Prerequisite: Grade of "C" or better in Biology 105. (3+2) (Fall/Spring) Special fees may apply.



        Biology 250                                           2 (crs.)

        Medical Mycology (NS)

        The laboratory identification of fungal human pathogens. (Primarily for medical technologists.) (1+2) (Spring)



        Biology 260                                           3 (crs.)

        Environment and Living Systems

         A study of environmental issues from a biological perspective, focusing on the scientific bases for: 1) physical, chemical and biological influences on living organisms; 2) contacts between natural and perturbed ecosystems; and 3) historical, current and predicted effects of human activities on local, regional and global scales. Credit cannot be received for both Biology 260 and Environmental Studies 260. Prerequisite: Biology 104 or Biology 105 or permission of instructor. (Spring)

         

        Biology 300                                           1-6 (crs.)

        Internship in Biology

        An internship experience with a cooperating organization or corporation to gain on-the-job learning. Internships may be arranged at any time, but most that provide salary are available only in summer. Prerequisite: Student must arrange for a specific internship with the Internship Director before registering for the course. May be taken more than once for credit for up to a total of six credits. A maximum of six credits from Biology 300 and/or 301 can be counted towards a degree in Biology or Microbiology.



        Biology 301                                           1-6 (crs.)

        Internship in Microbiology

        An internship experience with a cooperating organization or corporation to gain on-the-job learning. Internship may be arranged at any time, but most that provide salary are available only in summer. Prerequisite: Student must arrange for a specific internship with the Internship director before registering for the course. May be taken more than once for credit for up to a total of six credits. No more than six credits from Biology 300 and/or 301 can be counted towards a degree in Biology or Microbiology.

         

        Biology 302                                           1-3 (crs.)

        Internship in Environmental Health

         An internship experience with a cooperative organization or corporation to gain on-the-job learning. Internships may be arranged at any time, but most that provide salary are available only in summer. The student will work with cooperating agencies such as regional or state health departments, federal agencies or private enterprises. Prerequisites: Students must arrange for a specific internship with the Internship Director or EH Coordinator before registering for the course.

         

        Biology 303                                           2 (crs.)

        Introduction to Epidemiology

        This course will investigate the study of epidemiology as it relates to the practice of public health. This course covers application of epidemiologic procedures to the understanding of the occurrence and control of conditions such as infections and chronic diseases, mental disorders, community and environmental health hazards, accidents and geriatric problems. Prerequisites: Biology 105 or consent of instructor. (3+0) (Fall)



        Biology 304                                           3 (crs.)

        Plant Taxonomy (NS)

        Introduction to the theory and principles underlying systematic botany, and to the methodologies of plant classification and nomenclature. Survey of major families of flowering plants emphasizing structure and diversity. Prerequisite: One term of general biology. Special fees may apply. (2+2) (Fall)



        Biology 306                                           3 (crs.)

        Neurobiology

        Study of the nervous system and its regulatory role in the body.  Underlying physics and chemistry; molecular and cellular principles; development and plasticity; motor control; rhythms and emotions; evolution and diversity. Prerequisites:  Biology 105 or equivalent.   (Spring)

         

        Biology 308                                           5 (crs.)

        Comparative Anatomy (NS)

        A comparative study of representative vertebrates.  Prerequisite: One term of general biology. 308/508 (3+4) (Spring) Special fees may apply.



        Biology 309                                           5 (crs.)

        Bacteriology (NS)

        The course covers basic concepts of microbiology, through chemical and physiological properties, genetics, evolution and diseases caused by microbes and the microbial activities beneficial to human. Laboratory covers standard microbiological experiments and isolation and identification of bacteria. Prerequisite: Biology 105 and one year of general chemistry.  (3+4) (Fall/Spring) Special fees may apply.



        Biology 310                                     3 (crs.)

        Biology of Gender

        Evolution, genetics, development, anatomy and physiology of gender in humans and other animals. Gender diversity including intersex and transgender. Roles of gender in reproductive and social behavior. Using biology in evidence-based critical thinking about related sociopolitical issues such as endocrine disruptors, defining deviancy, gender-based medicine and sexual reassignment of infants and adults. Cross-listed: Biology 310/Women's Studies 310. Students may receive credit for only one of the cross-listed courses. Prerequisites: Biology 105 and either Biology 211 (preferred) or Biology 230 or Biology 308, or instructor's permission. (Spring)



        Biology 311                                           3 (crs.)

        Animal Behavior

        An introduction to the behavior mechanisms of invertebrate and vertebrate animals emphasizing a naturalistic point of view. Prerequisite: Biology 340 or 343. (2+2) (Spring)



        Biology 312                                           2 (crs.)

        Medical Bacteriology (Lecture)

        Bacterial pathogens and their relationships to diseases; prevention and control of infectious diseases. Prerequisite: Biology 309 and Biology 341. (2+0) (Spring)



        Biology 313                                           2 (crs.)

        Medical Bacteriology (Laboratory) (NS)

        Isolation study, identification and laboratory handling of pathogenic bacteria. Prerequisite: Biology 309 and 341, concurrent enrollment in Biology 312. 313/513 (0+2) (Spring) Special fees may apply.

         

        Biology 314                                           3 (crs.)

        Principles of Wildlife Management

        This course is designed to help students bridge the gap between academic experience and advances into the wildlife profession. The course will apply population and community ecology to the management and conservation of wild populations. Cross-listed: Environmental Studies 314/Biology 314. Students may receive credit for only one of the two cross-listed courses. Prerequisites: Environmental Studies 260 and Biology 349 or consent of instructor.



        Biology 315                                           3 (crs.)

        Virology

        Principles of animal and human molecular virology. Topics include replication, expression, pathogenesis, methods of diagnosis and detection, current uses of viruses in gene therapy and vaccine applications, viruses and cancer and other diseases, persistent infections and emerging viruses. Prerequisite: Biology 323 or consent of instructor. (3+0) (Spring)

         

        Biology 316                                           3 (crs.)

        Developmental Biology

        Developmental Biology will first examine, at a morphological level, different strategies of embryonic development in diverse organisms, and then study molecular cues that cells use to migrate, differentiate and eventually form a normal organism. Prerequisite: Biology 323 or equivalent. Recommended: Biology 343. (3+0)  (Spring)



        Biology 318                                           3 (crs.)

        Wildlife Behavior and Conservation

        This course is designed to teach the fundamental theory of behavioral ecology and then apply that theory to wildlife conservation. We will examine how environments shape organisms' lives and what that means for our efforts to manage and conserve species. The specific course objectives are to 1) gain a rigorous biological foundation in behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology and related topics in order to understand how environments shape behavior; 2) provide a forum for discussion of current issues in conservation biology; and 3) develop a framework for applying behavior ecological theory to wildlife conservation. Cross-listed: Biology 318/Environmental Studies 318. Students may receive credit for only one of the two cross-listed courses. Prerequisites: Biology 105 or Biology 260/Environmental Studies 260 or consent of instructor. (3+0)



        Biology 319                                           5 (crs.)

        General Animal Physiology (NS)

        Structure/function relationships common to a variety of animal body plans on the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ-system levels. Prerequisite: One year of chemistry; Biology 323. Biology 230 strongly recommended. (3+1+3) (Fall/Spring) Special fees may apply.



        Biology 321                                           3 (crs.)

        Mycology (NS)

        A study of the fungi: characteristics, physiology, habits and laboratory identification of molds, yeasts, mushrooms and related organisms. Prerequisite: One term of general biology. Special fees may apply. (2+2) (Fall)

         

        Biology 322                                           1 (crs.)

        Mushroom Identification

        The collection and identification of mushrooms and other fleshy fungi. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior enrollment in Biology 321/521/ (Fall)

         

        Biology 323                                           3 (crs.)

        Molecular and Cell Biology

        This course covers the fundamental elements of molecular and cellular biology, including some current research techniques. Molecular biology covers structure, function and biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins as well as regulation of gene expression. Cell biology examines cellular structures and how they accomplish replication, metabolism and response to the environment. Prerequisites: Biology 323;  Biology 105 (or equivalent); Chemistry 105 (or equivalent); and previous or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry 106; or equivalent. Biology 535: One year of college-level chemistry. (3+0) (Fall/Spring)

         

        Biology 325                                           3 (crs.)

        Field Ecology (NS)

        An introductory field ecology course that will cover comparative, experimental and theoretical approaches to basic and applied questions in ecology. Field and laboratory exercises will treat various levels of organization including populations, communities and ecosystems. Studies will be carried out in a variety of local aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Students will gain firsthand experience with modern sampling and analytical techniques in ecology. Prerequisite: Biology 105 and Biology 349/549 (may be taken concurrently). Special fees may apply. (0+1+3) (Fall)

         

        Biology 326                                           3 (crs.)

        Introductory Limnology (NS)

        The physical, chemical and biological character of lakes and streams. Methods of field measurements, collection and analysis of water samples. Investigation of aquatic communities. Prerequisites: One term of general biology, one year of general chemistry, and consent of instructor. Special fees may apply. (2+2) (Fall, odd years)

         

        Biology 327                                           3 (crs.)

        Microbial Ecology & Diversity

        A broad overview of the physiological, phylogenetic and genomic diversity and ecology of microorganisms within a framework of general ecological principles. Focuses on evolutionary pressures leading to microbial diversity, biogeochemical cycles, symbiotic relationship, microbial relationships with other living organisms, metabolic pathways and biotransformation of novel compounds. Prerequisites: Biology 231 or Biology 233 or Biology 309 or consent of instructor. (3+0) (Fall)



        Biology 328                                           3 (crs.)

        Ornithology (NS)

        An introduction to the systematic, evolution, anatomy, behavior and ecology of birds of the world. Field Trips. Prerequisite: Biology 230. (2+3) (Spring)



        Biology 330                                           3 (crs.)

        Ichthyology (NS)

        The biology of fishes including functional anatomy, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, physiology, behavior and development. Field trips required. Prerequisite: Biology 230 and one year of general chemistry with laboratory. (2+3) (Fall, odd years)



        Biology 332                                           3 (crs.)

        Entomology (NS)

        An introduction to the study of insects. Principles of biology, ecology and classification are emphasized. Elements of morphology, physiology and collection and preservation techniques are included. Field trips. General collection of insects (assembled during the term) is required. Prerequisite: One term of general biology and Biology 230. (1+4) (Spring) Special fees may apply.

         

        Biology 335                                           3 (crs.)

        Systematic Biology

        A study of the principles of taxonomy, nomenclature, classification and systematics incorporating the most recent approaches to derivation and application of hierarchical classification systems. Quantitative methods, their underlying assumptions and their logical outcomes will be stressed. Prerequisite: Two terms of biology, including a survey course. (2+2) (Fall, even years)

         

        Biology 336                                           3 (crs.)

        Fresh Water Algae (NS)

        Classification, biochemistry, physiology and ecology of fresh water algae. Emphasis on the roles algae play in aquatic ecosystems and on applications in environmental monitoring, aquaculture and as experimental systems for basic research in photosynthesis. Prerequisite: Biology 231, 233 or 309. (2+2) (Fall, even years)



        Biology 337                                           3 (crs.)

        Plant Anatomy (NS)

        Structural aspects of cells, tissues, and organs comprising the plant body, their functional role in the ecology and life history of the plant, and their relationship to human affairs. Special fees may apply. (Spring, even years)



        Biology 338                                           2 (crs.)

        Environmental Toxicology

        Provides studies with an appreciation and understanding of the principles of environmental toxicology and chemistry including the sources, fate and effects of chemicals in the environment. Emphasis is on contemporary problems in human health and the environment. Prerequisite: Biology 105 or consent of instructor. (Spring)

         

        Biology 339                                           3 (crs.)

        Public Health and Food Microbiology (NS)

        A study of microorganisms and microbial processes important to a variety of public health applications: special reference to food, water, wastewater and environmental processes and their applications. Prerequisite: Biology 309. (3+0) (Spring) Special fees may apply.



        Biology 341                                           3 (crs.)

        Immunology

        Principles of immunology, with emphasis on the cellular and molecular basis of immune function, including clinical aspects of host immune processes. Areas of immunology currently under investigation will also be examined.  Prerequisite: Biology 323 or consent of instructor. Strongly recommended: Biology 233 or 309. (3+0) (Fall)

         

        Biology 343                                           1-4 (crs.)

        Genetics - Lecture and Laboratory (NS)

        A study of inheritance and variation at the molecular, cellular, organismic and population levels. Prerequisite: Biology 323. (3+2) (Fall/Spring) Special fees may apply.

         

        Biology 344                                           3 (crs.)

        Introduction to Hematology

        An introduction to the basic techniques used in the chemical and microscopic examination of blood. Morphology of blood cells is emphasized. (Primarily for Medical Technologists) As a part of this course, students will be instructed in universal precautions for handling blood and body fluids consistent with U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Prerequisite: Biology 341 and consent of instructor. (2+2) (Spring) Special fees may apply.

         

        Biology 345                                           5 (crs.)

        Plant Physiology (NS)

        An experimental study of plant growth, metabolism, nutrition, reproduction and response to environment. Prerequisite: One term of general biology, one year of general chemistry and Biology 231.  (3+4) (Spring)



        Biology 349                                           3 (crs.)

        Ecology and Evolution

        Basic principles which influence and govern the plant and animal relations with their environments. An explanation of the distribution, abundance and specialization of the present-day organisms, and of extinction. Prerequisite: One term of general biology. (3+0) (Fall/Spring)



        Biology 350                                           4 (crs.)

        Electron Microscopy (NS)

        Electron Microscopy is an intensive, hands-on course covering the practices, procedures and operational theories of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Topics covered include specimen preparation, ultramicrotomy, microscope design and microscope function.The laboratory provides experience with all techniques necessary to prepare, observe and photograph biological specimens on the SEM and TEM. Special fees may apply. (1+3) (Fall)

         

        Biology 351                                           2 (crs.)

        Evolution

        The record of evolution and the mechanism of evolutionary processes.  Prerequisite: One term of general biology. (Spring)

         

        Biology 354                                           3 (crs.)

        Parasitology (NS)

        A look at the most common mode of life on earth. Emphasis will be placed on parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Topics will include life histories, identification and diagnosis, parasitic diseases, host-parasite interactions and parasite evolution. Prerequisite: One term of general biology and Biology 230. (2+2) (Spring) Special fees may apply.

         

        Biology 355                                           3 (crs.)

        Field Parasitology

        Field Parasitology (Biology 355) is an intensive 2-week course taught at the Pigeon Lake Field Station during mid to late summer. In this course we will study parasite population and community structure, life cycles and taxonomy. The course is designed to provide students with a broad exposure to the methods of collection, preservation and identification of parasites; data collection and analysis, and presentation of results as well as the ecology of infectious organisms. Each student will do an independent research project, and compile and present their findings during an in-class scientific program. This course emphasizes invertebrate zoology and involves fieldwork, lecture, specimen labs and readings. Prerequisite: Biology 105 or equivalent. (Summer)

         

        Biology 358                                           2 (crs.)

        Freshwater Invertebrates

        In this course, benthic organisms and zooplankton will be studied. Sampling techniques for different situations will be used. Data will be analyzed using several diverse techniques. The role of benthos and zooplankton in aquatic systems will be examined. Prerequisite: An introductory biology course and consent of instructor. (0+4) (Spring Interim, odd years)



        Biology 360                                         1-3 (crs.)

        Special Topics in Biology

        A biology course on a topic not covered in the department's curriculum. This course may be repeated with different content. Each time it is offered, the topic will be announced in the class schedule. Prerequisites: Biology 105, Biology 111/112 and consent of instructor.



        Biology 367                                           2 (crs.)

        Field Ornithology

        An intensive, highly field-oriented course intended to provide the practical "hands-on" experience essential to students interested in field biology. Field studies will emphasize identification and natural history of local avian species using a variety of field techniques. In addition to fieldwork, the course will involve lecture, specimen labs and readings to examine important aspects of systematics, anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology and conservation as they apply to birds at Pigeon Lake Field Station. Special fees may apply. (Summer).



        Biology 372                                           3 (crs.)

        Medical and Environmental Applications of Cell Biology and Genetics

        Theme-based course that discusses the principles and techniques of cell biology and genetics and how they apply to a variety of medical issues as well as other societal topics such as the molecular basis of drug addiction, cancer, aging and long term memory as well as the application of molecular techniques to species conservation, evolution and environmental influences on humans and other species. Papers from the literature will be read. Prerequisites: Biology 323 or equivalent or permission of the instructor. (3+0) (Spring)

         

        Biology 373                                           2 (crs.)

        Biology Field Trip

        Formal library and classroom study of an area of interest followed by field study of that area. Site of study will change from year to year and could include Florida Everglades and Keys, Gulf Coast, Desert Southwest, etc. A final examination will follow the trip. See instructor for special course fees. May be taken more than once for credit but only two units (crs.) will apply toward the major or minor at the undergraduate level or MS Biology degree. To receive credit, student must be enrolled at beginning of term. (Spring)

         

        Biology 374                                           3 (crs.)

        Cell/Immunology Laboratory (NS)

        Laboratory course integrating principles of cell biology and immunology. Techniques employed include, but are not limited to, western blotting, SDS-PAGE, PCR and applications, ELISAs, tissue culture and microscopy. Course is designed for students interested in molecular methods and who aim to do research or gain jobs in fields of cell and molecular biology, microbiology, medicine and medical technology.  Prerequisites: Previous or concurrent enrollment in Biology 341 or 372. Special fees may apply. (0+4) (Fall)

         

        Biology 375                                           3 (crs.)

        Microbial Genetics

        Structure of microbial genome, mutation, expression and exchange of genetic information, genetic analysis, genetic engineering. Prerequisite: Biology 309 and Biology 343. (3+0) (Fall)



        Biology 376                                           3 (crs.)

        Population and Community Ecology (NS)

        An introduction to the study of populations and communities. Examines population-level phenomena (e.g., density, demography, reproduction) and population-level interactions within biological communities (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism). Labs involve discussions of papers from the literature, data analysis and computer simulations. Prerequisite: Biology 349 or consent of instructor. Special fees may apply. (2+3) (Fall)



        Biology 377                                           2 (crs.)

        Microbial Genetics Laboratory (NS)

        A laboratory course to study the genetics of bacteria and their viruses. Genetic mapping will be introduced using techniques involving mutagenesis, recombination, plasmid transfer, transduction and transformation systems. Prerequisite: Biology 309 and 375 (may be taken concurrently). Special fees may apply. (0+4) (Fall)

         

        Biology 386                                           3 (crs.)

        Ecosystems Ecology (NS)

        An introduction to the study of ecosystems with an emphasis on biogeochemical cycles, energy budgets and other emergent properties.  Laboratory will focus on comparative and experimental approaches to the study of local ecosystems (streams, lakes, wetlands, forests). Students will acquire hands-on experience with techniques used by ecosystem ecologists such as nutrient analysis of streamwater, determination of ecosystem metabolism and analysis of forest and wetland soils.  Prerequisite:  Biology 349 or consent of instructor. Special fees may apply. (2+2) (Spring)

         

        Biology 389                                           3 (crs.)

        Principles of Biotechnology

        A survey of methods and processes used in industrial microbiology and the techniques used in the development of new processes (recombinant DNA, monoclonal antibodies and genetic improvement). Prerequisite: Biology 323 and 343. Recommend: Biology 375 or consent of instructor. (3+0) (Spring)



        Biology 390                                           2 (crs.)

        Biotechnology Laboratory (NS)

        A laboratory course that complements the lecture course Biology and Microbiology 389/589 in biotechnology. Students will gain hands-on experience in some of the principles of cell culture, product isolation and purification and molecular genetic manipulation of genes that are basic to many areas of this broad and rapidly changing field. Exercises are planned in cell culture, computer analysis of cell culture parameters, protein isolation and purification, gene cloning and nucleic acid probe techniques, DNA sequencing and computer analysis of DNA and protein sequences. If taken at the undergraduate level, the course may not be repeated for graduate credit. Prerequisite: Biology 309. Recommend: Biology 372 and 375. (0+4) (Spring) Special fees may apply.



        Biology 404                                          12 (crs.)

        RT Block I

        This RT Block Course is the first in a series for students who have completed the requisite in-residence Radiologic Science major course work at UW Oshkosh and have been accepted into a JRCERT- accredited School of Radiology/Radiography/Radiologic Technology. It consists of course work in Introduction to Radiography, Anatomy & Physiology, Radiographic Positioning, Radiographic Principles, Patient Care and Clinical Education. Prerequisites: Completion of the UW Oshkosh "in residence portion" of the UW Oshkosh Radiologic Technology major and admission into a JRCERT-accredited School of Radiology/Radiography/Radiologic Technology, and permission of instructor.

         

        Biology 405                                          14 (crs.)

        RT Block II

        This RT Block Course is the second in a series for students who have completed the requisite in-residence Radiologic Science major course work at UW Oshkosh, have been accepted into a JRCERT-accredited School of Radiology/RadiographyRadiologic Technology, and have successfully completed RT Block I. It consists of course work in Anatomy & Physiology, Radiographic Positioning, Radiographic Principles, Radiographic Physics, Film Critique, Patient Care and Clinical Education. Prerequisite: Successful completion of Biology 404

         

        Biology 406                                           4 (crs.)

        RT Block III

        This RT Block Course is the third in a series for students who have completed the requisite in-residence Radiologic Science major course work at UW Oshkosh, have been accepted into a JRCERT-accredited School of Radiology/RadiographyRadiologic Technology, and have successfully completed Biology 405. It consists of course work in Anatomy & Physiology, Radiographic Positioning, Radiographic Principles, Film Critique, Patient Care and Clinical Education. Prerequisite: Successful completion of Biology 405.

         

        Biology 407                                          12 (crs.)

        RT Block IV

        This RT Block Course is the fourth in a series for students who have completed the requisite in-residence Radiologic science major course work at UW Oshkosh, have been accepted into a JRCERT-accredited School of Radiology/Radiography/Radiologic Technology, and successfully completed Biology 406. It consists of course work in Anatomy & Physiology, Radiographic Positioning, Radiation Protection, Film Critique, Patient Care and Clinical Education. Prerequisite: Successful completion of Biology 406.

         

        Biology 408                                          14 (crs.)

        RT Block V

        This RT Block Course is the fifth in a series for students who have completed the requisite in-residence Radiologic Science major course work at UW Oshkosh, have been accepted into a JRCERT-accredited School of Radiology/Radiography/Radiologic Technology and have successfully completed Biology 407. It consists of course work in Imaging Equipment, Anatomy & Physiology, Radiographic Positioning, Radiation Biology, Pathology, Film Critique and Clinical Education. Prerequisite: Successful completion of Biology 407.

         

        Biology 409                                           4 (crs.)

        RT Block VI

        This TR Block Course is the sixth in a series for students who have completed the requisite in-residence Radiologic Science major course work at UW Oshkosh, have been accepted into a JRCERT-accredited School of Radiology/Radiography/Radiologic Technology, and have successfully completed Biology 408. It consists of course work in Anatomy & Physiology, Radiographic Positioning, Radiographic Principles, Film Critique, Patient Care and Clinical Education. Prerequisite: Successful Completion of Biology 408.

         

        Biology 410                                           0 (crs.)

        RT Registry Exam Completion

        This RT Block Course is the culminating experience for students in the Radiologic Science major. It consists of taking the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) Registry Exam which is required for licensure to practice in Wisconsin and most other states. A passing grade on the Registry exam is 75 percent or greater. Prerequisite: Successful completion of Biology 409.



        Biology 445                                           1-3 (crs.)

        Topics in Environmental Health

        This course will investigate and discuss in detail contemporary issues in environmental public health. Subject material and faculty will rotate. Course may be repeated for a total of six credits, although only three credits will count towards the Environmental Health Major, and the same topic may not be repeated. Topics include, but are not limited to Environmental Analytical Methods, Emerging Diseases, Environmental Law or Policy, Inspection of Food Establishments, Recreational Environmental Health, Water Resource Evaluation, etc. Prerequisites: Biology 105, Chemistry 105, and consent of instructor/Environmental Health Coordinator. (Fall/Spring)

         

        Biology 446                                         1-3 (crs.)

        Independent Study

        See Independent Study under Course and Academic Advisement Policies Information for general course description, general prerequisites and proper contract form requirements. May be taken more than once for credit. A maximum of six credits from Biology 446 and/or Biology 456 can be counted towards a degree in Biology or Microbiology. (Fall/Spring)



        Biology 450                                           5 (crs.)

        Microbial Physiology (NS)

        Physiological and metabolic processes of bacteria with emphasis on growth, nutrition, synthesis of cellular constituents and energy yielding processes. Prerequisite: Biology 309. Strongly recommended: Chemistry 305. Special fees may apply. (3+4) (Fall)

         

        Biology 456                                         1-3 (crs.)

        Related Readings

        See Related Readings under Course and Academic Advisement Policies Information for general course description, general prerequisites and proper contract form requirements. A maximum of six credits from Biology 446 and/or Biology 456 can be counted towards a degree in Biology or Microbiology. (Fall/Spring)

         

        Biology 474                                         1-6 (crs.)

        Honors Thesis

        Honors thesis projects include any advanced independent endeavor in the student's major field of study Proposals (attached to Independent Study Contract) must show clear promise of honors level work and be approved by a faculty sponsor. Course title for transcript will be "Honors Thesis". Completed projects will be announced and presented to interested students and faculty. Prerequisite: University Honors program and junior standing. Maximum of six units (crs.) (Fall/Spring)



        Biology 491                                           0 (crs.)

        Senior Survey

        Senior students, during their last semester, will take a general biology/microbiology assessment exam and fill out a survey to express their opinion of the biology/microbiology program. Tests/surveys will be taken in the Testing Center at the student's convenience, (but during normal Testing Center hours). Completion of the test/survey is a requirement for graduation. Grading Basis: Pass/Fail (Fall/Spring)

         

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