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border - Legend - MindSong Math

Anishinabe Teachers for
Anishinabe Children Project

Directed by Judith E. Hankes, Ph.D. and Gerald R. Fast, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

Twenty-one Anishinabe (Woodland Native American) high school students spent one week studying how young children learn mathematics. The students were selected to participate in this program because of their high academic aptitude and interest in teaching.

The goal of this unique mathematics experience was to prepare the students to tutor in elementary classrooms at their home reservations. Besides learning how to teach mathematics, the students also learned how to write a variety of word problems. They based their problems on Native American legends. The students also made linoleum prints to illustrate their legends. The students' legends, word problems, and illustrations comprise this volume.

The mathematics content to which the students were introduced during this weeklong program is based on principles of Cognitively Guided Instruction (Carpenter, ET al., 1999). Cognitively Guided Instruction is described in the Teacher's Guide section of this volume.

For an illustrated copy of this document with sections that include Ojibwe, Oneida, and Menominee number words, contact Judith Hankes at or Gerald Fast at


High School Student Woodland Native American School MindSong Math