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Citing Internet Addresses
A how-to guide for referencing online sources in student bibliographies
Just as your students need to cite the books and periodicals they use to support their research, so too must they cite online sources of information. Last March, Classroom Connect was the first to publish a comprehensive, easy-to-understand method for citing online information in student bibliographies.
This month, we present to you a new, revised method for citing Net resources as accessed through an Internet Web browser. It'll make is easy for you to check the veracity of every online source your students cite.
We've also included new information specifying how to cite the graphics, sounds, and video clips your students retrieve from the Net for use in their multimedia presentations.
Formal guidelines for citing online sources are beginning to evolve. The latest MLA Handbook contains citation information for electronic sources. (See the end of the story for Web links to relevant information.)
Electronic Mail (Email)
Author of email message. Subject line of the message. [Online] Available email: Student@address.edu from Author@address.edu, date of document or download.
McLain, Deborah. Nile River Research Project results. [Online] Available email: email@example.com from firstname.lastname@example.org, September 25, 1996.
Soja, Julie. Hubble Space Telescope image enhancement techniques. [Online] Available email: email@example.com from firstname.lastname@example.org, January 23, 1997.
Author. Title of gopher item. [Online] Available gopher://address/path, date of document or download.
Kinyon, John. India: A Country in Transition. [Online] Available gopher://gopher.india.gov:70/11/papers/trans, October 5, 1996.
Reynolds, Robert. Bosnia: A Country in Transition. [Online] Available gopher://nywer.net/TodayÕs_News/World News/Bosnia-Herzegovina, February 5, 1996.
File Transfer Protocol (Ftp)
Author. Title of item. [Online] Available ftp: address, path/filename, date of document or download.
McLain, Todd. Shakespeare and his Muse. [Online] Available ftp://ftp.guten.net/bard/muse.txt, October 1, 1996.
Author. Title of item. [Online] Available telnet://address, path, date of document or download.
Bradley, Bill. Map of Iraqi Troop Movements for 1/9/96. [Online] Available telnet://fedworld.gov, Government Information/CIA/Maps/Latest Maps/Iraq, November 10, 1997.
Jackson, Rem. Statistical Weather Data for Ohio, January 1996. [Online] Available telnet://weather.machine.umich.edu, Weather Data/January 1996/States/Zooms/Ohio, February 25, 1997.
World Wide Web (WWW)
Author. Title of item. [Online] Available http://address/filename, date of document or download.
DiStefano, Vince. Guidelines for better writing. [Online] Available http://www.usa.net/~vinced/home/better-writing.html, January 9, 1996.
Yule, James. The Cold War Revisited: A Splintered Germany. [Online] Available http://usa.coldwar.server.gov/index/cold.war/countries/former.soviet.block/G/germany.html, November 5, 1996.
Author. Title of item. [Online] Available news://group, date of document or download.
Brown, David. Educational Insights 1995. [Online] Available news://k12.ed.research, December 27, 1996.
Madige, Ellen. How to Build a Better Moustrap. [Online] Available news://sci.tech.inventions.mousetrap, January 16, 1997.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Name of online speaker. [Online] Available IRC: telnet (site address), IRC channel name, date of session.
McBane, Lisa. [Online] Available IRC: telnet world.sensemedia.net:6677, #egypt, March 8, 1996.
Frappe, Francois. [Online] Available IRC: telnet france.irc.edu:1234, #france, January 23, 1996.
Description or title of image. [Online Image] Available http://address/filename, date of document or download.
Hubble Space Telescope release in the Space Shuttle's Payload Bay. [Online Image] Available http://explorer.arc.nasa.gov/pub/SPACE/GIF/s31-04-015.gif, October 1, 1996.
Description or title of sound. [Online Sound] Available http://address/filename, date of document or download.
Reflections on Apollo. [Online Sound] Available http://town.hall.org/radio/IMS/NASA/100394_nasa_01_ITR.au, September 25, 1996.
Online video clips
Description or title of video clip. [Online Video Clip] Available http://address/filename, date of document or download.
Shoemaker-Levy Comet enters Jupiter's atmosphere and breaks up. [Online Video Clip] Available http://ftp.cribx1.u-bordeaux.fr/astro/anim/sl9/breakingup.mpg, March 5, 1996.
Web sites about citations
Several Web sites offer more information about citing electronic sources.
MLA Citation Guide
Launch to Citing Online Addresses
Williams College Library Web
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