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Part 3: Guide to Writing Footnotes and Bibliographies

When history students work on assignments for their classes, they usually have to consult books, articles, and other materials.   Eventually, they will write papers about their research and draw on the material they encountered in these resources.

When any writer quotes directly from another work or paraphrases, that is, puts ideas from another author into his/her own words, the writer must cite that source. Such citations acknowledge that an idea was first put forth by someone else, and they direct interested readers to the place where more information about the topic may be found.

Learning how to compose citations is thus an important part of the writing process and should not be neglected.  Students also commonly add to their papers a list of the resources that they have consulted, i.e. a bibliography. This guide provides instructions for creating both citations and bibliographies.

 

Citations/Footnotes

History students should put their citations in footnote or endnote form (both are equally correct) and follow the guidelines set out in The Chicago Manual of Style. Some other disciplines employ parenthetical references to indicate dependence on source material, but historians prefer footnotes and endnotes. Unfortunately, many students find the thought of writing footnotes or endnotes daunting and simply do not include them in their papers. Such students usually receive lower marks on their essays. In order to teach our students how to avoid that fate, the UWO History Department has drawn up this style sheet.

Here is a step-by-step guide to writing footnotes and endnotes.  It is divided into two parts:

  1. Part One explains how to create a footnote or endnote within a paper. The directions assume that most students will at least type up their papers on a word processor, such as Microsoft Word, and thus explains how to create footnotes within that program.  [Students who use WordPerfect will find the directions useful as well].
  2. Part Two explains the correct format in which to write up the citation once the student has learned how to create a footnote.

 

Part One: How to Create a Footnote or Endnote within Microsoft Word

Footnotes and endnotes are notes added to the main body of a paper, in which the author directs readers to outside sources or adds extra comments of his or her own.  Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page to which they refer, while endnotes are placed at the end of the paper. [If your professor expresses no preference, it is usually better to use footnotes, as they are easier for the reader to consult].

A superscript number at the end of the sentence signals the reader to look for a footnote or endnote. The same number is placed at the foot of the page for a footnote or at the end of the paper for an endnote.  Footnotes or endnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper, starting from “1.” Each citation requires a new footnote or endnote; under no circumstances should a student “reuse” footnotes.  Creating a footnote is quite simple on a word processor.

When you reach a spot in the main text of your paper that requires a footnote, follow these directions:

  1. Go to the Insert Menu in Microsoft Word, and click on “Footnote.” A dialogue box will appear: choose “Footnote,” choose “AutoNumber,” and hit “OK.”
  2. The cursor will then appear within the footnote at the bottom of the page. Microsoft Word will automatically add a superscript number both to the main body of the text and to the note itself.  There is no need for you to add any numbering of your own.
  3. Type in the citation according to the directions in Part II.
  4. Move the cursor back to the main body of the text and continue typing. You are finished. Follow the same directions for any subsequent footnotes.

 

Part Two: How to Format a Footnote or Endnote According to Chicago Style

Once you have learned how to create a footnote within Microsoft Word, it is necessary to know what to write. A citation to an outside source must include specific information in a certain order; history students are not free to create their own style! Follow these directions for each kind of source that you may use.

Each example explains how to set up the first reference to a work. It is not necessary to repeat all of the information in each reference. Use a shortened version of the citation for the second and subsequent references to a source.

Books

Books are probably the most common sources used by history students in their papers. Citations should include the author’s name (first name first), the title of the book (underlined or in italics; use the same system throughout the paper), publishing information (in parentheses), and the pages consulted, all separated by commas.

 

Here are a few examples of books by a single author:

1Michael Baxandall, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth-Century Italy: A Primer in the Social History of Pictorial Style, 2nd  ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988), 45.

 

Second reference:

2Baxandall, 34.

4M. T. Clanchy, Abelard: A Medieval Life (Oxford and Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1997), 45-46.

 

If you have cited more than one work by the same author, include a short title in the second reference:

3Baxandall, Painting and Experience, 34.

5Clanchy, Abelard, 67.

 

Here are some examples of books by more than one author:

1Lina Bolzoni and Pietro Corsi, The Culture of Memory (Bologna: Società editrice il Mulino, 1992), 45.

1Robert E. Lerner et al., Western Civilizations: Their History and Culture, 13th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton, 1998), 1: 87-88.

[Here “1” stands for the volume number and “88-89” stands for the page numbers cited.]

 

Second reference:

2Lerner, 1:76.

or

2Lerner, Western Civilizations, 1:76.

2Bolzoni, The Culture of Memory, 78.

 

Book in a Series

2Marianne G.  Briscoe and Barbara H. Jage, Artes Praedicandi and Artes Orandi, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental, 61 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1992), 45.

(Here, Artes Praedicandi is the name of the book, and Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental, 61 represents the name of the series and the book’s number in that series).

4Augustine, The Trinity, trans. Stephen McKenna, The Fathers of the Church, 18 (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1963), 56.

 

Journal Articles

3Peter Brown, “Society and the Supernatural: A Medieval Change,” Daedalus 104, no. 2 (1975): 133-151.

[Here “104" is the volume number, “no. 2" is the issue number, and 133-151 are the page numbers.]

 

Second reference:

4Brown, “Society and the Supernatural,” 136.

or

4Brown, 136.

 

Items in an anthology

Primary sources are often included in collections of many sources. They should be cited as in the examples below:

1Fulcher of Chartres, “The First Crusade,” in A Cloud of Witnesses: Readings in the History of Western Christianity, ed. Joel F. Harrington (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001), 138-44.

[Here Fulcher of Chartres is the author of the source, “The First Crusade” is the title of the primary source,” and “A Cloud of Witnesses” is the title of the book in which the primary source was found.]

2John Pecham, “The Ignorance of Pastors,” in Pastors and the Care of Souls in Medieval England, edited by John Shinners and William J. Dohar (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1998), 130.

 

Internet Sites

Basic citation components and punctuation

Author's Last Name, First Name, [author's internet address, if available] "Title of Work" or "title line of message," In "Title of Complete Work" or title of list/site as appropriate, [internet address] Date, if available.

Article by a modern historian on a Web Site

1Peter Limb, “Relationships between Labour & African Nationalist/Liberation Movements in Southern Africa,” [http://neal.ctstateu. edu/history/world_history/archives/limb_html], May 1992.

 

Primary Source on a Web Site

2Vasco da Gama,“Round Africa to India, 1497_1498 CE,” in “Modern History Sourcebook,”  [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1497degama.html], 6 September 2002.

3Salvian. “Romans and Barbarians, c. 440,” in “Medieval Sourcebook,” [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/salvian1.html], 6 September 2002.

 

Bibliographies

Basic Directions

  1. Primary and secondary sources should be listed in separate sections. Each section should be labelled "Primary Sources" or "Secondary Sources." Journal articles and encyclopaedia articles should be listed with secondary sources (do not list each genre separately).
  2. Entries are placed in alphabetical order under each author’s last name. Because ancient and medieval authors usually do not have a “last name,” you should generally list them under their first name.
  3. Each entry should be single-spaced within the entry. It should be separated from the next entry by 1 blank line. Information within in each citation is separated by periods.
  4. The first line of each entry should begin at the left margin. Each subsequent line should be indented 5 spaces from the left margin. [This arrangement is called a “hanging indent.” Consult the help section in your word processor for directions on hanging indents.]
  5. When listing more than one item by the same author, it is not necessary to write the author’s name twice so long as the author’s name has been printed in exactly the same way for each work (which is not always the case). For each subsequent reference in the bibliography, type five dashes and a period to begin the entry. See the example below.

 

Carruthers, Mary. The Craft of Thought: Meditation, Rhetoric, and the Making of Images, 400-1200. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

-----. “Reading with Attitude, Remembering the Book.” In The Book and the Body, edited by Dolores Warwick Frese and Katherine O'Brien O'Keefe, 1-33. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1997.

-----.  The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

 

Examples

Here are examples of the major kinds of works typically included in undergraduate history assignment.

 

Books

Books by modern authors are probably the most common sources used by history students in their papers. Citations should include the author’s name (last name first), the title of the book (underlined or in italics), and the publishing information, all separated by periods. Here are a few examples of books:

 

Book by a single author:

Aston, Margaret. Lollards and Reformers: Images and Literacy in Late Medieval Religion. London: The Hambledon Press, 1984.

Clanchy, M. T. Abelard: A Medieval Life. Oxford and Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1997.

Wenzel, Siegfried. Verses in Sermons: Fasciculus Morum and its Middle English Poems. Cambridge, Mass.: Medieval Academy of America, 1978.

 

Book by more than one author:

Briscoe, Marianne G. and Barbara H. Jage. Artes Praedicandi and Artes Orandi, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental, 61. Turnhout: Brepols, 1992.

NB: Note that the first author’s name should begin with the last name first, while the second author’s name is listed with the first name first.

 

Book edited by one or more editors:

Alexander, J. J. G., and M.T. Gibson, eds. Medieval Language and Literature: Essays Presented to Richard William Hunt. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976.

Chance, Jane, ed. The Mythographic Art: Classical Fable and the Rise of the Vernacular in Early France and England. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1990.

 

Translated Books:

 

By a modern author:

Rossi, Paolo. Logic and the Art of Memory. Translated by Stephen Clucas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press , 2000.

 

Primary sources:

Augustine. The Trinity. Translated by Stephen McKenna, C.SS.R., The Fathers of the Church, 18. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1963.

Stahl, William Harris, Richard  Johnson, and E. L. Burge, trans. Martianus Capella and the Seven Liberal Arts. 2 vols. New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1971.

Stump, Eleonore, trans. Boethius's De topicis differentiis. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1978.

 

Item in an Anthology

Primary sources are often included in collections of many sources. They should be cited as in the examples below:

Fulcher of Chartres. “The First Crusade.” In A Cloud of Witnesses: Readings in the History of Western Christianity, 138-44. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.

Pecham, John. “The Ignorance of Pastors.” In Pastors and the Care of Souls in Medieval England, edited by John Shinners and William J. Dohar, 127-32.  Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1998.

 

A similar method should be used for essays and articles collected into one book.

Areford, David S. “The Passion Measured: A Late-Medieval Diagram of the Body of Christ.” In The Broken Body: Passion Devotion in Late Medieval Culture, edited by A. A. MacDonald et al., 211-38. Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1998.

Aston, Margaret. “Devotional Literacy.” In Lollards and Reformers: Images and Literacy in Late Medieval Religion, 101-133. London: The Hambledon Press, 1984.

 

Journal Articles

When citing a journal article in a bibliography, follow the examples below:

Bossy, J. “The Social History of Confession in the Age of the Reformation.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 25 (1975): 21-38.

Brown, Peter. “Society and the Supernatural: A Medieval Change.” Daedalus 104, no. 2 (1975): 133-151.   [Here “104" is the volume number, “no. 2" is the issue number. It is also correct to list the month of publication with the year; in this case, do not add the issue number]

DeVries, Kelly.  “The Lack of a Western European Military Response to the Ottoman Invasions of Eastern Europe.” Journal of Military History 63, no. 3 (1999): 539-559.

Mango, Andrew. “Turkey and the Enlargement of the European mind.” Middle Eastern Studies 34, no. 2 (1998): 171-192.   or    34 (April 1998): 171-192.  or 34 (1998): 171-192.

 

Sources on Internet sites

Basic citation components and punctuation

Author's Last Name, First Name. [author's internet address, if available]. "Title of Work" or "title line of message." In "Title of Complete Work" or title of list/site as appropriate. [internet address]. Date, if available.

Vasco da Gama. “Round Africa to India, 1497_1498 CE.” In “Modern History Sourcebook.”  [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1497degama.html]. 6 September 2002.

Salvian. “Romans and Barbarians, c. 440.” In “Medieval Sourcebook.” [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/salvian1.html]. 6 September 2002.

by Linn, Molly M last modified Feb 18, 2013 01:06 PM