BIO308/508 - Comparative Anatomy

Course Syllabus for Spring 2016



Instructor
 Dr. David Dilkes
Office: HS-158
Research Lab: HS-244
Office Phone: 920-424-3074
Email: dilkes@uwosh.edu
Office Hours: 1:00-2:00pm on Tuesdays or by appointment
acanthostega reconstruction archaeopteryx


Introduction

Welcome to the web page for BIO308/508 Comparative Anatomy!  Here you will find the course syllabus, links to lecture study guides, copies of articles in pdf format and links to a host of weird, funny and extremely information web sites for comparative anatomy.  So, please spend some time exploring this web page and the many links that I have provided.  I have created this page for you, to help with the course material and hopefully instill within you the same fascination that I have for vertebrate anatomy!

During the lectures and labs, we will explore the evolutionary history of selected organ systems of vertebrates.  As we examine each organ system, we will draw upon information from the anatomy of living species, the steps during the development of organ systems and the fossil record.  All of this information will be combined and placed within the context of the best-supported hypothesis of phylogeny.  The basics of the currently accepted method, known as cladistics, for producing these phylogenetic hypotheses will be reviewed.



When and Where Do We Meet?

Lecture Hours:
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday       HS-457    1:50-2:50

Lab Hours:
Tuesday and Thursday                        HS-261    3:00-5:00



What Are Our Goals?

Course Objectives
:
1. To be able to discuss the characteristic features of all vertebrates and know the broad pattern of the evolutionary relationships of vertebrates.
2. To know the relative contributions of modern anatomy, embryonic development and the fossil record to our understanding of the evolutionary history of the major organ systems of vertebrates.
3. To acquire skill and confidence for dissection, and be able to identify the major organs and their details in a vertebrate.



What Do You Need?

Textbooks and Materials for the Course
Recommended Textbook
Liem, K.F., W.E. Bemis, W.F. Walker, Jr., and L. Grande. 2001. Functional Anatomy of the Vertebrates. An Evolutionary Perspective. 3rd edition.  Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

Required Lab Manuals
De Iuliis, Gerardo and Dino PulerÓ. 2011.  The Dissection of Vertebrates. A Laboratory Manual.  2nd Edition. Elsevier Inc.
A Course Packet is available in the University Bookstore.

Lab Equipment
Most of each lab period will be spent dissecting representative vertebrates.  You will need to bring to each lab period your copy of the lab manual, a dissecting kit and a lab coat (or an old shirt).  Your text will be useful, although not required.  Rubber gloves will be supplied.  The dissecting kit should contain a scalpel with replacement blades, a pair of small and large scissors, forceps and blunt and sharp probes. No food or drinks are allowed in the lab.

Syllabus BIO308

Handouts: Click on the links below to download the articles
Major Groups of Vertebrates
Chondrocranium and Dermatocranium
Axial and Appendicular Skeletons
Axial and Appendicular Muscles
Nervous System: The Brain



Now For the Details!

Lecture Schedule for Spring 2016
For each lecture topic below, a link will be added to the lecture title to access the study guide for that lecture.  Each study guide will consist of objectives of the lecture, terms to know, and any links to comparative anatomy web pages that will provide additional information.  These guides are a study aid for you, so please use them! Also, a pdf file is provided of the images used in the lecture. Bring these images to lecture for making notes.

Lecture #
Date
Lecture Topic
Text Readings for Further Detail
1 Monday February 1
Introduction to the Course
 
2 Wednesday February 3 Chordates
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 2
3 Friday February 5 What is a Vertebrate? Chapter 2 (pgs. 41-43)
4 Monday February 8 Embryology: Cleavage, Gastrulation, and Neurulation
Study Guide for Lectures 4 and 5
Chapter 4 (pgs. 131-142, 146-147)
5 Wednesday February 10 Embryology: Cleavage, Gastrulation, and Neurulation Chapter 4 (pgs. 131-142, 146-147)
6 Friday February 12 What's New in Anatomy? Vestigial Organs in Mammals  
7 Monday February 15 Integument: Skin and Scales
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 6 (pgs. 208-219)
8 Wednesday February 17 Integument: Feathers, Hair, Horns, and Antlers
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 6 (pgs. 219-225) 
9 Friday February 19 Inside Nature's Giants: The Great White Shark  
  Monday February 22 LECTURE EXAM #1
Lectures 2-5, 7-9 and handout on major groups of vertebrates
 
10 Wednesday February 24 Vertebrate Skull: Splanchnocranium and Origin of Mammalian Middle Ear Bones
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 7 (pgs. 236, 238-264)
11 Friday February 26 Pharyngeal Jaws and the Moray Eel
Pharyngeal Jaws
 
12 Monday February 29
Appendicular Skeleton: Evolution of the Pectoral Girdle
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 9
13 Wednesday March 2 Muscle Tissue and Branchiomeric Muscles
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 10 (pgs. 316-318, 321-322, 331-337)
14 Friday March 4
Digestive System
Study Guide for Lectures 14 & 15
Lecture Images
Chapter 10 (pgs 316-318, 321-322, 327-330, 337-342)
15 Monday March 7 Digestive System
Lecture Images
Chapter 16 (pgs. 534, 551-553) and Chapter 17
  Wednesday March 9 LECTURE EXAM #2
Lectures 10, 12-15 and handouts on Axial and Appendicular Skeletons and Axial and Appendicular Muscles
 
16 Friday March 11 Respiratory System: Principles of Diffusion of Gases, Cutaneous Respiration, and Gills
Study Guide for Lectures 16 & 17
Lecture Images
Handout for lecture: Diffusion Law (read before lecture)
Chapter 18 (pgs. 575-585)
17 Monday March 14 Respiratory System: Lungs
Lecture Images
Chapter 18 (pgs. 585-600)
18 Wednesday March 16 Circulatory System: Pathways of Blood Flow and the Heart
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 19 (pgs. 608-611, 612-622)
19 Friday March 18 Inside Nature's Giants: The Crocodile  
  Monday March 21, Wednesday March 23, and Friday March 25
NO LECTURES:
SPRING BREAK
 
20 Monday March 28 Reading of Essays
Essay due before start of class
 
21 Wednesday March 30 Reading of Essays  
22 Friday April 1 Reading of Essays  
23 Monday April 4 Reading of Essays  
24 Wednesday April 6 Reading of Essays  
25 Friday April 8 Circulatory System: Venous System
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 19 (pgs. 623-627)
26 Friday April 17 Inside Nature's Giants: The Elephant  
  Wednesday April 13
LECTURE EXAM #3
Lectures 16-19, 25 & 26 and handout on Respiratory System: Principles of Diffusion
 
27 Friday April 15
Nervous System: Nervous Tissue, Spinal Cord, and Spinal Nerves
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 13 (pgs. 438-445, 450-456)
28 Monday April 18 Nervous System: Cranial Nerves
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 13 (pgs. 456-466)
29 Wednesday April 20
Sensory Organs: Eyes
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 12 (pgs. 424-433)
30 Friday April 22
Sensory Organs: Ears
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 12 (pgs. 411-422)
31 Monday April 25
Urogenital System: Urinary System
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 20 (pgs. 633-641)
32 Wednesday April 27 Urogenital System: Reproductive System
Study Guide
Lecture Images
Chapter 21 (pgs. 660-675)
33 Friday May 8 Inside Nature's Giants: The Giraffe  
  Monday May 2
LECTURE EXAM #4
Lectures 27-33 and handout on the Brain
 
34 Wednesday May 4 Classroom Presentation of Essay
Final Essay due before start of class
 
35 Friday May 6 Classroom Presentation of Essay  
36 Monday May 9 Classroom Presentation of Essay  
37 Wednesday May 11 Classroom Presentation of Essay  
38 Friday May 13 Classroom Presentation of Essay  



Lab Schedule for Spring 2016

Lab #
Date
Lab Topic
Readings
1
Tuesday February 2 Introduction to Lab,
Body Regions, Directional Terms, Planes of Section
The Dissection of Vertebrates – pgs. xvii-xix
2
Thursday February 4 Exercise in Cladistics
Cladistic Analysis - Lab 2 of lab manual. Functional Anatomy of the Vertebrates Reading - pgs. 10-18.
READ BEFORE LAB!
3
Tuesday February 9 Histology

BIO308/508 lab manual. Read the sections in Chapter 6 of Functional Anatomy of the Vertebrates on the Integument.
4
Thursday February 11 Skeletal System: Skulls and Vertebrae
Lab Quiz 1: body regions, directional terms, planes of section, and cladistics
Skeleton in Chapters 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
5
Tuesday February 16 Dentition,
Skeletal System: Postcranium
Lab Quiz 2: histology and skulls
Skeleton in Chapters 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
6
Thursday February 18 Form and Function of Vertebrates on Land and Water
 
7 Tuesday February 23 External Morphology, Skinning
Lab Quiz 3: dentition, postcranium, and form and function of vertebrates
External Anatomy in Chapters 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
8 Thursday February 25 Skinning (continued)
Superficial Muscles
Musculature in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
9
Tuesday March 1 Superficial Muscles (continued),
Deep Muscles
Lab Quiz 4: external morphology and superficial muscles
Musculature in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
10
Thursday March 3 Deep Muscles (continued)
Digestive system in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
11
Tuesday March 8 Digestive System
Digestive system in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
12
Thursday March 10 Respiratory System:
Lab Quiz 5: deep muscles and digestive system
Respiratory system in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
13
Tuesday March 15 Review for Lab Exam 1
 
  Thursday March 17
LAB EXAM #1
Histology, Skeletal System, External Morphology, Muscles, Digestive System, and Respiratory System
 
  March 22 & 24 NO LAB:
SPRING BREAK
 
14
Tuesday March 29 Circulatory System:
Heart and Arterial System
Circulatory system in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
15
Thursday March 31
Circulatory System (continued)
Lab Quiz 6: respiratory system, heart, and arterial system

Circulatory system in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
16 Tuesday April 5 Circulatory System:
Venous System
Circulatory system in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
17 Thursday April 7 Urinary and Reproductive Systems Urinary and Reproductive Systems in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
18 Tuesday April 12 Urinary and Reproductive Systems (continued) Urinary and Reproductive Systems in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
19 Thursday April 14 Nervous System
Lab Quiz 7: venous system, urinary system, and reproductive system
Nervous system in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
20 Tuesday April 19 Nervous System (continued)
Sensory System
Nervous system in Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 7 of The Dissection of Vertebrates
21 Thursday April 21 Lab Quiz 8: nervous and sensory systems
Review for Lab Exam 2
 
  Tuesday April 26 LAB EXAM #2
Circulatory System, Urinary and Reproductive Systems, Nervous System, and Sensory System
 



Grading Scale for BIO308:
Percentage
Grade
Grade Points
100-92 A 4.0
91-89 A- 3.67
88-86 B+ 3.33
85-82 B 3.00
81-79 B- 2.67
78-76 C+ 2.33
75-72 C 2.00
71-69 C- 1.67
68-66 D+ 1.33
65-63 D 1.00
62-60 D- 0.67
<60 F 0.00



Marking Scheme for 308:
Lecture:
      Lecture Exam #1
      Lecture Exam #2
      Lecture Exam #3
      Lecture Exam #4
      Essay Outline
      Essay Reading
      Essay Presentation
      Essay Final

12%
12%
12%
12%
  2%
  2%
  4%
 10%
Lab:
      Lab Practical Exam #1
      Lab Practical Exam #2
      Quizzes (7 X 2% each)

      Total

10%
10%
14%

100%

Lecture Exams (48% of your total course grade):
Lecture Exams 1-4 will consist of a short answer questions and essay questions. Each lecture exam is scheduled during a regular lecture period and will take no more time than allotted normally for a lecture.

Quizzes (14% of your total course grade):
Eight quizzes will be held during the scheduled lab periods.  Each quiz will consist of multiple choice and short answer questions and take up no more than 10-15 minutes of a lab.  The quizzes will be based upon lab topics.  The lowest quiz mark will be dropped.

Lab Practical Exams (20% of your total course grade):
Lab practical exams 1 and 2 will be a combination of a “bell-ringer” format and short answer questions. Questions for the bell-ringer section will ask you to identify labeled structures on dissected animals, skeletons, and tissue slides within a time limit.  The goal of a "bell-ringer" lab exam is to test your ability to identify those structures that you learned in lab and your understanding of their form and function based upon your observations of materials in front of you. Each lab practical exam is scheduled during a regular lab period.
Important Note - The second lab practical exam will not be comprehensive and will include only material learned since the first lab exam.

Essay (18% of your total course grade):
You will be required to write a short essay on a topic in comparative anatomy.  A separate handout has been prepared to discuss the essay. If you do not select one of the topics listed in the set of pages, then I must approve your essay topic. A late penalty of 0.5% per day (including weekends) will be deducted from the value of the draft or final essay.


Policy for Lecture and Lab Practical Exams and Lab Quizzes for BIO308:
In order to write a makeup lecture exam, lab exam, or quiz, you must inform Dr. Dilkes of your absence before the start of the lecture exam or your regular scheduled lab period. Any student who does not do so may forfeit the chance to write a makeup exam or quiz and a grade of zero will be assigned.

It is the student's responsibility to contact Dr. Dilkes. A message from a family member or friend is not acceptable. Contact may be an email, message on my office answering machine, or a message to the Biology Office (HS142; phone: 424-1102).

Documentation is Required for All Makeup Exams and Quizzes
Any absence from a lecture exam, lab exam, or quiz must be supported by documentation.

Makeup Lecture Exams
Students who miss a lecture exam (see Acceptable Reasons for Absences below) are offered a make-up so long as documentation is provided. If you miss the makeup exam on the scheduled date and provide documentation, alternate arrangements for a makeup will be made or an incomplete recorded. Without documentation, a grade of zero will be recorded. 


Makeup Lab Quizzes
If you expect to miss your regular lab, then it is your responsibility to inform Dr. Dilkes of your absence and discuss any possible arrangements to write missed quizzes at a later date.

Makeup Lab Exam
Contact Dr. Dilkes immediately if you cannot write a lab exam. Do not forget documentation. Discuss with Dr. Dilkes any possible arrangements to write a missed lab exam at a later date.

Acceptable Reasons for Absences:
The only valid reasons for missing a quiz or exam that will be acceptable for a make-up are:
1.    Health problems. Serious medical conditions of the student (or their dependent requiring home care); medical emergency of student or immediate family member. Healthcare provider-issued document is required stating general reason and timeframe absent, but not nature of medical problem. Documentation is required a maximum 2 weeks after the fact.
2.    Death of immediate family member. Obituary (if student is named) or funeral program. Documentation is required a maximum 2 weeks after the fact.
3.    UW Oshkosh activity. Class trip, competition or travel to same (athletics, Model UN, debate). University-issued document stating general reason and timeframe absent (best to have your coach/supervisor/instructor send a TitanEmail to your instructor directly). Minimum one week notice.
4.    Civic activity. Jury duty, military service ≤ 2 weeks’ duration, court appearance as defendant or witness. Official-issued document stating general reason and timeframe absent. Documentation is required a maximum 2 weeks after the fact.
5.    More than three (3) UW Oshkosh exams on the same day. Photocopy of official class schedule from TitanWeb plus confirmation from other instructors via TitanEmail. Minimum one week notice.
Please note that absences due to vacation plans or oversleeping are not acceptable.

Changing of Grades in Exams or Quizzes:
Clerical Error – If you discover an addition error on your exam or quiz, then return it immediately to Dr. Dilkes for correction.
Corrections in Grading – Regrading of an exam will only be considered if a written explanation of the problem accompanies the exam.  Any lecture notes or text readings that support regrading must be included with the explanatory note.  I will only discuss possible regrading in my office and not during a lecture or lab period.  Please note that regrading of an exam will not necessarily result in additional marks.  The exam grade may increase, decrease or stay the same.



Check Out These Amazing Web Sites! Many are Comparative Anatomy, but several include other topics.

Phylogeny of Vertebrates
The Tree of Life Web Project - an excellent web site!
Introduction to the Vertebrates - University of California Museum of Paleontology

Fossil Vertebrates
Palaeos: The Vertebrates

Cladistics
What is Cladistics?
Journey into Phylogenetic Systematics
Cladistics: Identifying Branching Points in Evolutionary Pathways

Taxonomy
Curiosities of Biological Nomenclature
ITIS - Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Patuxent Bird Identification Info Center by Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
BIRDNET The Ornithological Information Source by the Ornithological Council

Embryology
Amphibian Embryology Tutorial at University of Wisconsin Madison

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
Virtual Pig Dissection
Fish Dissection
Rat Dissection
The Sheep Brain Dissection Guide
Net Frog
Video Dissection Guide for Cat & Shark by the University of Alberta Zoology 225
Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Online by the University of British Columbia
Animal Skull Collection
The Articulation Page - How to Construct a Posed Skeleton
Cat Anatomy Tutorial by Kenyon College
Comparative Vertebrate Atlas Index by Murray State University
Avian Biology by Prof. Gary Ritchison of Eastern Kentucky University
Animation of Bird Lungs at San Diego State University College of Sciences (requires Shockwave plugin)
Animation of Respiration in the Frog at Thames Valley School District

Different Groups of Vertebrates
Introduction to the Petromyzontiformes (Lampreys) at the University of California Museum of Paleontology
Introduction to the Myxini (Hagfishes) at the University of California Museum of Paleontology
Gnathostomata. Jawed Vertebrates at the Tree of Life Web Project
Introduction to the Chondrichthyes at the University of California Museum of Paleontology
Fascinating Facts About Fish at Northeast Fisheries Science Center
Bony Fishes - Class Osteichthyes at SeaWorld
The Fish Out of Time - Information on the coelacanth
Introduction to the Tetrapoda at the University of California Museum of Paleontology
Introduction to the Amphibia at the University of California Museum of Paleontology
Amphibia Web at the University of California Berkeley
Frog Morphology and Physiology Tutorials at Cornell University
Living Amphibians at the Tree of Life Web Project
Amniota - Mammals & Reptiles at the Tree of Life Web Project
Temporal Fenestration and the Classification of Amniotes at the Tree of Life Web Project
Reptiles - The EMBL Reptile Database
The Reptiles (except turtles) at the University of California Museum of Paleontology
Introduction to the Aves (The Birds) at the University of California Museum of Paleontology
UCMP Hall of Mammals
Marsupial Mammals at the University of California Museum of Paleontology
Monotremes - Egg-Laying Mammals at the University of California Museum of Paleontology
Placental Mammals at the University of California Museum of Paleontology



I Know I Don't Need to Say This, But...



Academic Misconduct
A university is a community of individuals who have come to together to instruct and learn.  Of the many academic and personal goals to be achieved at university, included is the ability to think independently and creatively, hone your written and oral skills for the communication of your ideas and grow as an individual with confidence in your abilities.  For the university, it strives continually to improve its ability to instruct effectively and instill in each of its students the self-confidence, skills and knowledge to be successful.  Academic misconduct such as cheating and plagiarism harms both the student and university by defeating these goals.  A student who cheats fails to acquire the skills, knowledge and self-confidence needed for success, and the university will acquire an undesired reputation.  Elimination of cheating and plagiarism is the responsibility of both the university and each student.

The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh is committed to a standard of academic integrity for all students.  The system guidelines state: "Students are responsible for the honest completion and representation of their work, for the appropriate citation of sources, and for respect of others' academic endeavors." (UWS 14.01,Wisconsin Administrative Code).

Students are subject to disciplinary action for academic misconduct, which is defined in UWS 14.03, Wisconsin Administrative Code.  Students on the UW Oshkosh campus have been suspended from the University for academic misconduct.

Students are encouraged to review the procedures related to violations of academic honesty as outlined in Chapter UWS 14, Wisconsin Administrative Code.  The system guidelines and local procedures are printed in the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Student Discipline Code 2003-2004 and can be found on the Dean of Students website at www.uwosh.edu/dean/conduct.htm.

Specific questions regarding the provisions in Chapter UMW 14 (and institutional procedures approved to implement Chapter UMS 14) should be directed to the Dean of Students Office.

Below are the details of UWS 14.03.
UWS 14.03 Academic misconduct subject to disciplinary action.
(1) Academic misconduct is an act in which a student:
(a) Seeks to claim credit for the work or efforts of another without authorization or citation;
(b) Uses unauthorized materials or fabricated data in any academic exercise;
(c) Forges or falsifies academic documents or records;
(d) Intentionally impedes or damages the academic work of others;
(e) Engages in conduct aimed at making false representation of a student's academic performance; or
(f) Assists other students in any of these acts.

(2) Examples of academic misconduct include, but are not limited to: cheating on an examination; collaborating with others in work to be presented, contrary to the stated rules of the course; submitting a paper or assignment as one's own work when a part or all of the a paper or assignment as one's own work when a part or all of the paper or assignment is the work of another; submitting a paper or assignment that contains ideas or research of others without appropriately identifying the sources of those ideas; stealing examinations or course materials; submitting, if contrary to the rules of a course, work previously presented in another course; tampering with the laboratory experiment or computer program of another student; knowingly and intentionally assisting another student in any of the above, including assistance in an arrangement whereby any work, classroom performance, examination or other activity is submitted or performed by a person other than the student under whose name the work is submitted or performed.

Cheating will not be tolerated in BIO 308/508.  No aids of any type will be allowed during a lecture exam, a lab practical exam or a lab quiz.  Every answer that you submit for grading must reflect your own knowledge and thoughts.  Any instance of academic misconduct may result in an academic penalty such as a failing grade on the exam or quiz, a failure in the course or possible expulsion from the university.