Course Offerings - BIOLOGY

26-104 Ecosphere in Crisis (NS) (3+3) 1-4 cr. (Fall-Spring)

Interaction of humans primarily as biological organisms, with the living world. Emphasis is given to the origin and evolution of the biosphere, and the dual processes of man's awareness of our environment from a biologist's point of view to provide a basis for future intelligent decision making on problems of the biosphere.
26-105 Biological Concepts - Unity (NS) (3+2) 1-4 cr. (Fall-Spring)
An introduction to the biological sciences. Addresses phenomena common to a diversity of life forms. Biological organization, cell biology, processing energy, genetics, evolution.
26-106 Biological Concepts - Diversity (NS) (3+3) 1-4 cr. (Fall-Spring)
An examination of the five kingdoms. Addresses the differences in ways organisms do things such as get food or react to stimuli. Levels of organization and ecology are examined. Both 26-105 and 26-106 are primarily for non-majors. Under exceptional circumstances, students may be allowed to substitute these two courses for 26-107, only with the approval of the department chairperson. Prerequisite: 26-105

26-107 Principles of Modern Biology (NS) (4+3) 1-5 cr. (Fall-Spring)

Major biological concepts from molecular to population levels. Laboratory experiments demonstrate analytical and descriptive approaches to biology and involve collection and interpretation of experimental data. Recommended for students with strong background in biology. Previous or concurrent enrollment in general chemistry recommended.
26-108 Honors: Concepts in Biology - Unity (NS) 5 cr.
An introduction to molecular, cellular and ecological aspects of biology, focusing on recent technological advances, their impact on our society and on our planet. The course is designed for students who have experience in biology and chemistry in high school. Both majors and non-majors are welcome. Participants in the University Scholars Program will be given preference for enrollment.
26-111 Biology Orientation 2 cr.

An introduction to the cultural aspects of biological sciences for students declaring or considering a major in Biology or Microbiology. Discussion topics will include: current "hot" fields and employment opportunities; roles and responsibilities of scientists in society; professional ethics; scientific communication; planning (career choices, course selection, research experience) and an introduction to department faculty, staff, and facilities. Students are encouraged to take this course as early as possible in their academic program. Pass/Fail Course.
26-211 Human Anatomy (NS) (2+2) 3 cr. (Fall-Spring)
A study of the fundamental structure and organization of the organs and systems of the human body. Prerequisite: one semester of general biology. (Primarily for physical education and music therapy students).
26-212 Human Physiology (NS) (2+2) 3 cr. (Fall-Spring)
A study of the chemical and physical processes of the anatomic systems of the live human organism. Prerequisites: 26-211. General chemistry recommended. (Primarily for physical education and music therapy students).
26-214 Elementary Public Health 3 cr.
Consideration of basic health problems and description of organization and administration of official and voluntary health agencies; principles of prevention in the occurrence and transmission of diseases. Approved as a nonlaboratory, general education course to count as 3 credits toward the 42-credit general education requirement.
26-221 Human Anatomy and Physiology (4+2) 5 cr. (Fall-Spring)
The course is for students who intend to enter a health profession. Structure and function of the human body will be emphasized at various organizational levels from the subcellular to the entire body. Some pathological material will be included as well. Prerequisite: one semester of general biology.
26-230 Biology of Animal (NS) (3+3) 4 cr. (Fall-Spring)
An introductory, phylogenetic study of the Animal Kingdom considering anatomy, evolution and life histories of major groups. Prerequisite: one semester of general biology.
26-231 Biology of Plants and Microbes (NS) (2+4) 4 cr.
The biology of plants, fungi, and microorganisms traditionally studied by botanists, with an emphasis on plants. Topics to be covered include taxonomy, evolution, ecology, physiology, and life traits. The impact of these organisms on human affairs will be stressed. Prerequisite: 26-105 or equivalent.
26-233 Microbial Survey (NS) (3+2) 4 cr. (Fall)
A survey of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and some algae, fungi, and invertebrates. Emphasis will be placed upon the health care applications of microbiology and transmission of infectious disease agents. Laboratory will focus on standard microbiologic techniques used in the allied health fields. This course is designed for those students interested in allied health fields, including biology, nursing and medical technology majors. Prerequisite: one semester of general biology.
26-250 Medical Mycology (1+2) 2 cr. (Spring)
The laboratory identification of fungal human pathogens. (Primarily for medical technologists.)
26-260 Environment and Living Systems 3 cr.

A study of environmental issues from a biological perspective, focusing on the scientific bases for: 1) physical, chemical, and biological influences on living organisms; 2) contracts between natural and perturbed ecosystems; and 3) historical, current, and predicted effects of human activities on local, regional and global scales. Credit cannot be received for both 26-260 and 37-260. Prerequisite: 26-104 or 26-105 or permission of instructor.

26-300 Internship in Biology 1-6 cr.

An internship experience with a cooperating organization or corporation to gain on-the-job learning. Internships may be arranged at any time, but most that provide salary are available only in summer. Prerequisite: Student must arrange for a specific internship with the Internship Director before registering for the course.
26-301 Internship in Microbiology 0-6 cr.
An internship experience with a cooperating organization or corporation to gain on-the-job learning. Internship may be arranged at any time, but most that provide salary are available only in summer. The students will work with cooperating agencies such as regional or state public health laboratories, private food processing plants, hospitals, etc. Prerequisite: Student must arrange for a specific internship with the Internship Director before registering for the course.
26-304/504 Plant Taxonomy (2+2) 3 cr. (Fall)
Collection, identification and preservation of flowering plants; a consideration of biosystematic methods and procedures; study of evolutionary mechanisms. Prerequisite: one semester of general biology.
26-308/508 Comparative Anatomy (3+4) 5 cr. (Spring-even years)
A comparative study of representative vertebrates. Prerequisite: one semester of general biology.
26-309 Bacteriology (3+4) 5 cr. (Fall-Spring)
The course covers basic concepts of microbiology, through chemical and physiological properties, genetics, evolution, and diseases caused by microbes and the microbial activities beneficial to human. Laboratory covers standard microbiological experiments and isolation and identification of bacteria. Prerequisites: 26-107 and one year of general chemistry.
26-311/511 Animal Behavior (2+2) 3 cr. (Spring)
An introduction to the behavior mechanisms of invertebrate and vertebrate animals emphasizing a naturalistic point of view. Prerequisite: 26-340 or 26-343.
26-312/512 Medical Bacteriology (Lecture) (2+0) 2 cr. (Spring)
Bacterial pathogens and their relationships to diseases; prevention and control of infectious diseases. Prerequisite: 26-309 and 26-341.
26-313/513 Medical Bacteriology (Laboratory) (0+2) 2 cr. (Spring)
Isolation study, identification and laboratory handling of pathogenic bacteria. Prerequisite: 26-309 and 26-341/541.
26-315/515 Virology (3+0) 3 cr. (Spring)
Principles of animal and human molecular virology. Topics include replication, expression, pathogenesis, methods of diagnosis and detection, current uses of viruses in gene therapy and vaccine applications, viruses and cancer and other diseases, persistent infections, and emerging viruses. Prerequisite: 26-323 or consent of instructor.
26-316/516 Developmental Biology (3+0) 3 cr. (Spring)
Developmental Biology will first examine, at a morphological level, different strategies of embryonic development in diverse organisms, and then study molecular cues that cells use to migrate, differentiate and eventually form a normal organism. Prerequisites: 26-323/523, or equivalent, required; 26-343 recommended.
26-317/517 Cell/Development Biology Laboratory (1+4) 3 cr.
This laboratory focuses on current techniques in Cell and Developmental Biology. Students will perform experiments involving tissue culture, immunohistology and genetic engineering. Students will be given some of the responsibility for designing and executing experiments. Consequently students must be able to work in the lab outside of the scheduled hours. Prerequisites: 26-343 and either 26-323/523 or 26-316/516 or concurrent enrollment in 26-316/516.
26-319/519 General Animal Physiology (4+3) 5 cr. (Fall)
The physics and chemistry of protoplasm; a critical study of the processes responsible for maintaining the organism in its dynamic state; from the cellular, tissue and organ-system levels. Prerequisites: one year of general biology and one year of general chemistry.
26-321/521 Mycology (2+2) 3 cr. (Fall)
A study of the fungi; characteristics, physiology; habits and laboratory identification of molds, yeasts, mushrooms and related organisms. Prerequisite: one semester of general biology.

26-322/522 Mushroom Identification 1 cr.

The collection and identification of mushrooms and other fleshy fungi. Prerequisites: concurrent or prior enrollment in mycology, 26-321/521.
26-323 Introduction to Molecular and Cell Biology (3+0) 3 cr. (Fall)
This course is an introduction to the basic elements of molecular and cellular biology. Molecular biology covers structure, function and biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins as well as regulation of gene expression. Cell biology examines cellular structures and how they used to accomplish replication, metabolism and response to the environment. Prerequisite: 26-105 or equivalent, 32-105 or equivalent or concurrent registration in 32-106.
26-326/526 Introductory Limnology (2+2) 3 cr. (Fall)
The physical, chemical and biological character of lakes and streams. Methods of field measurements, collection and analysis of water samples. Investigation of aquatic communities. Prerequisites: one semester of general biology, one year of general chemistry, and consent of instructor.
26-327/527 Microbial Ecology (2+3) 4 cr.
A study of the activities of microorganisms in a variety of natural habitats, and their relevance to the overall quality of the environment. Emphasis will be placed on specific processes: transformations in geochemical cycles, symbiotic relationships among intermicrobial groups, bacterial interference, hydrocarbon oxidations, and biotransformation of novel compounds. Prerequisites: 26-309; 32-235.
26-328/528 Ornithology (2+3) 3 cr. (Spring)
An introduction to the systematics, evolution, anatomy, behavior, and ecology of birds of the world. Field Trips. Prerequisite: 26-230.
26-330/530 Ichthyology (2+3) 3 cr.
The biology of fishes including functional anatomy, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, physiology, behavior and development. Field trips required. Prerequisites: 26-230 and a year of general chemistry with laboratory.
26-332/532 Entomology (1+4) 3 cr. (Spring-even years)
An introduction to the study of insects. Principles of biology, ecology and classification are emphasized. Elements of morphology, physiology, and collection and preservation techniques are included. Field trips. General collection of insects (assembled during the semester) is required. Prerequisite: one semester general biology and 26-230.
26-335/535 Systematic Biology (2+2) 3 cr.

A study of the principles of taxonomy, nomenclature, classification and systematics incorporating the most recent approaches to derivation and application of hierarchical classification systems. Quantitative methods, their underlying assumptions, and their logical outcomes will be stressed. Prerequisite: two semesters of biology, including a survey course, required.

26-336/536 Fresh Water Algae ( 2+2) 3 cr. (Fall)

Classification, biochemistry, physiology and ecology of fresh water algae. Emphasis on the roles algae play in aquatic ecosystems and on applications in environmental monitoring, aquaculture, and as experimental systems for basic research in photosynthesis. Prerequisite: 26-231 or 26-233 or 26-309.
26-337/537 Plant Anatomy 3 cr. (Spring-odd years)
The structure of representative groups of ferns, fern allies and seed-bearing plants. Emphasis on structure/function relationships. Prerequisite: one semester of general biology required, 26-231 recommended.
26-339/539 Food Microbiology (2+3) 3 cr. (Fall)
Microorganisms important in food; special reference to preservation, fermentation and spoilage processes and their control. Prerequisite: 26-309.
26-340 Genetics Lecture only (3+0) 3 cr. (Fall-Spring)
A study of inheritance and variation at the molecular, cellular, organismic and population levels. Prerequisite: 26-372.
26-341/541 Immunology (3+0) 3 cr. (Fall)
Principles of immunology, with emphasis on the cellular and molecular basis of immune function, including clinical aspects of host immune processes. Areas of immunology currently under investigation will also be examined. Prerequisite: 26-323 or consent of instructor. 26-309 or 26-323 are suggested but not required.
26-343 Genetics - Lecture and Laboratory (3+2) 4 cr. (Fall-Spring)
A study of inheritance and variation at the molecular, cellular, organismic and population levels. Prerequisite: 26-372.
26-344 Introduction to Hematology (2+2) 3 cr. (Fall Interim)
An introduction to the basic techniques used in the chemical and microscopic examination of blood. Morphology of blood cells is emphasized. (Primarily for Medical Technologists) Prerequisites: 26-341 and permission of instructor.
26-345/545 Plant Physiology (4+3) 5 cr. (Spring)
An experimental study of plant growth, metabolism, nutrition, reproduction and response to environment. Prerequisites: one semester of general biology and 26-231 and a year of general chemistry.
26-349/549 Ecology and Evolution (2+1) 3 cr.
Basic principles which influence and govern the plant and animal relations with their environments. An explanation of the distribution, abundance, and specialization of the present-day organisms, and of extinction. Prerequisite: one semester of general biology.
26-350/550 Electron Microscopy (1+4) 4 cr. (Fall)
Electron microscope operation in electron diffraction and conventional imaging. The preparation of metals and other crystalline materials and biological specimens. The student may elect scanning, transmission EM or both.
26-351 Evolution (2+0) 2 cr.
The record of evolution and the mechanism of evolutionary processes. Prerequisite: one semester of general biology.
26-352/552 Biology of Aging (3+0) 3 cr.
The course is designed to familiarize the student with the latest biological knowledge on the complex process of aging, a multifaceted phenomenon not unique to the human species. Prerequisites: 26-104 or 26-107, and 26-211 or 26-212 or 26-211.
26-353/553 Introduction to Arachnology (1+4) 3 cr. (Spring Interim-even years)
An introduction to the arachnid orders with emphasis on spiders, harvestman, scorpions, and solfugids. Morphology, classification, ecology, and collecting techniques will be emphasized. A collection of spiders and harvestman is required. Prerequisite: 26-230.
26-354/554 Parasitology (2+2) 3 cr. (Spring)
A look at the most common mode of life on earth. Emphasis will be placed on human parasites, but attention will be given to some of the more common and the more bizarre parasites of Wisconsin animals. Topics will include life histories, identification and diagnosis, parasitic diseases, host-parasite interactions, and parasite evolution. Prerequisites: one semester general biology and 26-230.

26-358/558 Freshwater Invertebrates (0+4) 2 cr. (Spring Interim-odd years)

In this course benthic organisms and zooplankton will be studied. Sampling techniques for different situations will be used. Data will be analyzed using several diversity techniques. The role of benthos and zooplankton in aquatic systems will be examined. Prerequisites: An introductory biology course and consent of instructor.
26-367 Waterfowl Biology (2+3) 3 cr. (Spring Interim-even years)
Taxonomy, distribution, migration, production, habitat, mortality agents and management of waterfowl. An intensive, highly field-oriented course intended to provide the practical "hands-on" experience essential to students planning a career in field biology, especially wildlife biology. Several full days of field activity. Half of course devoted to field activities.
26-372/572 Advanced Molecular and Cell Biology (3+0) 3 cr.
In-depth consideration of topics such as replication, translation and regulation of gene expression. Mechanisms that guide and drive cellular function and metabolism will be covered in detail. Studies of aberrant cell behavior (e.g. cancer and cell death) will be included. This course will emphasize scientific literature and quantitative problem-solving. Prerequisites: 26-323, 26-343, 32-106.
26-373/573 Biology Field Trip 2 cr. (Spring)
Formal library and classroom study of an area of interest followed by field study of that area. Site of study will change from year to year and could include Florida Everglades and Keys, Gulf Coast, Desert Southwest, etc. A final examination will follow the trip. See instructor for special course fees. May be taken more than once for credit but only two (2) credits will apply toward the major or minor at the undergraduate level or MS Biology degree. To receive credit, student must be enrolled at beginning of semester.
26-374/574 Immunology/Virology Laboratory 3 cr.

Laboratory course integrating principles of immunology and virology. Techniques employed include, but are not limited to, western blotting, SDS-PAGE, PCR and applications, ELISAs, tissue culture, and microscopy. Course is designed for students interested in molecular methods used to study virus/host interactions; including microbiology, biology, and medical technology majors. Prerequisites: 26-341/541 or 26-315/515 or concurrent enrollment in 26-315-515.

26-375/575 Microbial Genetics 3 cr. (Fall)

Structure of microbial genome mutation, expression and exchange of genetic information, genetic analysis, genetic engineering. Prerequisites: 26-309 and 26-340 or 26-343.
26-376/576 Population and Community Ecology (2+3) 3 cr.
An introduction to the study of populations and communities. Examines population-level phenomena (e.g., density, demography, reproduction) and population-level interactions within biological communities (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism). Labs involve discussions of papers from the literature, data analysis, and computer simulations. Prerequisites: 26-349 or consent of instructor.
26-377/577 Microbial Genetics Laboratory (0+4) 2 cr. (Fall)
A laboratory course to study the genetics of bacteria and their viruses. Genetic mapping will be introduced using techniques involving mutagenesis, recombination, plasmid transfer, transduction and transformation systems. Prerequisite: 26-309; 26-375/575 should be taken prior to this course or concurrently.

26-386/586 Systems Ecology (2+2) 3 cr.

An introduction to the study of ecosystems from the perspectives of biogeochemical cycles, energy budgets, and other emergent properties. Laboratory will focus on approaches to monitoring (e.g. field sampling, remote sensing) and modeling ecosystems at various scales of time and space (e.g. local, regional and global). Students will develop environmental sampling schemes and ecosystem models needed to study hypothetical scenarios and for projects of their own design. Prerequisite 26-349/549 or consent of instructor.
26-389/589 Principles of Biotechnology (3+0) 3 cr. (Spring)
A survey of methods and processes used in industrial microbiology and the techniques used in the development of new processes (Recombinant DNA, monoclonal antibodies and genetic improvement). Prerequisites: 26-323 and 26-343 required; 26-375 or consent of instructor recommended.
26-390/590 Biotechnology Laboratory 2 cr. (Spring)
A laboratory course that complements the lecture course 26-389/589 in biotechnology. Students will gain hands-on experience in some of the principles of cell culture, product isolation and purification, and molecular genetic manipulation of genes that are basic to many areas of this broad and rapidly changing field. Exercises are planned in cell culture, computer analysis of cell culture parameters, protein isolation and purification, gene cloning and nucleic acid probe techniques, DNA sequencing, and computer analysis of DNA and protein sequences. If taken at the undergraduate level, the course may not be repeated for graduate credit. Prerequisites: 26-309 is required, 26-372/572 and 26-375/575 are recommended.
26-414 Seminar (1+0) 1 cr.
Oral presentation of scientific papers, research, or selected topic which require a study and use of literature. Prerequisite: senior in biology.
26-415 Seminar (1+0) 1 cr.
Continuation of 26-414.
26-446 Independent Study 1-3 cr.
See Independent Study under Course and Academic Advisement Policies Information for general course description, general prerequisites, and proper contract form requirements.
26-450/650 Microbial Physiology (3+4) 5 cr. (Fall)
Physiological and metabolic processes of bacteria with emphasis on growth, nutrition, synthesis of cellular constituents and energy yielding processes. Prerequisites: 26-309; Recommend 32-305
26-456 Related Readings 1-3 cr.
See Related Readings under Course and Academic Advisement Policies Information for general course description, general prerequisites, and proper contract form requirements.
26-474 Honors: Thesis 1-6 cr.
Prerequisites: University scholar status and junior standing. Honors thesis projects include any advanced independent endeavor in the student's major field of study Proposals (attached to Independent Study Contract) must show clear promise of honors level work and be approved by a faculty sponsor. Course title for transcript will be "Honors Thesis." Completed projects will be announced and presented to interested students and faculty. Maximum of 6 credits.

26-491 Biology/Microbiology Senior Seminar 2 cr.

A seminar-style capstone class for students majoring in Biology or Microbiology that will discuss basic concepts necessary for a career in the biological sciences. Students are expected to actively participate in the assessment of their major, and participate in discussions of major issues in the biological sciences. The course will cover resume and cover letter writing, professionalism, and proposal writing. Current topics in life sciences will be used to examine students' abilities to integrate scientific concepts and use communications skills gained in previous courses. Prerequisite: Senior standing and permission of the department chair.

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Last Updated July 1, 1999