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Citing Internet Addresses

A how-to guide for referencing online sources in student bibliographies


Just as your students need to cite the books and periodicals they use to support their research, so too must they cite online sources of information. Last March, Classroom Connect was the first to publish a comprehensive, easy-to-understand method for citing online information in student bibliographies.

This month, we present to you a new, revised method for citing Net resources as accessed through an Internet Web browser. It'll make is easy for you to check the veracity of every online source your students cite.

We've also included new information specifying how to cite the graphics, sounds, and video clips your students retrieve from the Net for use in their multimedia presentations.

Formal guidelines for citing online sources are beginning to evolve. The latest MLA Handbook contains citation information for electronic sources. (See the end of the story for Web links to relevant information.)


Electronic Mail (Email)

Structure
Author of email message. Subject line of the message. [Online] Available email: Student@address.edu from Author@address.edu, date of document or download.

Examples
McLain, Deborah. Nile River Research Project results. [Online] Available email: student5@smallvillehigh.edu from ert@informns.k12.mn.us, September 25, 1996.

Soja, Julie. Hubble Space Telescope image enhancement techniques. [Online] Available email: student2@exeter.high.edu from btaylor@hst.nasa.gov, January 23, 1997.


Gopher

Structure
Author. Title of gopher item. [Online] Available gopher://address/path, date of document or download.

Examples
Kinyon, John. India: A Country in Transition. [Online] Available gopher://gopher.india.gov:70/11/papers/trans, October 5, 1996.

Reynolds, Robert. Bosnia: A Country in Transition. [Online] Available gopher://nywer.net/TodayÕs_News/World News/Bosnia-Herzegovina, February 5, 1996.


File Transfer Protocol (Ftp)

Structure
Author. Title of item. [Online] Available ftp: address, path/filename, date of document or download.

Example
McLain, Todd. Shakespeare and his Muse. [Online] Available ftp://ftp.guten.net/bard/muse.txt, October 1, 1996.


Telnet

Structure
Author. Title of item. [Online] Available telnet://address, path, date of document or download.

Examples
Bradley, Bill. Map of Iraqi Troop Movements for 1/9/96. [Online] Available telnet://fedworld.gov, Government Information/CIA/Maps/Latest Maps/Iraq, November 10, 1997.

Jackson, Rem. Statistical Weather Data for Ohio, January 1996. [Online] Available telnet://weather.machine.umich.edu, Weather Data/January 1996/States/Zooms/Ohio, February 25, 1997.


World Wide Web (WWW)

Structure
Author. Title of item. [Online] Available http://address/filename, date of document or download.

Examples
DiStefano, Vince. Guidelines for better writing. [Online] Available http://www.usa.net/~vinced/home/better-writing.html, January 9, 1996.

Yule, James. The Cold War Revisited: A Splintered Germany. [Online] Available http://usa.coldwar.server.gov/index/cold.war/countries/former.soviet.block/G/germany.html, November 5, 1996.


Usenet Newsgroups

Structure
Author. Title of item. [Online] Available news://group, date of document or download.

Examples
Brown, David. Educational Insights 1995. [Online] Available news://k12.ed.research, December 27, 1996.

Madige, Ellen. How to Build a Better Moustrap. [Online] Available news://sci.tech.inventions.mousetrap, January 16, 1997.


Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

Structure
Name of online speaker. [Online] Available IRC: telnet (site address), IRC channel name, date of session.

Examples
McBane, Lisa. [Online] Available IRC: telnet world.sensemedia.net:6677, #egypt, March 8, 1996.

Frappe, Francois. [Online] Available IRC: telnet france.irc.edu:1234, #france, January 23, 1996.


Online images

Structure
Description or title of image. [Online Image] Available http://address/filename, date of document or download.

Examples
Hubble Space Telescope release in the Space Shuttle's Payload Bay. [Online Image] Available http://explorer.arc.nasa.gov/pub/SPACE/GIF/s31-04-015.gif, October 1, 1996.

Online sounds

Structure
Description or title of sound. [Online Sound] Available http://address/filename, date of document or download.

Examples
Reflections on Apollo. [Online Sound] Available http://town.hall.org/radio/IMS/NASA/100394_nasa_01_ITR.au, September 25, 1996.

Online video clips

Structure
Description or title of video clip. [Online Video Clip] Available http://address/filename, date of document or download.

Examples
Shoemaker-Levy Comet enters Jupiter's atmosphere and breaks up. [Online Video Clip] Available http://ftp.cribx1.u-bordeaux.fr/astro/anim/sl9/breakingup.mpg, March 5, 1996.


Web sites about citations

Several Web sites offer more information about citing electronic sources.

MLA Citation Guide
URL: http://www.cas.usf.edu/english/walker/mla.html

Launch to Citing Online Addresses
URL: http://www.pitsco.inter.net/p/cite.html

Williams College Library Web
URL: http://www.williams.edu:803/library/library.www/cite.html


Copyright 1997-1998 by Classroom Connect, Inc. This story may not be otherwise reproduced or republished in excerpt or entirety, in print or electronic form, without written permission from the publisher. Email dbolin@classroom.net for reprint information.


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