Essential Feature # 1



Learner engages in scientifically oriented questions.



Learner engages in question provided by teacher, materials, or other source.


Learner sharpens or clarifies question provided by teacher, materials, or other source.


Learner selects among questions, poses new questions.


Learner poses a question.


Essential Feature # 2



Learner gives priority to evidence in responding to questions.



Learner is given data and told how to analyze it.


Learner is given data and asked to analyze it.


Learner is directed to collect certain evidence.


Learner determines what constitutes evidence and collects it.

Essential Feature # 3



Learner formulates explanations from evidence.



Learner provided with evidence.


Learner given possible ways to use evidence to formulate explanation.


Learner guided in process of formulating explanations from evidence.


Learner formulates explanation after summarizing evidence.

Essential Feature # 4



Learner connects explanations to scientific knowledge.



Learner given possible connections.


Learner directed toward areas and sources of scientific knowledge.


Learner independently examines other resources and forms the links to explanations.

Essential Feature # 5



Learner communicates and justifies explanations.



Learner given steps and procedures for communication.


Learner provided broad guidelines to sharpen communication.


Learner coached in development of communication.


Learner forms reasonable and logical argument to communicate explanations.