English 364: the Nineteenth-Century British Novel
Spring 1998
Prof. Julie Shaffer

Secondary Reading, on Reserve and Otherwise
for Persuasion, Wuthering Heights, North and South, She, and Dracula

 As part of your work for this class, you will be learning to summarize articles,
discuss the theories on which they draw, and write a research paper.
Articles listed here will provide you starting places from which to do so;
you may also do your own library searches.


Brown, Julia Prewitt. Jane Austen's Novels: Social Change and Literary Form. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1979. Ch. on Persuasion. On reserve.

Halperin, Mark. "Jane Austen's Lovers." Studies in English Literature 25.4 (1985): 719-736. Shelved w/journals.

Kaplan, Deborah. "Assuming Spinsterhood" [ch.5]. Jane Austen Among Women. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1992. 109-130. PR4036.K3 1992. On reserve

Reid-Walsh, Jacqueline. "`She Learned Romance as She Grew Older': From Conduct Book Propriety to Romance in Persuasion." Persuasions 15 (Dec. 1993): 216-225. On reserve

Warhol, Robyn. "The Look, the Body, and the Heroine: A Feminist-Narratological Reading of Persuasion." Novel 26.1 (Fall 1992): 5-19. Shelved w/journals.

Wilkes, Joanne. "`Song of the Dying Swan'?: The Nineteenth-Century Response to Persuasion." Studies in the Novel 28.1 (Spring 1996): 38-56. Shelved w/journals.

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Burgan, Mary. "`Some Fit Parentage': Identity and the Cycle of Generations in Wuthering Heights." Philological Quarterly 61.4 (Fall 1982): 395-413. Shelved w/journals.

Burgan discusses the children's psychology as response to Mr Earnshaw's behavior.

Conger, Syndy McMillen. "The Reconstruction of the Gothic Feminine Ideal in Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights." In The Female Gothic. Ed. Julian E. Fleenor. Montreal: Eden, 1983. 91-106. On reserve.

In this article drawing on feminist interests, Conger contextualizes the kind of heroine Cathy is through discussion of kinds of heroines conventionally or previously presented in the gothic novel, the genre of fiction into which Wuthering Heights fits.

Goetz, William R. "Genealogy and Incest in Wuthering Heights." Studies in the Novel 14.4 (Winter 1982): 359-376. Shelved w/journals.

Using an anthropological approach, Goetz discusses relationships in terms of desire for but recognition of need to avoid incest; he discusses culture building as based on rejecting incest.

Goff, Barbara Munson. "Between Natural Theology and Natural Selection: Breeding the Human Animal in Wuthering Heights." Victorian Studies 27.4 (1984): 477-507. Shelved w/journals.

Goff argues Bronte would have read animal husbandry pamphlets and rejected planned breeding as producing weak creatures, unable to withstand harsh conditions; she therefore prefers humans closer to an animal state as both stronger and more "natural" than humans over- civilized. Discussion here of sheep breeding.

London, Bette. "Wuthering Heights and the Text Between the Lines." Papers on Language and Literature 24.1 (Winter 1988): 34-52.

London focuses on Nelly's life and her emotions as they are implied by ways she narrates and characterizes the other characters.

McCarthy, Terence. "The Incompetent Narrator in Wuthering Heights." Modern Language Quarterly 42.1 (March 1981): 48-64. Shelved w/journals.

In this reader-response essay, McCarthy focuses on Lockwood and shows why we shouldn't identify with his stance; he argues that Nelly is a little more capable of recognizing what she can't understand without rejecting it utterly.

Newman, Beth. "`The Situation of the Looker-On': Gender, Narration and Gaze in Wuthering Heights." PMLA 105.5 (Oct 1990): 1029-1041. Shelved w/journals.

In this rather difficult feminist article, Newman speaks of the gaze, a phrase used in film theory and as discussed as representing a male position of power; she argues that the novel rejects that version of the gaze through its depiction of the 2nd Cathy, who insists others return her gaze and whose gaze therefore rejects a hierarchy of power.

Pratt, Linda Ray. "`I Shall Be Your Father': Heathcliff's Narrative of Paternity." Victorians Institute Journal 20 (1992): 13-38. On reserve.

The title gives you a good idea of this: who's his father? What kind of a father is he?

von Sneidern, Maja-Lisa. "Wuthering Heights and the Liverpool Slave Trade." ELH 62 (1995): 171-196. Shelved w/journals.

What race is Heathcliff? Why is it important that he's found in Liverpool? How does Liverpool's role in the slave trade shape views of Heathcliff, and, hence, of the novel?

Wion, Philip K. "The Absent Mother in Wuthering Heights." American Imago 42.2 (Summer 1985): 143-165. Shelved w/journals.

This article unfortunately bases its psychological reading on conjectures about the author's psychological life but otherwise gives an interesting interpretation for the apparent arrested development of the first Cathy.

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Bodenheimer, Rosemarie. The Politics of Story in Victorian Social Fiction. PR878.S62 B63

David, Deirdre. Fictions of Resolution in Three Victorian Novels. London: Macmillan, 1981.

Elliot, Dorice Williams. "The Female Visitor and the Marriage of Classes in Gaskell's North and South. Nineteenth-Century Literature 49 (1994). 21-49. Shelved w/journals.

Gallagher, Catherine. The Industrial Reformation of English Fiction 1832-1867. PR878.162 G35 1985. On reserve.

Hall, Catherine. "The Early Formation of Victorian Domestic Ideology." Fit Work for Women. Ed. Sandra Burman. London: Croom Helm, 1979. 15-32. On reserve.

Harsh, Constance. Subversive Heroines: Feminist Resolutions of Social Crisis in the Condition of England Novel. PR878.F45 H37 1994. On reserve.

Kubitschek, Missy. "Defying the Old Limitations of Possibility: Unconventional Aspects of Two Gaskell Novels." University of Mississippi Studies in English 4 (1983): 101-111. On reserve.

Langland, Elizabeth. Nobody's Angels: Middle-Class Women and Domestic Ideology in Victorian Culture. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1995.

Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. "What Must Not Be Said: North and South and the Problem of Women's Work. Victorian Literature and Culture 19 (1991): 67-84. On reserve.

Ruskin, John. Sesame and Lilies. New York: Burt, 1871. PR6520.A1.1871.

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Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. No Man's Land. Vol 2: Sexchanges. New Haven, Yale UP, 1989.PR116.G5 1988. On reserve.

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Essays on reserve (those not on reserve follow)

Auerbach, Nina. Woman and the Demon. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. PR878.W6 A9 1982

Cranny-Francis, Anne "Sexual Politics and Political Repression in Bram Stoker's Dracula." From Nineteenth-Century Suspense from Poe to Conan Doyle. Eds Clive Bloom, Brian Docherty, Jane Gibb, and Keith Strand. New York: St. Martin's, 1988. 64-79.

Cranny-Francis argues that the novel constructs female characters and the count the way it does and uses situations as it does to "dramatis[e] some of the political and social dilemmas faced by the bourgeoisie in the late nineteenth century" (64), ultimately disarming threats posed by the New Woman (late 19th-century women wanting equity with men) and by other social, political, economic issues of the period.

Howes, Marjorie. "The Mediation of the Feminine: Bisexuality, Homoerotic Desire, and Self-Expression in Bram Stoker's Dracula." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 30.1 (Spring 1988): 104-119.

Howes argues that the real sexual desire in Dracula is homoerotic but because such sexuality is threateningly shunned by Victorians, it gets projected onto the women in the novel and thereby mediated.

Macfie, Sian. "`They Suck us Dry': A Study of Late 19th-Century Projections of Vampiric Women." From Subjectivity and Literature from the Romantics to the Present Day. Eds Philip Shaw and Peter Stockwell. London: Pinter, 1991. 58-67.

Macfie focuses on ways Stoker's novel's treatment of its vampiric females is echoed in literary and non-literary thought in the late Victorian period.

Pope, Rebecca A. "Writing and Biting in Dracula." LIT: Literature, Interpretation, Theory 1 (1990): 199-216.

On writing, like the sexuality in the novel, as gendered female and treated as threatening.

Showalter, Elaine, ed. Speaking of Gender. New York: Routledge, 1989. PR408.S49 S4 1989.

See Christopher Craft essay, "`Kiss Me with Those Red Lips': Gender and Inversion in Bram Stoker's Dracula" (216-242). Possibly the best article written on the novel; its content is clear from its title.

Smith, Malcolm. "Dracula and the Victorian Frame of Mind." Trivium 24 (1989): 76-97.

Smith argues that Dracula raises and responds to political, social issues of concern to Victorians, discusses how it does so, and points out that the novel nonetheless has continued appeal, even though these particular issues are perhaps not currently important, at least not in the same way.

Williams, Anne. "Dracula: Si(g)ns of the Fathers." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 33.4 (Winter 1991): 445-463.

Drawing on psychoanaltyic and feminist theories, Williams argues that although Dracula is male and is "experienced as an evil, threatening father" (455), he represents what western culture frequently identifies as female and threatening. She links her argument to Christian and pre-Christian mythologies.

Zanger, Jules. "A Sympathetic Vibration: Dracula and the Jews." English Literature in Transition 34.1 (1991): 33-44.

Zanger shows how Stoker's portrayal of Dracula works similarly to anti-semitic portrayals of Jews in popular thought and in other literature in the Victorian era.

Essays not on reserve but in journals in the library, worth reading

Arata, Stephen D. "The Occidental Tourist: Dracula and the Anxiety of Reverse Colonization." Victorian Studies 33.4 (Summer 1990): 621-645.

Arata argues that in this period of imperialism, Dracula addresses fears that if the British could colonize less "civilized" countries, they could perform "reverse colonization," infiltrating Britain or bringing about devolution (as perhaps happens in Conrad's 1902 Heart of Darkness).

Case, Alison. "Tasting the Original Apple: Gender and the Struggle for Narrative Authority in Dracula." Narrative 1.3 (Oct 1993): 223-243.

Case addresses who gets to speak in the novel, who controls the story, and the relation of that issue to the gender of the speaker.

Halberstam, Judith. "Technologies of Monstrosity: Bram Stoker's Dracula." Victorian Studies 36.3 (Spring 1993): 333-352.

On the similarity of the depiction of Dracula to 19th-century anti-semitic portrayals of Jews, and on Dracula as the threatening "other" to English Victorian culture.

Spear, Jeffrey. "Gender and Sexual Dis-Ease in Dracula." In Original Sexuality and Textuality in Victorian Literature. Ed. Lloyd Davis. Albany: SUNY P, 1993. 179-192.

Spencer, Kathleen L. "Purity and Danger: Dracula, the Urban Gothic, and the Late Victorian Degeneracy Crisis." ELH 59.1 (Spring 1992): 197-225.

Spencer argues that Lucy and Dracula are both treated as belonging but marginal to culture, as representing elements of culture to be purged to keep culture from degenerating; it's historically based and focuses on other kinds of novelistic "movements" preceding what Spencer calls the "urban gothic."

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